Extensión de tiempo QT
Efectos adversos de las drogas
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Áreas de aplicación
Explicaciones para pacientes
|Omeprazol||1.07 [0.77,10.37] 1||1.07|
Los cambios en la exposición mencionados se refieren a cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [AUC]. No detectamos ningún cambio en la exposición a amiodarona. Actualmente no podemos estimar la influencia de la omeprazol. La exposición a omeprazol aumenta al 107%, cuando se combina con amiodarona (107%). El AUC está entre 77% y 1037% dependiendo del
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La amiodarona tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 55%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es bastante larga a las 1884 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] solo se alcanzan después de más de 7536 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es 96% fuerte. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2C8 y CYP3A4, entre otros. y el transporte activo tiene lugar en particular a través de PGP.
La omeprazol tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 41%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es bastante corta a las 0.9 horas y se alcanzan rápidamente niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ]. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 95% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es pequeño a 21 litros, Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede aumentar la exposición. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2C19 y CYP3A4, entre otros. y el transporte activo tiene lugar en particular a través de PGP.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la amiodarona ni la omeprazol aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
Clasificación: Según nuestros hallazgos, ni la amiodarona ni la omeprazol aumentan la actividad anticolinérgica.
Extensión de tiempo QT
Clasificación: En combinación, la amiodarona y la omeprazol pueden desencadenar potencialmente arritmias ventriculares del tipo torsades de pointes.
Efectos secundarios generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||ami||ome|
|Dolor de cabeza||7.0 %||n.a.||7.0|
|Pérdida de apetito||6.5 %||6.5||n.a.|
|Problema de coordinación||6.5 %||6.5||n.a.|
Parestesia (6.5%): amiodarona
Neuropatía periférica: amiodarona
Pseudotumor cerebri: amiodarona
Visión borrosa (6.5%): amiodarona
Neuritis óptica: amiodarona
Pérdida visual: amiodarona
Dolor abdominal (5%): omeprazol
Diarrea (4%): omeprazol
Flatulencia (3%): omeprazol
Diarrea por clostridium difficile: omeprazol
Hipertiroidismo (2%): amiodarona
Síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (2%): amiodarona
Fibrosis pulmonar: amiodarona
Insuficiencia cardiaca: amiodarona
Arritmia ventricular: amiodarona
Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson: amiodarona, omeprazol
Necrolisis epidérmica toxica: amiodarona, omeprazol
Reacciones alérgicas de la piel: omeprazol
Lupus eritematoso cutáneo: omeprazol
Eritema multiforme: omeprazol
Trombocitopenia: amiodarona, omeprazol
Transaminasas elevadas: omeprazol
Encefalopatía hepática: omeprazol
Insuficiencia hepática: omeprazol
Reacción de hipersensibilidad: amiodarona
Reacción anafiláctica: omeprazol
Insuficiencia renal: amiodarona
Con base en sus
Referencias de literatura
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of omeprazole have been studied to varying extent in the mouse, rat, dog and in man. The drug is rapidly absorbed in all these species. The systemic availability is relatively high in the dog and in man provided the drug is protected from acidic degradation in the stomach. In man the fraction of the oral dose reaching the systemic circulation was found to increase from an average of 40.3 to 58.2% when the dose was raised from 10 to 40 mg, suggesting some dose-dependency in this parameter. The drug distributes rapidly to extra-vascular sites. The volume of distribution, V beta, in man is comparable to the volume of the extracellular water. The penetration into the red cells is low, the ratio between the concentration in whole blood and in plasma being about 0.6. Omeprazole is bound to about 95% to proteins in human plasma. The binding is lower in the dog and rat (90 and 87%, respectively). Omeprazole is eliminated almost completely by metabolism and no unchanged drug has been recovered in the urine in the species studied. Two metabolites, characterised as the sulfone and sulfide of omeprazole, have been identified and quantified in human plasma. The mean elimination half-life in man and in the dog is about 1 hour, whereas half-lives in the range of 5 to 15 minutes have been recorded in the mouse. In two studies in man, the mean total body clearance was 880 and 1097 ml X min-1, indicating that omeprazole belongs to the group of high clearance drugs. In the dog, too, the drug appears to be rapidly cleared from the blood, the mean total body clearance being about 10.5 ml X min-1 X kg-1. In the rat and dog, 20 to 30% of an i.v. or oral dose of omeprazole is excreted as metabolites in the urine and the remaining fraction is recovered in the faeces within three days after the administration. In man, the excretion of radioactivity via the kidneys is much more efficient and the recoveries in the excreta are approximately the reverse of those in the rat and dog. In vitro studies with rat liver microsome preparations suggest that omeprazole and cimetidine inhibit cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolic reactions to about the same extent in equimolar concentrations. However, since the molar daily dose of cimetidine will be 25 to 50 times higher than that of omeprazole, the latter might have less influence on the mixed function oxidase system than cimetidine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Abstract: Amiodarone is considered to be safe in patients with prior QT prolongation and torsades de pointes taking class I antiarrhythmic agents who require continued antiarrhythmic drug therapy. However, the safety of amiodarone in advanced heart failure patients with a history of drug-induced torsades de pointes, who may be more susceptible to proarrhythmia, is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess amiodarone safety and efficacy in heart failure patients with prior antiarrhythmic drug-induced torsades de pointes. We determined the history of torsades de pointes in 205 patients with heart failure treated with amiodarone, and compared the risk of sudden death in patients with and without such a history. To evaluate the possibility that all patients with a history of torsades de pointes would be at high risk for sudden death regardless of amiodarone treatment, we compared this risk in patients with a history of torsades de pointes who were and were not subsequently treated with amiodarone. Of 205 patients with advanced heart failure, 8 (4%) treated with amiodarone had prior drug-induced torsades de pointes. Despite similar severity of heart failure, the 1-year actuarial sudden death risk was markedly increased in amiodarone patients with than without prior torsades de pointes (55% vs 15%, p = 0.0001). Similarly, the incidence of 1-year sudden death was markedly increased in patients with prior torsades de pointes taking amiodarone compared with such patients who were not subsequently treated with amiodarone (55% vs 0%, p = 0.09).