Extensión de tiempo QT
Efectos adversos de las drogas
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Áreas de aplicación
Explicaciones para pacientes
No tenemos advertencias adicionales para la combinación de abirateron, teofilina y telitromicina. Consulte también la información especializada pertinente.
Los cambios en la exposición mencionados se refieren a cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [AUC]. No detectamos ningún cambio en la exposición a abirateron, cuando se combina con teofilina (100%). Actualmente no podemos estimar la influencia de la telitromicina. La exposición a teofilina aumenta al 116%, cuando se combina con abirateron (108%) y telitromicina (107%). La exposición a telitromicina aumenta al 104%, cuando se combina con abirateron (104%) y teofilina (100%).
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La abirateron tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 50%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 18 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 72 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es muy fuerte al 99.8% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 2815 litros, El metabolismo tiene lugar principalmente a través de CYP3A4..
La teofilina tiene una alta biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 85%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar poco durante una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 7 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 28 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es bastante débil al 40% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es de 36 litros en el rango medio, Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede aumentar la exposición. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 y CYP3A4, entre otros..
La telitromicina tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 57%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es bastante débil al 70% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 218 litros. El metabolismo tiene lugar principalmente a través de CYP3A4. y el transporte activo se realiza en parte a través de MRP2 y PGP.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la abirateron, teofilina ni la telitromicina aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Recomendación: Como precaución, se debe prestar atención a los síntomas anticolinérgicos, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La teofilina solo tiene un efecto leve sobre el sistema anticolinérgico. El riesgo de síndrome anticolinérgico con este medicamento es bastante bajo si la dosis se encuentra en el rango habitual. Según nuestros hallazgos, ni la abirateron ni la telitromicina aumentan la actividad anticolinérgica.
Extensión de tiempo QT
Clasificación: En combinación, la abirateron y la telitromicina pueden desencadenar potencialmente arritmias ventriculares del tipo torsades de pointes. No conocemos ningún potencial de prolongación del intervalo QT para la teofilina.
Efectos secundarios generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||abi||teo||tel|
|Edema periférico||20.0 %||20.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|ALT elevado||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|AST elevado||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|Infección del tracto urinario||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.||n.a.|
Dolor de cabeza (5%): telitromicina, teofilina
Mareo (4%): telitromicina
Hemorragia intracraneal: teofilina
Fibrilación auricular (2.6%): abirateron, teofilina
Angina de pecho (1.6%): abirateron
Arritmia ventricular: telitromicina
Taquicardia ventricular: telitromicina
Vómitos (2.4%): telitromicina, teofilina
Visión borrosa (1.1%): telitromicina
Miastenia gravis: telitromicina
Reacciones alérgicas de la piel: teofilina
Reacción anafiláctica: teofilina
Aumento de la frecuencia de la micción: teofilina
Insuficiencia respiratoria: telitromicina
Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson: teofilina
Con base en sus
Referencias de literatura
Abstract: To investigate a possible interaction between norfloxacin and theophylline, eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers (mean age 27 +/- 5.3 years) were administered aminophylline, 5 mg/kg, before and after a 6-day course of norfloxacin, 400 mg every 12 hours, and changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were measured and compared. Norfloxacin induced significant decreases in theophylline clearance (14.9%; p less than 0.01) and the terminal phase slope (13.3%; p less than 0.02) and increased the AUC (16.6%; p less than 0.01). The apparent volume of distribution at steady state was unchanged. The greatest norfloxacin-induced individual change in theophylline clearance was a reduction of 28.6%. Given these findings, we advise that, for patients who are treated with theophylline and are subsequently treated with norfloxacin, adjustment of the theophylline dosage may be necessary in some patients to minimize the risk of theophylline toxicity.
