Extensión de tiempo QT
Efectos adversos de las drogas
|Dolor de cabeza|
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Áreas de aplicación
Explicaciones para pacientes
Se recomienda la monitorización de verapamilo y aliskiren.
Es posible un mayor efecto antihipertensivoMecanismo: el verapamilo es un inhibidor moderadamente fuerte de la glicoproteína P, que es el principal transportador de salida de aliskiren.
Efecto: Cuando se tomaron verapamilo (240 mg al día) y aliskiren (300 mg una vez) al mismo tiempo, se encontró un aumento en la concentración y el AUC de aliskiren en aproximadamente el doble. Esta terapia combinada fue bien tolerada por los participantes sanos del estudio.
Medidas: En estudios clínicos controlados, las dosis de aliskiren de hasta 600 mg fueron bien toleradas. Según la información del especialista suizo, no es necesario ajustar la dosis cuando se utilizan ambos fármacos al mismo tiempo. No obstante, se debe controlar la presión arterial y ajustar la dosis de aliskiren si es necesario.
Los cambios en la exposición mencionados se refieren a cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [AUC]. La exposición a aliskiren aumenta al 238%, cuando se combina con amlodipino (138%) y verapamilo (218%). Esto puede provocar un aumento de los efectos secundarios. La exposición a amlodipino aumenta al 139%, cuando se combina con aliskiren (100%) y verapamilo (139%). La exposición a verapamilo aumenta al 129%, cuando se combina con amlodipino (129%) y aliskiren (100%).
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La amlodipino tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 64%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es bastante larga a las 40 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] solo se alcanzan después de más de 160 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es 97.5% fuerte y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 1470 litros, Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede aumentar la exposición. El metabolismo tiene lugar principalmente a través de CYP3A4. y el transporte activo tiene lugar en particular a través de PGP.
La aliskiren tiene una baja biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 3%, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar fuertemente con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es bastante larga a las 26 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] solo se alcanzan después de más de 104 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es bastante débil al 49% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 133 litros. Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede aumentar la exposición. Aproximadamente el 23.0% de la dosis administrada se excreta inalterada a través de los riñones y esta proporción rara vez se modifica por las interacciones. El metabolismo tiene lugar principalmente a través de CYP3A4. y el transporte activo se realiza en parte a través de OATP1A2, OATP2B1 y PGP.
La verapamilo tiene una baja biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 26%, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar fuertemente con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es bastante corta a las 3.4 horas y se alcanzan rápidamente niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ]. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 91% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 616 litros, sin embargo, dado que la sustancia tiene una alta tasa de extracción hepática de 0,9, solo los cambios en el flujo sanguíneo hepático [Q] son relevantes. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 y CYP3A4, entre otros. y el transporte activo se realiza en parte a través de OATP1A2 y PGP.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la amlodipino, aliskiren ni la verapamilo aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestros hallazgos, ni la amlodipino, aliskiren ni la verapamilo aumentan la actividad anticolinérgica.
Extensión de tiempo QT
No conocemos ningún potencial de prolongación del intervalo QT para amlodipino, aliskiren y verapamilo.
Efectos secundarios generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||aml||ali||ver|
|Dolor de cabeza||12.0 %||+||4.3↑||7.2|
|Edema periférico||11.3 %||7.9||n.a.||3.7|
|Hipotensión ortostática||2.3 %||n.a.||n.a.||2.3|
|Sensación de calor o bochorno||2.0 %||+||n.a.||+|
Dolor abdominal (1.6%): amlodipino
Palpitaciones (1.5%): amlodipino
Bloqueo auriculoventricular: verapamilo
Somnolencia (1.4%): amlodipino
Aumento de la creatinina sérica: aliskiren
Insuficiencia renal: aliskiren
Sintiéndose nervioso: verapamilo
Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson: aliskiren
Necrolisis epidérmica toxica: aliskiren
Reacciones alérgicas de la piel: aliskiren
Con base en sus
Referencias de literatura
Abstract: Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist drug with distinctive pharmacokinetic characteristics which appear to be attributable to a high degree of ionisation. Following oral administration, bioavailability is 60 to 65% and plasma concentrations rise gradually to peak 6 to 8h after administration. Amlodipine is extensively metabolised in the liver (but there is no significant presystemic or first-pass metabolism) and is slowly cleared with a terminal elimination half-life of 40 to 50h. Volume of distribution is large (21 L/kg) and there is a high degree of protein binding (98%). There is some evidence that age, severe hepatic impairment and severe renal impairment influence the pharmacokinetic profile leading to higher plasma concentrations and longer half-lives. There is no evidence of pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Amlodipine shows linear dose-related pharmacokinetic characteristics and, at steady-state, there are relatively small fluctuations in plasma concentrations across a dosage interval. Thus, although structurally related to other dihydropyridine derivatives, amlodipine displays significantly different pharmacokinetic characteristics and is suitable for administration in a single daily dose.