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the absolute bioavailability and the metabolism of omeprazole following single intravenous and oral administrations to healthy subjects in relation to CYP2C19 genotypes. METHODS: Twenty subjects, of whom 6 were homozygous extensive metabolizers (hmEMs), 8 were heterozygous EMs (htEMs) and 6 were poor metabolizers (PMs) for CYP2C19, were enrolled in this study. Each subject received either a single omeprazole 20 mg intravenous dose (IV) or 40 mg oral dose (PO) in a randomized fashion during 2 different phases. RESULTS: Mean omeprazole AUC (0,infinity) was 1164, 3093 and 10511 ng h/mL after PO, and 1435, 2495 and 6222 ng h/mL after IV in hmEMs, htEMs and PMs, respectively. Therefore, the absolute bioavailability of omeprazole in PMs was significantly higher than that in hmEMs (p < 0.001) and htEMs (p < 0.001). Hydroxylation metabolic indexes after IV and PO were significantly lower in PMs than in hmEMs (p < 0.001) and htEMs (p < 0.001), and was correlated with the absolute bioavailability (p < 0.0001 for both IV and PO). Sulfoxidation metabolic index after IV was significantly different between the CYP2C19 genotypes, whereas no difference was found after a single oral dose. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the absolute bioavailability of omeprazole differs among the three different CYP2C19 genotypes after a single dose of omeprazole orally or intravenously. Hydroxylation metabolic index of omeprazole may be mainly attributable to the genotype of CYP2C19. As for the sulfoxidation metabolic index after a single oral dose, intestinal CYP3A may be contributed to omeprazole metabolism.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The most common acquired cause of Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is drug induced QT interval prolongation. It is an electrophysiological entity, which is characterized by an extended duration of the ventricular repolarization. Reflected as a prolonged QT interval in a surface ECG, this syndrome increases the risk for polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsade de Pointes) and sudden death. METHOD: Bibliographic databases as MEDLINE and EMBASE, reports and drug alerts from several regulatory agencies (FDA, EMEA, ANMAT) and drug safety guides (ICH S7B, ICH E14) were consulted to prepare this article. The keywords used were: polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, adverse drug events, prolonged QT, arrhythmias, intensive care unit and Torsade de Pointes. Such research involved materials produced up to December 2017. RESULTS: Because of their mechanism of action, antiarrhythmic drugs such as amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, procainamide, verapamil and diltiazem are associated to the prolongation of the QTc interval. For this reason, they require constant monitoring when administered. Other noncardiovascular drugs that are widely used in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), such as ondansetron, macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, typical and atypical antipsychotics agents such as haloperidol, thioridazine, and sertindole are also frequently associated with the prolongation of the QTc interval. As a consequence, critical patients should be closely followed and evaluated. CONCLUSION: ICU patients are particularly prone to experience a QTc interval prolongation mainly for two reasons. In the first place, they are exposed to certain drugs that can prolong the repolarization phase, either by their mechanism of action or through the interaction with other drugs. In the second place, the risk factors for TdP are prevalent clinical conditions among critically ill patients. As a consequence, the attending physician is expected to perform preventive monitoring and ECG checks to control the QTc interval.
Abstract: The accurate estimation of "in vivo" inhibition constants () of inhibitors and fraction metabolized () of substrates is highly important for drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. We hypothesized that analysis of the pharmacokinetic alterations of substrate metabolites in addition to the parent drug would enable accurate estimation of in vivoandTwenty-four pharmacokinetic DDIs caused by P450 inhibition were analyzed with PBPK models using an emerging parameter estimation method, the cluster Newton method, which enables efficient estimation of a large number of parameters to describe the pharmacokinetics of parent and metabolized drugs. For each DDI, two analyses were conducted (with or without substrate metabolite data), and the parameter estimates were compared with each other. In 17 out of 24 cases, inclusion of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis improved the reliability of bothandImportantly, the estimatedfor the same inhibitor from different DDI studies was generally consistent, suggesting that the estimatedfrom one study can be reliably used for the prediction of untested DDI cases with different victim drugs. Furthermore, a large discrepancy was observed between the reported in vitroand the in vitro estimates for some inhibitors, and the current in vivoestimates might be used as reference values when optimizing in vitro-in vivo extrapolation strategies. These results demonstrated that better use of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis of clinical DDI data can improve reliability of top-down parameter estimation and prediction of untested DDIs.
Abstract: Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used antiarrhythmic drugs. Despite its well-known side effects, amiodarone is considered to be a relatively safe drug, especially in short-term usage to prevent life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Our case demonstrates an instance where short-term usage can yield drug side effect.