Abstract: In 42 subjects with chronic obstructive lung disease receiving chronic oral theophylline therapy, the venous whole blood theophylline concentration was closely related to the total plasma theophylline concentrations (r = 0.976, p less than 0.001). The blood/plasma concentration ratio was 0.85 +/- 0.13 and was not related to the haematocrit or the free fraction of theophylline in plasma. The red blood cell theophylline concentration was closely related and numerically similar to the free plasma concentration. This indicates that the free plasma concentration is the most important determinant of red blood cell concentration, and that binding of drug by red blood cells or active uptake into erythrocytes is unlikely to occur. Whole blood concentration can be used to predict plasma theophylline concentration in subjects with obstructive lung disease in situations where preparation of plasma is inconvenient. The therapeutic range for whole blood concentration is approximately 8.5-17 mg/L.
Abstract: The effect of erythromycin base on theophylline kinetics was studied in eight informed, nonsmoking, adult males who received a 15-min infusion of theophylline (aminophylline) 5 mg/kg, prior to (control) and after (experimental) a 7-day course of 1 gm daily erythromycin base (E-Mycin). Each subject acted as his own control. Multiple serum samples were collected for 24 hr after each dose and were analyzed for theophylline by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean +/- SD pharmacokinetic parameters for each phase of study were as follows: apparent volume of distribution (L/kg) 0.45 +/- 0.05 (control), 0.41 +/- 0.05 (experimental); clearance (ml . min/kg) 0.83 +/- 0.17 (control), 0.60 +/- 0.11 (experimental); elimination half-life (hr) 6.65 +/- 1.88 (control), 8.10 +/- 1.58 (experimental). Erythromycin significantly affected the elimination half-life and clearance of theophylline (p less than 0.05). The apparent volume of distribution was unaffected (p greater than 0.05). Therefore patients being administered theophylline appear to be at added risk for the development of toxicity when erythromycin is added to the therapeutic regimen.
Abstract: The effects of famotidine (80 mg per day), cimetidine (1600 mg per day), and placebo on theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were compared. This was an open-label, randomized, three-period cross-over study, in which each subject first underwent a seven-day theophylline washout period, and thereafter received three single intravenous doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg infused over 30 minutes) during the study. Each of the experimental treatments was administered orally every 12 hours for a total of 9.5 days (19 doses). Theophylline was infused after the 17th dose of each treatment. Fourteen serial blood samples were collected before the start of each infusion, and for 30 hours after the end of each infusion. Plasma samples were assayed for theophylline, pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated, and treatment effects on each parameter were compared. Fourteen COPD patients completed all three periods of the investigation. Famotidine treatment had virtually no effect on any of theophylline's pharmacokinetic parameters. In contrast, cimetidine treatment significantly altered every pharmacokinetic parameter of theophylline as follows: Cimetidine decreased theophylline geometric mean CL from 2.74 L/h to 2.07 L/h (P < .001), and prolonged theophylline harmonic mean half-life from 6.6 to 9.6 hours (P < .001) and mean residence time from 10.8 to 15.0 hours (P < .001). Cimetidine treatment slightly increased theophylline volume of distribution by approximately 10%, and that change also was statistically significant (P = .032). The authors conclude that the treatment effects of cimetidine on theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were in accord with those reported by others, and that famotidine treatment had no effect on any of theophylline's pharmacokinetic parameters in COPD patients.
Abstract: Rifampin and rifabutin induce the metabolism of many drugs, which may result in subtherapeutic concentrations and failure of therapy. However, differences between rifabutin and rifampin in potency of induction, and the specific enzymes which are altered, are not clear. This study, involving 12 adult male volunteers, compared the effects of 14-day courses of rifampin and rifabutin on clearance of theophylline, a substrate for the hepatic microsomal enzyme CYP1A2. Subjects were given oral theophylline solution (5 mg/kg of body weight) on day 1 and then randomized to receive daily rifampin (300 mg) or rifabutin (300 mg) on days 3 to 16. Theophylline was readministered as described above on day 15. The first treatment sequence was followed by a 2-week washout period; subjects then received the alternative treatment. Theophylline concentrations were determined for 46 h after each dose, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. One subject developed flu-like symptoms while taking rifabutin and withdrew voluntarily. Results from the remaining 11 subjects are reported. Compared with the baseline, the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (+/- standard deviation) for theophylline declined significantly following rifampin treatment (from 140 +/- 37 to 100 +/- 24 micrograms . h/ml, P <0.001); there was no significant change following rifabutin treatment (136 +/- 48 to 128 +/- 45 micrograms.h/ml). Baseline theophylline AUCs before each treatment phase were not different. A comparison of equal doses of rifampin and rifabutin administered to healthy volunteers for 2 weeks indicates that induction of CYP1A2, as measured by theophylline clearance, is significantly less following rifabutin treatment than it is following rifampin treatment. However, the relative induction potency for other metabolic enzymes remains to be investigated.