Abstract: The effects of multiple doses of cimetidine on single-dose verapamil kinetics were studied in nine healthy men. Baseline hepatic blood flow was estimated by indocyanine green elimination on day 1. On day 2, the subjects received verapamil, 10 mg iv, after which the plasma concentration-time profile was determined. After a 2-day washout, cimetidine, 300 mg, was taken by mouth four times a day for 5 days. The indocyanine green study was repeated on day 9 and verapamil was taken on day 10. Cimetidine reduced verapamil clearance by 21% and increased the elimination t1/2 by 50%. The volume of distribution at steady state did not change. Cimetidine increased hepatic blood flow in some subjects, while decreasing it in others. There was no correlation between individual changes in verapamil clearance and hepatic blood flow. These data indicate that cimetidine reduces verapamil clearance by mechanism(s) other than a change in hepatic blood flow or volume of distribution.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of verapamil was studied in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure and in normal subjects after i.v. injection of 3 mg and a single oral dose of 80 mg. Plasma levels of verapamil and its active metabolite norverapamil were measured by HPLC. After i.v. injection, the terminal phase half-life and total plasma clearance of verapamil in both groups were similar. Haemodialysis did not change the time course of plasma verapamil levels after i.v. administration. After a single oral dose, the plasma levels of verapamil and norverapamil in both groups of subjects were similar. Subsequently, normal volunteers and patients with renal failure were treated for 5 days with oral verapamil 80 mg t.d.s. There was no difference between the 2 groups of subjects in the trough and peak levels of verapamil or of norverapamil. Intravenous and oral administration of the calcium channel blocking agent had similar effects on blood pressure, heart rate and the PR-interval in the electrocardiogram in both groups. The study demonstrated that the disposition of verapamil was similar in normal subjects and in patients with renal failure.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of (+)-, (-)-, and (+/-)-verapamil were studied in five healthy volunteers following i.v. administration of the drugs. Pronounced differences of the various pharmacokinetic parameters were observed between the (-)- and (+)-isomers. The values for CL, V, Vz, and Vss of the (-)-isomer were substantially higher as compared to the (+)-isomer, whereas terminal t 1/ 2Z was nearly identical for both isomers. No dose dependency of the pharmacokinetics could be observed in two subjects who received 5, 7.5 and 10 mg of (-)- and 5, 25 and 50 mg of (+)-verapamil. Protein binding for the two isomers was also different. The fu of (-)- (0.11) was almost twice as much as that of (+)-verapamil (0.064). Pharmacokinetic parameters of (+/-)-verapamil, which was administered to three subjects who had received (+)- and (-)-verapamil, were very similar to the averaged values of the isomers given separately. Due to the higher CL of (-)-verapamil the extraction ratio of the (-)-isomer is substantially higher. Thus, it can be anticipated that following oral administration of racemic verapamil bioavailability of (-)-verapamil will be substantially less. Since the (-)-isomer is more potent than the (+)-isomer, the present findings could explain the reported differences in the concentration-effect relationship after i.v. and oral administration of racemic verapamil.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess whether coadministration with grapefruit juice significantly affects the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine class calcium antagonist with slow absorption, distribution and low plasma clearance. The primary objective was to evaluate whether short exposure to grapefruit juice could affect the metabolism of amlodipine to an extent similar to that previously demonstrated for other dihydropyridines (e.g. felodipine, nisoldipine, nitrendipine). METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers followed a randomised, open crossover study design, comparing the effect of a single oral dose of amlodipine (5 mg) taken together with a glass of grapefruit juice (250 ml) vs water. Blood samples to determine plasma concentration were taken and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the study. RESULTS: When amlodipine was coadministered with grapefruit juice, Cmax was 115% and AUC(0-72 h) was 116% compared with water, but tmax was not significantly changed. There were no significant differences in BP and HR between the two treatments. A small decrease in diastolic BP, however, was observed in both treatments 4-8 h after drug administration, coinciding with Cmax, but this was normalised after 12 h. The BP reduction seen was compensated by a slight increase in HR, which remained throughout the study. CONCLUSION: An interaction between grapefruit juice and amlodipine was demonstrated. The haemodynamic data showed that a dose of 5 mg was sufficient to achieve a BP reduction in healthy subjects, but the increase in amlodipine plasma concentration seen after intake of grapefruit juice was too small to significantly affect BP or HR. The clinical significance of this food/drug interaction, however, cannot be ignored since there is considerable variation between individuals and a more extensive intake of grapefruit juice might give more pronounced effects.
