Prolongación del tiempo QT
Eventos adversos de medicamentos
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Explicaciones de las sustancias para pacientes.
No existen advertencias adicionales para la combinación de azitromicina y astemizol. Consulte también la información especializada pertinente.
Los cambios informados en la exposición corresponden a los cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [ AUC ]. No detectamos ningún cambio en la exposición a la azitromicina. Actualmente no podemos estimar la influencia de la astemizol. No detectamos ningún cambio en la exposición a la astemizol. Actualmente no podemos estimar la influencia de la azitromicina.
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La azitromicina tiene una baja biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 37%, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar fuertemente con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es relativamente extensa a las 72 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] sólo se alcanzan después de más de 288 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es muy débil al 7% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 2177 litros. por eso, con una tasa de extracción hepática media de 0.39, tanto el flujo sanguíneo hepático [Q] como un cambio en la unión a proteínas [Pb] son relevantes. El metabolismo no tiene lugar a través de los citocromos comunes y el transporte activo tiene lugar en parte a través de MRP2 y PGP.
La astemizol tiene una baja biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 3%, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar fuertemente con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 22 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 88 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es 97% fuerte. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2D6 y CYP3A4, entre otros.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la azitromicina ni la astemizol aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la azitromicina ni la astemizol aumentan la actividad anticolinérgica.
Prolongación del tiempo QT
Clasificación: En combinación, la azitromicina y la astemizol pueden desencadenar potencialmente arritmias ventriculares del tipo torsades de pointes.
Efectos adversos generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||azi||ast|
|Dolor abdominal||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Dolor de cabeza||5.0 %||5.0||n.a.|
|Visión borrosa||5.0 %||5.0||n.a.|
|Pérdida de la audición||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Trastorno del gusto||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Pustulosis exantemática generalizada||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson: azitromicina
Necrolisis epidérmica toxica: azitromicina
Hepatitis colestásica: azitromicina
Síndrome de DRESS: azitromicina
Miastenia gravis: azitromicina
Nefritis tubulointersticial: azitromicina
Con base en sus respuestas e información científica, evaluamos el riesgo individual de efectos secundarios adversos. Estas recomendaciones están destinadas a asesorar a los profesionales y no sustituyen la consulta con un médico. En la versión de prueba restringida (alfa), el riesgo de todas las sustancias aún no se ha evaluado de manera concluyente.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Azalide antibiotics, of which azithromycin is the first demonstrated, have different pharmacokinetics from other antibiotics currently used. The bioavailability of the drug is approximately 37%. Extensive and rapid distribution from serum into the intracellular compartments is followed by rapid distribution to the tissues. Tissue concentrations exceed serum concentrations by up to 100-fold following a single azithromycin 500mg dose. Concentration of the drug within phagocytes aids in its ability to combat infections. High concentrations of azithromycin are found in the tonsil, lung, prostate, lymph nodes and liver, with only small concentrations found in fat and muscle. A 500mg dose on day 1, followed by 250mg daily on days 2 to 5, has been demonstrated to maintain azithromycin concentrations at sites of infection and continues to be effective for several days after administration has ceased. The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin make it a drug with diverse therapeutic applications.
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: Plasma and urine levels of 12 healthy subjects and 30 patients with renal insufficiency of different degrees were examined after oral administration of four 250 mg capsules azithromycin (total daily dose 1,000 mg). The concentrations were determined by cup plate method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined model-dependent and noncompartmentally. Neither the area under the plasma concentration curve nor the distribution volume in steady state (16 l/kg body weight) nor the maximal plasma concentration were significantly affected by renal insufficiency. Thus the dosage regimen of azithromycin in renal impairment may (and should) be the same as in patients with normal renal function. The nonrenal clearance is not affected by renal insufficiency, but the concentration of the substance in the tubular lumen (the "tubular load") may be increased.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, microbiology, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, tolerability, dosage, administration, and economic issues of intravenous azithromycin. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search from 1978 to May 1998 of the English-language literature and an extensive review of journals and meeting abstracts was conducted. Due to the lack of published literature concerning the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of the intravenous formulation of azithromycin, the manufacturer was also contacted and requested to supply information concerning intravenous azithromycin. DATA EXTRACTION: In vitro and preclinical studies were included, as well as data from Phase II and III clinical trials. Efficacy, pharmacokinetic, safety, and tolerability data were also supplemented with information from the manufacturer, due to the lack of published reports. DATA SYNTHESIS: Azithromycin, an azalide subclass of the macrolide antibiotics, is now available as an intravenous formulation. The intravenous form is approved for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae. Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive), and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma hominis in situations in which intravenous therapy is required. Its spectrum of activity, unique pharmacokinetics, and high and sustained tissue penetration allow for once-daily dosing with monotherapy in many cases. Clinical and bacteriologic response rates as well as the adverse event profile have been similar to or better than comparative agents. CONCLUSIONS: Azithromycin offers advantages over other agents due to its unique pharmacokinetics, high and sustained tissue penetration, and spectrum of activity. This allows for monotherapy and once-daily intravenous dosing for mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia or pelvic inflammatory disease in many instances. Future research should focus on total duration of antibiotic therapy and the need, or lack thereof, for extensive oral antibiotic follow-up.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: Administration of oral azithromycin, in addition to previously well-tolerated long-term amiodarone therapy, was associated with a marked prolongation of QT interval and increased QT dispersion, both substrates for life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia and torsades de pointes. This is a report of QT prolongation and increased QT dispersion associated with the use of azithromycin. The report assumes an added significance, in view of widespread empirical use of this antibiotic for the treatment of lower respiratory infections and belief of its safety in patients with cardiac diseases. Based on the authors' experience, they would like to emphasize that the combination of azithromycin with other drugs known to prolong QT or causing torsades de pointes be used with caution until the question of the proarrhythmic effect of azithromycin is resolved by further studies.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: During treatment with azithromycin, a 55 year-old woman developed a newly prolonged QT interval and torsade de pointes in the absence of known risk factors. Female gender and acute renal failure may be considerations in patients treated with azithromycin.
Abstract: Predicting the magnitude of time-dependent metabolic drug-drug (mDDIs) interactions involving cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) from in vitro data requires accurate knowledge of the inactivation parameters of the inhibitor (K(I), k(inact)) and of the turnover of the enzyme (k(deg)) in both the gut and the liver. We have predicted the magnitude of mDDIs observed in 29 in vivo studies involving six CYP3A4 probe substrates and five mechanism based inhibitors of CYP3A4 of variable potency (azithromycin, clarithromycin, diltiazem, erythromycin and verapamil). Inactivation parameters determined anew in a single laboratory under standardised conditions together with data from substrate and inhibitor files within the Simcyp Simulator (Version 9.3) were used to determine a value of the hepatic k(deg) (0.0193 or 0.0077h(-1)) most appropriate for the prediction of mDDIs involving time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. The higher value resulted in decreased bias (geometric mean fold error - 1.05 versus 1.30) and increased precision (root mean squared error - 1.29 versus 2.30) of predictions of mean ratios of AUC in the absence and presence of inhibitor. Depending on the k(deg) value used (0.0193 versus 0.0077h(-1)), predicted mean ratios of AUC were within 2-fold of the observed values for all (100%) and 27 (93%) of the 29 studies, respectively and within 1.5-fold for 24 (83%) and 17 (59%) of the 29 studies, respectively. Comprehensive PBPK models were applied for accurate assessment of the potential for mDDIs involving time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 using a hepatic k(deg) value of 0.0193h(-1) in conjunction with inactivation parameters determined by the conventional experimental approach.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.