Abstract: Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident.
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of the concomitant administration of theophylline and toborinone on the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in poor and extensive metabolizers via CYP2D6. In period 1, a single dose of 3.5 mg/kg theophylline was administered orally. In period 2, a single dose of 1.0 microg/kg/min toborinone was infused over 6 hours. In period 3, 3.5 mg/kg theophylline was coadministered with 1.0 microg/kg/min toborinone. Serial blood and pooled urine samples were collected before and after toborinone administration for the quantification of toborinone and its metabolites in plasma and urine. Serial blood samples were collected before and after theophylline administration for the quantification of theophylline and its metabolites in plasma. No significant differences were observed in toborinone pharmacokinetics between poor and extensive metabolizers via CYP2D6. Toborinone coadministration with theophylline did not result in a substantive effect on the disposition of theophylline and vice versa.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This two-way, randomized, single-dose, crossover study determined the pharmacokinetics and absolute oral bioavailability of telithromycin in young and elderly healthy subjects. METHODS: Twelve young (18-40 years) and 12 elderly (>65 years and </=85 years) subjects received a single 800-mg oral dose of telithromycin or an intravenous infusion of 400 mg (young subjects) or 480 mg (elderly subjects) of telithromycin over 2.5 h in two treatment periods, separated by a 1-week washout period. The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of telithromycin and its major metabolite, RU 76363, were determined. Absolute oral bioavailability was calculated using the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from zero hours to infinity. RESULTS: The absolute oral bioavailability of telithromycin was 57% in both young and elderly subjects. The AUC for the metabolite was lower after intravenous infusion of telithromycin, indicating first-pass loss following oral administration. Telithromycin was well tolerated in both groups of subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Telithromycin has an absolute oral bioavailability of 57% in young and elderly subjects and is well tolerated.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Telithromycin is the first member of a new class of antimicrobials-the ketolides. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of various oral doses of telithromycin on QT interval during single and repeated administrations. METHODS: Seventeen men and 17 women participated in double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Of these subjects, 18 (9 men and 9 women) received single and repeated oral doses of telithromycin (800 mg daily), clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily), or placebo (protocol 1). The other 16 subjects received a single oral dose (800 mg, 1600 mg, and 2400 mg) of telithromycin or placebo (protocol 2). At the time of expected telithromycin maximum concentration, several electrocardiographic recordings were obtained at rest and during the course of a submaximal exercise test. QT intervals were measured within a wide range of R-R intervals in each subject. RESULTS: ANOVA showed that telithromycin did not increase QT interval at any dose compared with placebo. The greatest effect observed during any study period was a mean (+/-SD) change in QT-interval duration of 4.2 +/- 15.2 ms (ie, +1.2% +/- 4.0%, P not significant) at R-R = 1000 ms after repeated doses of 800 mg telithromycin. Outlier values (change in Bazett QTc from baseline >60 ms) from resting 12-lead electrocardiograms did not differ across treatment groups, including placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Telithromycin administered as repeated doses of 800 mg (recommended doses) or as single doses of up to 3 times this recommended dose did not increase the QT interval at any heart rate at rest and during effort. Telithromycin did not prolong QT-interval duration when administered to healthy young male and female subjects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential effect of daidzein on CYP1A2 activity and on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline by inhibiting its metabolism. METHODS: The experiment was conducted in a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. The caffeine metabolic ratio (CMR) used as an indicator of CYP1A2 function was completed at baseline and after daidzein or placebo co-administration. A single dose of 100 mg theophylline was taken by all 20 volunteers on day 3. Thereafter, volunteers were allocated for one of two regimens. One group