Abstract: Twenty-nine drugs of disparate structures and physicochemical properties were used in an examination of the capability of human liver microsomal lability data ("in vitro T(1/2)" approach) to be useful in the prediction of human clearance. Additionally, the potential importance of nonspecific binding to microsomes in the in vitro incubation milieu for the accurate prediction of human clearance was investigated. The compounds examined demonstrated a wide range of microsomal metabolic labilities with scaled intrinsic clearance values ranging from less than 0.5 ml/min/kg to 189 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding was determined at microsomal protein concentrations used in the lability incubations. For the 29 compounds studied, unbound fractions in microsomes ranged from 0.11 to 1.0. Generally, basic compounds demonstrated the greatest extent of binding and neutral and acidic compounds the least extent of binding. In the projection of human clearance values, basic and neutral compounds were well predicted when all binding considerations (blood and microsome) were disregarded, however, including both binding considerations also yielded reasonable predictions. Including only blood binding yielded very poor projections of human clearance for these two types of compounds. However, for acidic compounds, disregarding all binding considerations yielded poor predictions of human clearance. It was generally most difficult to accurately predict clearance for this class of compounds; however the accuracy was best when all binding considerations were included. Overall, inclusion of both blood and microsome binding values gave the best agreement between in vivo clearance values and clearance values projected from in vitro intrinsic clearance data.
Abstract: In drug discovery and nonclinical development the volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) of each novel drug candidate is commonly determined under in vivo conditions. Therefore, it is of interest to predict V(ss) without conducting in vivo studies. The traditional description of V(ss) corresponds to the sum of the products of each tissue:plasma partition coefficient (P(t:p)) and the respective tissue volume in addition to the plasma volume. Because data on volumes of tissues and plasma are available in the literature for mammals, the other input parameters needed to estimate V(ss) are the P(t:p)'s, which can potentially be predicted with established tissue composition-based equations. In vitro data on drug lipophilicity and plasma protein binding are the input parameters used in these equations. Such a mechanism-based approach would be particularly useful to provide first-cut estimates of V(ss) prior to any in vivo studies and to explore potential unexpected deviations between sets of predicted and in vivo V(ss) data, when the in vivo data become available during the drug development process. The objective of the present study was to use tissue composition-based equations to predict rat and human V(ss) prior to in vivo studies for 123 structurally unrelated compounds (acids, bases, and neutrals). The predicted data were compared with in vivo data obtained from the literature or at Roche. Overall, the average ratio of predicted-to-experimental rat and human V(ss) values was 1.06 (SD = 0.817, r = 0.78, n = 147). In fact, 80% of all predicted values were within a factor of two of the corresponding experimental values. The drugs can therefore be separated into two groups. The first group contains 98 drugs for which the predicted V(ss) were within a factor of two of those experimentally determined (average ratio of 1.01, SD = 0.39, r = 0.93, n = 118), and the second group includes 25 other drugs for which the predicted and experimental V(ss) differ by a factor larger than two (average ratio of 1.32, SD = 1.74, r = 0.42, n = 29). Thus, additional relevant distribution processes were neglected in predicting V(ss) of drugs of the second group. This was true especially in the case of some cationic-amphiphilic bases. The present study is the first attempt to develop and validate a mechanistic distribution model for predicting rat and human V(ss) of drugs prior to in vivo studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To date, the uptake of drugs