Prolongación del tiempo QT
Eventos adversos de medicamentos
|Dolor de cabeza|
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Explicaciones de las sustancias para pacientes.
No existen advertencias adicionales para la combinación de fingolimod y astemizol. Consulte también la información especializada pertinente.
Los cambios informados en la exposición corresponden a los cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [ AUC ]. No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a fingolimod, cuando se combina con astemizol (100%). No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a astemizol, cuando se combina con fingolimod (100%).
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
Se desconoce la biodisponibilidad de la fingolimod. Se desconoce la unión a proteínas [ Pb ]. El metabolismo no tiene lugar a través de los citocromos comunes.
La astemizol tiene una baja biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 3%, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar fuertemente con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 22 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 88 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es 97% fuerte. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2D6 y CYP3A4, entre otros.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la fingolimod ni la astemizol aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la fingolimod ni la astemizol aumentan la actividad anticolinérgica.
Prolongación del tiempo QT
Clasificación: En combinación, la fingolimod y la astemizol pueden desencadenar potencialmente arritmias ventriculares del tipo torsades de pointes.
Efectos adversos generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||fin||ast|
|Dolor de cabeza||25.0 %||25.0||n.a.|
|Dolor abdominal||11.0 %||11.0||n.a.|
|Dolor de espalda||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Bloqueo auriculoventricular||4.7 %||4.7||n.a.|
|Melanoma maligno||0.7 %||0.7||n.a.|
Leucoencefalopatía multifocal progresiva: fingolimod
Con base en sus respuestas e información científica, evaluamos el riesgo individual de efectos secundarios adversos. Estas recomendaciones están destinadas a asesorar a los profesionales y no sustituyen la consulta con un médico. En la versión de prueba restringida (alfa), el riesgo de todas las sustancias aún no se ha evaluado de manera concluyente.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: Fingolimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype 1, 3, 4 and 5 modulator, has been used for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, but atrioventricular conduction block and/or QT-interval prolongation have been reported in some patients after the first dose. In this study, we directly compared the electropharmacological profiles of fingolimod with those of siponimod, a modulator of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 and 5, using in vivo guinea-pig model and in vitro human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) assay to better understand the onset mechanisms of the clinically observed adverse events. Fingolimod (0.01 and 0.1mg/kg) or siponimod (0.001 and 0.01mg/kg) was intravenously infused over 10min to the halothane-anaesthetized guinea pigs (n=4), whereas the effects of fingolimod (1μmol/L) and siponimod (1μmol/L) on hERG current were examined (n=3). The high doses of fingolimod and siponimod induced atrioventricular conduction block, whereas the low dose of siponimod prolonged PR interval, which was not observed by that of fingolimod. The high dose of fingolimod prolonged QT interval, which was not observed by either dose of siponimod. Meanwhile, fingolimod significantly inhibited hERG current, which was not observed by siponimod. These results suggest that S1P receptor subtype 1 in the heart could be one of the candidates for fingolimod- and siponimod-induced atrioventricular conduction block since S1P receptor subtype 5 is localized at the brain, and that direct IKr inhibition may play a key role in fingolimod-induced QT-interval prolongation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the duration of the QTc interval and the brain lesion load at the level of the structures involved in superior autonomic control (insula, cingulate cortex and amygdala-hippocampus) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Thirty-one consecutive patients with relapsing-remitting MS were recruited. The QT interval was measured manually in all 12 leads by a single blinded observer, with the longest QT value adjusted for heart rate by using the Bazett's formula. All patients performed a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan including three-dimensional double inversion recovery and three volumetric fast-field echo sequences. The following MRI measures were obtained: (i) global and regional cortical thickness (CTh); (ii) white matter lesion load volume; (iii) cortical damage blindly assessed by a trained observer who assigned, on the basis of the number of cortical lesions, a score from 0 to 5 for each of the brain areas analysed. RESULTS: In all, 16% of the patients had an increased QTc interval. The QTc interval was correlated with disease duration, cortical insular lesion volume and grey matter lesion volume in the three examined areas and inversely correlated with global and insular CTh. CONCLUSIONS: An increased QTc interval in patients with MS may have a cerebral origin possibly driven by involvement of the insular cortex. With the recent introduction in clinical practice of treatments with potential cardiac effects such as fingolimod, the recognition of a long QTc interval could be clinically crucial and should encourage appropriate electrocardiographic monitoring in order to prevent the risk of malignant ventricular pro-arrhythmia and iatrogenic sudden death.
Abstract: Cardiac arrhythmias and ECG abnormalities including bradycardia, prolongation of the QT interval, and atrioventricular (AV) conduction blocks have been extensively observed with fingolimod, the first marketed oral drug for treating the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis. This study was aiming to further elucidate the effects of fingolimod on cardiac electrophysiology at three different levels: (i) in vitro, (ii) ex vivo, and (iii) in vivo. (i) Patch-clamp experiments in whole cell configuration were performed on Ca1.2-transfected tsA201 cells exposed to fingolimod-phosphate 100 or 500 nmol/L (n = 27 cells, total) to measure drug effect on L-type calcium current (I). (ii) Langendorff perfusion experiments were undertaken on male Hartley guinea-pigs isolated hearts (n = 4) exposed to fingolimod 10 and 100 nmol/L to evaluate drug-induced effects on monophasic action potential duration measured at 90% repolarization (MAPD). (iii) Implanted cardiac telemeters were used to record ECGs in guinea-pigs (n = 7) treated with a single dose of fingolimod 0.0625 mg/kg suspension, administered as an oral gavage. (i) In vitro cellular experiments showed that fingolimod-phosphate causes a concentration-dependent reduction in I. (ii) Ex vivo Langendorff experiments revealed that fingolimod had no significant effect on MAPD. (iii) Fingolimod caused significant prolongations of the RR, PR, QT, and QTcintervals in vivo. Reversible AV blocks were also observed in 7/7 animals. Fingolimod possesses I-blocking properties, further contributing to its AV conduction-slowing effects. These properties are also consistent with its mitigated effect on the QT interval in humans, despite previously shown HERG-blocking effect.