received 200 mg daidzein twice daily for 10 days. The other group received placebo. On day 12, the test group received 200 mg daidzein with 100 mg theophylline; the parallel group received 100 mg theophylline with placebo. RESULTS: The baseline value of CMR between test group and control group did not show a difference (P=0.215). The percentage decrease in CMR ranged from -50% to 20%, with an average value of -19.8+/-19.7%. The percentage decrease in test group was statistically significant (P=0.009), and no significant changes were shown in the control group (t=0.12, P=0.914). By comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline before and after daily treatment with daidzein, the effect of daidzein on the metabolism of theophylline was evident. Comparing the kinetics parameters of theophylline of day 1 (without co-medication) with those of day 12 (10-day daidzein), the AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), C(max) and t(1/2) were significantly increased by 33.57+/-21.75% (CI, 1.21-1.46, P< 0.05), 33.77+/-21.45% (CI, 1.20-1.46, P<0.05), 23.54+/-16.93% (CI, 1.23-1.52, P< 0.05) and 41.39+/-45.92% (t=-3.19, P=0.011), respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline within the placebo group showed no statistically significant difference (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Daidzein, a principal isoflavone in soybean, in higher doses may inhibit CYP1A2 activity in vivo, and physicians should be aware of potential drug-food interactions.
Abstract: Macrolides, ketolides and fluoroquinolones as well as other classes of antimicrobial agents have been associated with prolongation of cardiac repolarisation. This effect is most notable with erythromycin, clarithromycin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin and telithromycin. All of these agents produce a blockage of the HERG channel dependent potassium current in myocyte membranes resulting in a prolonged QTc interval which may give rise to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Torsades de Pointes or ventricular fibrillation. The risk of malignant arrhythmias is increased by concomitant usage with Type Ia or III anti-arrhythmic agents or with other drugs that prolong the QTc interval or have competitive metabolic routes. Electrolyte disturbances or underlying cardiac disease also increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmias. The best clinical outcome indicator is the incidence of the associated arrhythmias. The rough rank order of risk with these agents, albeit with limited and incomplete data, is in decreasing order; erythromycin, clarithromycin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Telithromycin outcomes for associated arrhythmia are yet to be determined. The essential point is that the overall risk of ventricular arrhythmias is very small with these agents but can be reduced further by avoiding their usage for patients with other multiple risk factors for Torsades de Pointes.
Abstract: AIMS: Telithromycin belongs to ketolides, a new class of macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are known to have the potential to prolong QT interval duration. Previous studies have shown that telithromycin did not induce significant QT interval prolongation in healthy subjects compared with placebo. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the absence of amplification of QT interval prolongation induced by sotalol, when telithromycin and sotalol were co-administered. The secondary objective was to correlate the QT interval changes induced by the study drugs to plasma concentrations during the elimination phase. METHODS: Twenty-four women received sotalol (160 mg) together with placebo or telithromycin (800 mg) in a two-period, double-blind, randomized study. Electrocardiograms were recorded at rest. Comparison of maximal corrected QT interval (QTc(max)) with sotalol in the presence or absence of telithromycin was performed. The relation between sotalol concentration and QTc was studied using linear regression. RESULTS: Mean difference (95% CI) between QTc(max) with sotalol-placebo and QTc(max) with sotalol-telithromycin was -15.5 ms (-27.7 to -3.2 ms). QTc(max) interval prolongation was lower (P < 0.05) with sotalol-telithromycin than with sotalol-placebo, in relation to decreased sotalol plasma concentrations. Regression analysis showed that the relationship between sotalol plasma concentration and QTc interval duration was not modified by telithromycin co-administration. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support a potential synergistic effect on QT interval prolongation between sotalol and telithromycin. The decrease of mean QTc interval in subjects taking telithromycin and sotalol may be explained by a decrease of sotalol concentration.