into the human heart by transport proteins is poorly understood. A candidate protein is the organic cation transporter novel type 2 (OCTN2) (SLC22A5), physiologically acting as a sodium-dependent transport protein for carnitine. We investigated expression and localization of OCTN2 in the human heart, uptake of drugs by OCTN2, and functional coupling of OCTN2 with the eliminating ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). METHODS AND RESULTS: Messenger RNA levels of OCTN2 and ABCB1 were analyzed in heart samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. OCTN2 was expressed in all auricular samples that showed a pronounced interindividual variability (35 to 1352 copies per 20 ng of RNA). Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism in OCTN2 (G/C at position -207 of the promoter) had no influence on expression, administration of beta-blockers resulted in significantly increased expression. Localization of OCTN2 by in situ hybridization, laser microdissection, and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed expression of OCTN2 mainly in endothelial cells. For functional studies, OCTN2 was expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells. Using this system, verapamil, spironolactone, and mildronate were characterized both as inhibitors (EC50=25, 26, and 21 micromol/L, respectively) and as substrates. Like OCTN2, ABCB1 was expressed preferentially in endothelial cells. A significant correlation of OCTN2 and ABCB1 expression in the human heart was observed, which suggests functional coupling. Therefore, the interaction of OCTN2 with ABCB1 was tested with double transfectants. This approach resulted in a significantly higher transcellular transport of verapamil, a substrate for both OCTN2 and ABCB1. CONCLUSIONS: OCTN2 is expressed in the human heart and can be modulated by drug administration. Moreover, OCTN2 can contribute to the cardiac uptake of cardiovascular drugs.
Abstract: We hypothesized that CYP3A5 genotype contributes to the interindividual variability in verapamil response. Healthy subjects (n=26) with predetermined CYP3A5 genotypes were categorized as expressers (at least one CYP3A5(*)1 allele) and nonexpressers (subjects without a CYP3A5(*)1 allele). Verapamil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were determined after 7 days of dosing with 240 mg daily. There was a significantly higher oral clearance of R-verapamil (165.1+/-86.4 versus 91.2+/-36.5 l/h; P=0.009) and S-verapamil (919.4+/-517.4 versus 460.2+/-239.7 l/h; P=0.01) in CYP3A5 expressers compared to nonexpressers. Consequently, CYP3A5 expressers had significantly less PR-interval prolongation (19.5+/-12.3 versus 44.0+/-19.4 ms; P=0.0004), and had higher diastolic blood pressure (69.2+/-7.5 versus 61.6+/-5.1 mm Hg; P=0.036) than CYP3A5 nonexpressers after 7 days dosing with verapamil. CYP3A5 expressers display a greater steady-state oral clearance of verapamil and may therefore experience diminished pharmacological effect of verapamil due to a greater steady state oral clearance.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aliskiren is an orally active direct renin inhibitor approved for the treatment of hypertension. This study assessed the effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of aliskiren alone and in combination with the angiotensin receptor antagonist irbesartan. METHODS: This open-label study enrolled 17 males with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CL(CR)] 50-80, 30-49 and <30 mL/minute, respectively) and 17 healthy males matched for age and bodyweight. Subjects received oral aliskiren 300 mg once daily on days 1-7 and aliskiren coadministered with irbesartan 300 mg on days 8-14. Plasma aliskiren concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at frequent intervals up to 24 hours after dosing on days 1, 7 and 14. RESULTS: Renal clearance of aliskiren averaged 1280 +/- 500 mL/hour (mean +/- SD) in healthy subjects and 559 +/- 220, 312 +/- 75 and 243 +/- 186 mL/hour in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. At steady state (day 7), the geometric mean ratios (renal impairment : matched healthy volunteers) ranged from 1.21 to 2.05 for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) over the dosage interval tau (24h) [AUC(tau)]) and from 0.83 to 2.25 for the maximum observed plasma concentration of aliskiren at steady state. Changes in exposure did not correlate with CL(CR), consistent with an effect of renal impairment on non-renal drug disposition. The observed large intersubject variability in aliskiren pharmacokinetic parameters was unrelated to the degree of renal impairment. Accumulation of aliskiren at steady state (indicated by the AUC from 0 and 24 hours [AUC(24)] on day 7 vs day 1) was similar in healthy subjects (1.79 [95% CI 1.24, 2.60]) and those with renal impairment (range 1.39-1.99). Coadministration with irbesartan did not alter the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren. Aliskiren was well tolerated when administered alone or with irbesartan. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to aliskiren is increased by renal impairment but does not correlate with the severity of renal impairment (CL(CR)). This is consistent with previous data indicating that renal clearance of aliskiren represents only a small fraction of total clearance. Initial dose adjustment of aliskiren is unlikely to be required in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: AIM: It has been reported that verapamil and atorvastatin are inhibitors of both P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, and verapamil is a substrate of both P-gp and CYP3A4. Thus, it could be expected that atorvastatin would alter the absorption and metabolism of verapamil. METHODS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil and one of its metabolites, norverapamil, were compared after oral administration of verapamil (60 mg) in the presence or absence of oral atorvastatin (40 mg) in 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetics of verapamil were significantly altered by the coadministration of atorvastatin compared with those of without atorvastatin. For example, the total area under the plasma-concentration time curve to the last measured time, 24 h, in plasma (AUC(0-24) (h)) of verapamil increased significantly by 42.8%. Thus, the relative bioavailability increased by the same magnitude with atorvastatin. Although the AUC(0-24) (h) of norverapamil was not significantly different between two groups of humans, the AUC(0-24) (h, norverapamil)/ AUC(0-24) (h, verapamil) ratio was significantly reduced (27.5% decrease) with atorvastatin. CONCLUSION: The above data suggest that atorvastatin could inhibit the absorption of verapamil via inhibition of P-gp and/or the metabolism of verapamil by CYP3A4 in humans.
Abstract: This study investigated the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and modulators of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Aliskiren stimulated in vitro P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells with high affinity (K(m) 2.1 micromol/L) and was transported by organic anion-transporting peptide OATP2B1-expressing HEK293 cells with moderate affinity (K(m) 72 micromol/L). Three open-label, multiple-dose studies in healthy subjects investigated the pharmacokinetic interactions between aliskiren 300 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg (n = 22), atorvastatin 80 mg (n = 21), or ketoconazole 200 mg bid (n = 21). Coadministration with aliskiren resulted in changes of <30% in AUC(tau) and C(max,ss) of digoxin, atorvastatin, o-hydroxy-atorvastatin, and rho-hydroxy-atorvastatin, indicating no clinically significant interaction with P-glycoprotein or CYP3A4 substrates. Aliskiren AUC(tau) was significantly increased by coadministration with atorvastatin (by 47%, P < .001) or ketoconazole (by 76%, P < .001) through mechanisms most likely involving transporters such as P-glycoprotein and organic anion-transporting peptide and possibly through metabolic pathways such as CYP3A4 in the gut wall. These results indicate that aliskiren is a substrate for but not an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. On the basis of the small changes in exposure to digoxin and atorvastatin and the <2-fold increase in exposure to aliskiren during coadministration with atorvastatin and ketoconazole, the authors conclude that the potential for clinically relevant drug interactions between aliskiren and these substrates and/or inhibitors of P-glycoprotein/CPY3A4/OATP is low.