Abstract: Telithromycin is the first ketolide, which is a new class of antibacterial agents related to the macrolides that have structural modifications permitting dual binding to bacterial ribosomal RNA so that activity is retained against Streptococcus pneumoniae with macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin(B) resistance. Clinical experience in infectious patients has shown that oral telithromycin 800mg once daily for 5-10 days is effective for the treatment of community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Absorption of telithromycin in humans is estimated to be > or = 90%. Prior to entering the systemic circulation, telithromycin undergoes first-pass metabolism (mainly by the liver). Its absolute bioavailability is 57% and is unaffected by food. The volume of distribution of telithromycin after intravenous infusion is 2.9 L/kg. Telithromycin is 60-70% bound to serum proteins and has extensive diffusion into a range of target biological tissues, achieving concentrations above its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against key respiratory pathogens throughout the dosing interval. After entering the systemic circulation, telithromycin is eliminated by multiple pathways (7% by biliary and/or intestinal excretion, 13% by renal excretion and 37% by hepatic metabolism). Telithromycin is metabolised via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and non-CYP pathways. The identified metabolites show minimal antibacterial activity compared with the parent drug. In healthy subjects receiving telithromycin 800 mg once daily, the peak plasma concentration achieved is 2.27 microg/mL. Plasma concentrations of telithromycin show a biphasic decrease over time, with an initial disposition half-life of 2.9 hours and a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 10 hours after multiple dose administration. Steady-state plasma concentrations are achieved within 2-3 days of once-daily administration. Owing to elimination by multiple pathways there is a small increase in exposure when one of these elimination pathways is impaired, as indicated by the results of studies in special patient populations (e.g. those with hepatic or renal impairment). Dosage reductions may be recommended in patients with severe renal impairment. Inhibition of CYP3A4 by potent inhibitors such as itraconazole and ketoconazole results in a 54% and 95% increase in telithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve, respectively. The potential for telithromycin to inhibit the CYP3A4 pathway is similar to that of clarithromycin. The once-daily administration of telithromycin is likely to limit the potential for drug interactions and clinically significant increases in exposure. In phase III clinical trials, the telithromycin 800 mg once-daily dose has been shown to provide close to the maximum antimicrobial activity against S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In conclusion, telithromycin has a well characterised and reproducible pharmacokinetic profile, with pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships supporting an oral dosage regimen of 800 mg once daily.
Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the role of P glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp2) in the transport of telithromycin, a newly developed ketolide antibiotic, in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro experiments revealed that the intracellular accumulation of telithromycin in adriamycin-resistant human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (K562/ADR) overexpressing P glycoprotein was significantly lower than that in human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (K562/S) not expressing P glycoprotein. Cyclosporine significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of telithromycin in K562/ADR cells. When telithromycin was coadministered intravenously with cyclosporine in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, cyclosporine significantly delayed the disappearance of telithromycin from plasma and decreased its systemic clearance to 60% of the corresponding control values. Hepatobiliary excretion experiments revealed that cyclosporine almost completely inhibited the biliary clearance of telithromycin, suggesting that telithromycin is a substrate of P glycoprotein and a potential substrate of Mrp2. Moreover, the biliary clearance of telithromycin was significantly decreased by 80% in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic mutant rats with a hereditary deficiency in Mrp2, indicating that Mrp2, as well as P glycoprotein, plays an important role in the biliary excretion of telithromycin. When the effect of telithromycin on the biliary excretion of doxorubicin, a substrate of P glycoprotein and Mrp2, was examined in SD rats, telithromycin significantly decreased the biliary clearance of doxorubicin by 80%. Results obtained from this study indicate that telithromycin is a substrate of both P glycoprotein and Mrp2, and these transporters are involved in the hepatobiliary transport of telithromycin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 by fluvoxamine causes a reduction in the clearance of the high-extraction drug lidocaine, which decreases in proportion to the degree of liver dysfunction. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of liver cirrhosis on the inhibition by fluvoxamine of the metabolic disposition of theophylline, a CYP1A2 substrate with a low-extraction ratio, to assess whether decreased sensitivity to CYP1A2 inhibition in liver disease is a general characteristic of CYP1A2 substrates, regardless of their pharmacokinetic properties, and (2) to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the effect of liver dysfunction on CYP1A2 inhibition. METHODS: The study was carried out in 10 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with cirrhosis, 10 with mild liver dysfunction (Child class A) and 10 with severe liver dysfunction (Child class C), according to a randomized, double-blind, 2-phase, crossover design. In one phase all participants received placebo for 7 days; in the other phase they received one 50-mg fluvoxamine dose for 2 days and two 50-mg fluvoxamine doses, 12 hours apart, in the next 5 days. On day 6, 4 mg/kg of theophylline was administered orally 1 hour after the morning fluvoxamine dose. Concentrations of theophylline and its metabolites, 3-methylxanthine, 1-methyluric acid, and 1,3-dimethyluric acid, were then measured in plasma and urine up to 48 hours. RESULTS: Fluvoxamine-induced inhibition of theophylline clearance decreased from 62% in healthy subjects to 52% and 12% in patients with mild cirrhosis and those with severe cirrhosis, respectively. CYP1A2-mediated formations of 3-methylxanthine and 1-methyluric acid were almost totally inhibited in control subjects, whereas they were only reduced by one third in patients with Child class C cirrhosis. Inhibition of 1,3-dimethyluric acid formation, which is catalyzed by CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, progressively decreased from 58% in healthy subjects to 43% and 7% in patients with mild cirrhosis and those with severe cirrhosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of liver dysfunction on the inhibition of CYP1A2-mediated drug elimination is a general phenomenon, independent of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the CYP1A2 substrate. Therefore, for any drug metabolized by CYP1A2, the clinical consequences of enzyme inhibition are expected to become less and less important as liver function worsens. Two mechanisms, as follows in order of importance, are responsible for the effect of liver dysfunction: (1) decreased sensitivity to fluvoxamine of CYP1A2-mediated biotransformations in the cirrhotic liver, probably resulting from reduced uptake of the inhibitory drug, and (2) reduced hepatic expression of CYP1A2, which makes its contribution to overall drug elimination less important.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone plasma concentrations are decreased by nelfinavir. Methadone clearance and the drug interactions have been attributed to CYP3A4, but actual mechanisms of methadone clearance and the nelfinavir interaction are unknown. We assessed nelfinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity, and intestinal P-glycoprotein transport activity. CYP3A4/5 and transporters were assessed using alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy HIV-negative volunteers underwent a sequential crossover. On three consecutive days they received oral alfentanil plus fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral methadone. This was repeated after nelfinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were measured by pupil diameter change (miosis). RESULTS: Nelfinavir decreased intravenous and oral methadone plasma concentrations 40-50%. Systemic clearance, hepatic clearance, and hepatic extraction all increased 1.6- and 2-fold, respectively, for R- and S-methadone; apparent oral clearance increased 1.7- and 1.9-fold. Nelfinavir stereoselectively increased (S>R) methadone metabolism and metabolite formation clearance, and methadone renal clearance. Methadone bioavailability and P-glycoprotein activity were minimally affected. Nelfinavir decreased alfentanil systemic and apparent oral clearances 50 and 76%, respectively. Nelfinavir appeared to shift the methadone plasma concentration-effect (miosis) curve leftward and upward. CONCLUSIONS: Nelfinavir induced methadone clearance by increasing renal clearance, and more so by stereoselectively increasing hepatic metabolism, extraction and clearance. Induction occurred despite 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity and more than 75% inhibition of first-pass CYP3A4/5 activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone disposition. Nelfinavir may alter methadone pharmacodynamics, increasing clinical effects.