Abstract: This 12-week, multicenter, open-label study assessed the efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety of a once-daily aliskiren in Japanese hypertensive patients with renal dysfunction. Patients (n=40, aged 20-80 years) with mean sitting diastolic blood pressure (msDBP) >or=95 and <110 mm Hg and serum creatinine between >or=1.3 and <3.0 mg per 100 ml in males or between >or=1.2 and <3.0 mg per 100 ml in females were eligible. Patients began therapy with a once-daily morning oral dose of 75 mg of aliskiren. In patients with inadequate blood pressure control (msDBP >or=90 or mean sitting systolic blood pressure [msSBP] >or=140 mm Hg) and without safety concerns (serum potassium >5.5 mEq l(-1) or an increase in serum creatinine >or=20%), the aliskiren dose was increased to 150 mg and then to 300 mg in sequential steps starting from Week 2. Efficacy was assessed as change in msSBP/msDBP from baseline to the Week 8 endpoint (with the last observation carried forward). The mean reduction from baseline to Week 8 endpoint was 13.9+/-16.6 and 11.6+/-9.7 mm Hg for msSBP and msDBP, respectively. At the Week 8 endpoint, 65% patients had achieved blood pressure response (msDBP <90 or a 10 mm Hg decrease or msSBP <140 or a 20 mm Hg decrease) and 30% had achieved blood pressure control (msSBP <140 mm Hg and msDBP <90 mm Hg). Aliskiren was well tolerated with no new safety concerns in Japanese hypertensive patients with renal dysfunction.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lovastatin is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme. Verapamil is a substrate of both P-gp and CYP3A4. It is therefore likely that lovastatin can alter the absorption and metabolism of verapamil. METHODS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil and one of its metabolites, norverapamil, were compared in 14 healthy male Korean volunteers (age range 22-28 years) who had been administered verapamil (60 mg) orally in the presence or absence of oral lovastatin (20 mg). The design of the experiment was a standard 2 x 2 crossover model in random order. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil were significantly altered by the co-administration of lovastatin compared to the control. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC (0-infinity)) and the peak plasma concentration of verapamil were significantly increased by 62.8 and 32.1%, respectively. Consequently, the relative bioavailability of verapamil was also significantly increased (by 76.5%). The (AUC (0-infinity)) of norverapamil and the terminal half-life of verapamil did not significantly changed with lovastatin coadministration. The metabolite-parent ratio was significantly reduced (29.2%) in the presence of lovastatin. CONCLUSION: Lovastatin increased the absorption of verapamil by inhibiting P-gp and inhibited the first-pass metabolism of verapamil by inhibiting CYP3A4 in the intestine and/or liver in humans.
Abstract: In a randomized crossover study, 11 healthy volunteers took 100 mg (first dose 200 mg) of the antifungal drug itraconazole, a P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitor, or placebo twice daily for 5 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 150-mg dose of aliskiren, a renin inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension. Itraconazole raised the peak plasma aliskiren concentration 5.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 24.3-fold; P < .001) and the area under the plasma aliskiren concentration-time curve 6.5-fold (range, 2.6- to 20.5-fold; P < .001) but had no significant effect on aliskiren elimination half-life. Itraconazole increased the amount of aliskiren excreted into the urine during 12 hours 8.0-fold (P < .001) and its renal clearance 1.2-fold (P = .042). Plasma renin activity 24 hours after aliskiren intake was 68% lower during the itraconazole phase than during the placebo phase (P = .011). In conclusion, itraconazole markedly raises the plasma concentrations and enhances the renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren. The interaction is probably mainly explained by inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of aliskiren in the small intestine, with a minor contribution from inhibition of CYP3A4. Concomitant use of aliskiren and itraconazole is best avoided.
Abstract: The authors describe the drug-drug interaction between aliskiren and verapamil in healthy participants. Eighteen participants first received an oral dose of aliskiren 300 mg (highest recommended clinical dose) in period 1. After a 10-day washout period, the participants received verapamil 240 mg/d for 8 days (period 2). On day 8, the participants also received an oral dose of aliskiren 300 mg. Safety and pharmacokinetic analyses were performed during each treatment period. Concomitant administration of a single dose of aliskiren during steady-state verapamil resulted in an increase in plasma concentration of aliskiren. The mean increase in AUC(0-∞), AUC(last), and C(max) was about 2-fold. On day 8, in the presence of aliskiren, AUC(τ,ss) of R-norverapamil, R-verapamil, S-norverapamil, and S-verapamil was decreased by 10%, 16%, 10%, and 25%, respectively. Similarly, the C(max,ss) of R-norverapamil, R-verapamil, S-norverapamil, and S-verapamil was decreased by 13%, 18%, 12%, and 24%, respectively. Aliskiren did not affect the AUC(τ,ss) ratios of R-norverapamil/R-verapamil and S-norverapamil/S-verapamil. Aliskiren administered alone or in combination with verapamil was well tolerated in healthy participants. In conclusion, no dose adjustment is necessary when aliskiren is administered with moderate ABCB1 inhibitors such as verapamil (240 mg/d).