Abstract: Telithromycin is a substrate and an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A4), with dose- and time-dependent nonlinear pharmacokinetics (PK). We hypothesized that the time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4 was responsible for the nonlinear PK of telithromycin and then used physiologically based PK (PBPK) modeling and simulation to verify this mechanism. Telithromycin PBPK models integrating in vitro, in silico, and in vivo PK data ruled out the contribution of enzyme/transporter saturation and suggested that TDI is a plausible mechanism for PK nonlinearity. The model successfully predicted the clinical interaction with the CYP3A4 substrate midazolam, as verified by external data not used for the model-building (intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) midazolam area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio with/without concurrent telithromycin administration: 3.26 and 6.72 predicted vs. 2.20 and 6.11 observed, respectively). Models assuming reversible inhibition failed to predict such strong CYP3A4 inhibition. In the absence of in vitro TDI data, a PBPK model can be used to incorporate TDI mechanisms based on nonlinear PK data to predict clinical drug-drug interactions.
Abstract: Three open-label, single-dose studies investigated the impact of hepatic or renal impairment on abiraterone acetate pharmacokinetics and safety/tolerability in non-cancer patients. Patients (n = 8 each group) with mild/moderate hepatic impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-, BMI-matched healthy controls received a single oral 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate (tablet dose); while patients (n = 8 each) with severe hepatic impairment and matched healthy controls received 125- and 2,000-mg abiraterone acetate (suspension doses), respectively (systemic exposure of abiraterone acetate suspension is approximately half to that of tablet formulation). Blood was sampled at specified timepoints up to 72 or 96 hours postdose to measure plasma abiraterone concentrations. Abiraterone exposure was comparable between healthy controls and patients with mild hepatic impairment or ESRD, but increased by 4-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Despite a 16-fold reduction in dose, abiraterone exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment was about 22% and 44% of the Cmax and AUC∞ of healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that abiraterone pharmacokinetics were not changed markedly in patients with ESRD or mild hepatic impairment. However, the capacity to eliminate abiraterone was substantially compromised in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. A single-dose administration of abiraterone acetate was well-tolerated.
Abstract: Two novel oral drugs that target androgen signaling have recently become available for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Abiraterone acetate inhibits the synthesis of the natural ligands of the androgen receptor, whereas enzalutamide directly inhibits the androgen receptor by several mechanisms. Abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide appear to be equally effective for patients with mCRPC pre- and postchemotherapy. Rational decision making for either one of these drugs is therefore potentially driven by individual patient characteristics. In this review, an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics is given for both drugs and potential and proven drug-drug interactions are presented. Additionally, the effect of patient-related factors on drug disposition are summarized and the limited data on the exposure-response relationships are described. The most important pharmacological feature of enzalutamide that needs to be recognized is its capacity to induce several key enzymes in drug metabolism. The potency to cause drug-drug interactions needs to be addressed in patients who are treated with multiple drugs simultaneously. Abiraterone has a much smaller drug-drug interaction potential; however, it is poorly absorbed, which is affected by food intake, and a large interpatient variability in drug exposure is observed. Dose reductions of abiraterone or, alternatively, the selection of enzalutamide, should be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Understanding the pharmacological characteristics and challenges of both drugs could facilitate decision making for either one of the drugs.
Abstract: We present a case of a 77 year-old gentleman with previous coronary artery bypass grafting, admitted to hospital with recurrent torsades de pointes (TdP) due to abiraterone-induced hypokalaemia and prolonged QTc. The patient was on abiraterone and prednisone for metastatic prostate cancer. He required multiple defibrillations for recurrent TdP. Abiraterone is a relatively novel drug used in metastatic prostate cancer and we discuss this potential adverse effect and its management in this unusual presentation.