Abstract: To explore the clinical relevance of inhibition of multidrug resistance transporter 1 and organic anion transporting polypeptide transporter, a drug-drug interaction study was conducted using aliskiren and cyclosporine. This was an open-label, single-sequence, parallel-group, single-dose study in healthy subjects. Subjects (n = 14) first received aliskiren 75 mg orally (period 1), followed by aliskiren 75 mg + cyclosporine 200 mg (period 2) after a 7-day washout period, and aliskiren 75 mg + cyclosporine 600 mg (period 3) after a 14-day washout period. Safety and pharmacokinetics were analyzed during each period. The primary objective was to characterize pharmacokinetics of aliskiren (single-dose and combination with cyclosporine). The increases in area under the time-concentration curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum concentration associated with cyclosporine 200 mg or 600 mg were 4- to 5-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. Mean half-life increased from 25 to 45 hours. Based on comparison to literature, a single-dose of aliskiren 75 mg did not alter the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine. Aliskiren 75 mg was well tolerated. Combination with cyclosporine increased the number of adverse events, mainly hot flush and gastrointestinal symptoms, with no serious adverse events. Two adverse events led to withdrawal (ligament rupture, not suspected to be study-drug related; and vomiting, suspected to be study-drug related). Laboratory parameters, vital signs, and electrocardiographs showed no time- or treatment-related changes. As cyclosporine significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren in humans, its use with aliskiren is not recommended.
Abstract: Telaprevir is a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor that is both a substrate and an inhibitor of CYP3A. Amlodipine and atorvastatin are both substrates of CYP3A and are among the drugs most frequently used by patients with hepatitis C. This study was conducted to examine the effect of telaprevir on atorvastatin and amlodipine pharmacokinetics (PK). This was an open-label, single sequence, nonrandomized study involving 21 healthy male and female volunteers. A coformulation of 5 mg amlodipine and 20 mg atorvastatin was administered on day 1. Telaprevir was taken with food as a 750-mg dose every 8 h from day 11 until day 26, and a single dose of the amlodipine-atorvastatin combination was readministered on day 17. Plasma samples were collected for determination of the PK of telaprevir, amlodipine, atorvastatin, ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin, and para-hydroxy atorvastatin. When administration with telaprevir was compared with administration without telaprevir, the least-square mean ratios (90% confidence limits) for amlodipine were 1.27 (1.21, 1.33) for the maximum drug concentration in serum (C(max)) and 2.79 (2.58, 3.01) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-∞)); for atorvastatin, they were 10.6 (8.74, 12.9) for the C(max) and 7.88 (6.84, 9.07) for the AUC(0-∞). Telaprevir significantly increased exposure to amlodipine and atorvastatin, consistent with the inhibitory effect of telaprevir on the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of these agents.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aliskiren represents a novel class of orally active renin inhibitors. This study analyses the pharmacokinetics, tolerability and safety of single-dose aliskiren inpatients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing haemodialysis. METHODS: Six ESRD patients and six matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, parallel-group, single-sequence study. The ESRD patients underwent two treatment periods where 300 mg of aliskiren was administered 48 or 1 h before a standardized haemodialysis session (4 h, 1.4 m(2) high-flux filter, blood flow 300 mL/min, dialysate flow 500 mL/min). Washout was >10 days between both periods. Blood and dialysis samples were taken for up to 96 h postdose to determine aliskiren concentrations. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy subjects (1681 ± 1034 ng·h/mL), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity was 61% (haemodialysis at 48 h) and 41% (haemodialysis at 1 h) higher in ESRD patients receiving single-dose aliskiren 300 mg. The maximum (peak) plasma drug concentration (481 ± 497 ng/mL in healthy subjects) was 17% higher (haemodialysis at 48 h) and 16% lower (haemodialysis at 1 h). In both treatment periods, dialysis clearance was below 2% of oral clearance and the mean fraction eliminated from circulation was 10 and 12% in period 1 and 2, respectively. Drug AUCs were similar in ESRD patients receiving aliskiren 1 or 48 h before dialysis. No severe adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: The exposure of aliskiren is moderately higher in ESRD patients. Only a minor portion is removed by a typical haemodialysis session. Aliskiren exposure is not significantly affected by intermittent haemodialysis, suggesting that no dose adjustment is necessary in this population.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.