Extensión de tiempo QT
Efectos adversos de las drogas
|Infección del tracto urinario|
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Áreas de aplicación
Explicaciones para pacientes
No tenemos advertencias adicionales para la combinación de cimetidina y mirabegron. Consulte también la información especializada pertinente.
Los cambios en la exposición mencionados se refieren a cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [AUC]. No detectamos ningún cambio en la exposición a cimetidina. Actualmente no podemos estimar la influencia de la mirabegron. La exposición a mirabegron aumenta al 106%, cuando se combina con cimetidina (106%).
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La cimetidina tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 65%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es bastante corta a las 1.6333333 horas y se alcanzan rápidamente niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ]. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es muy débil al 19% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 91 litros. El metabolismo no tiene lugar a través de los citocromos comunes. y el transporte activo se realiza en parte a través de BCRP y PGP.
La mirabegron tiene una baja biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 37%, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar fuertemente con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es bastante larga a las 51 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] solo se alcanzan después de más de 204 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 71% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 1670 litros, por eso, con una tasa de extracción hepática media de 0,9, tanto el flujo sanguíneo hepático [Q] como un cambio en la unión a proteínas [Pb] son relevantes. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2D6 y CYP3A4, entre otros. y el transporte activo se realiza en parte a través de OATP1A2 y PGP.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la cimetidina ni la mirabegron aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Recomendación: Como precaución, se debe prestar atención a los síntomas anticolinérgicos, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La cimetidina solo tiene un efecto leve sobre el sistema anticolinérgico. El riesgo de síndrome anticolinérgico con este medicamento es bastante bajo si la dosis se encuentra en el rango habitual. Según nuestros hallazgos, la mirabegron no aumenta la actividad anticolinérgica.
Extensión de tiempo QT
Clasificación: En combinación, la cimetidina y la mirabegron pueden desencadenar potencialmente arritmias ventriculares del tipo torsades de pointes.
Efectos secundarios generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||cim||mir|
|Infección del tracto urinario||5.7 %||n.a.||5.7|
|Dolor de cabeza||2.9 %||n.a.||2.9|
|Accidente cerebrovascular||0.4 %||n.a.||0.4|
|Retención urinaria||0.0 %||n.a.||0.0|
Con base en sus
Referencias de literatura
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mirabegron is a potent and selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist in development for treatment of overactive bladder. METHODS: Mirabegron pharmacokinetics after single intravenous (i.v.) and oral doses, absolute bioavailability (F), dose proportionality, sex differences and tolerability were assessed in 2 single-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, cross-over studies in healthy men (exploratory Study 1, n = 12) and men and women (Study 2, n = 91). RESULTS: After oral dosing (25 - 150 mg), peak plasma concentrations were attained after ~ 4 h. Mean half-life was around 40 h for both routes of administration. Volume of distribution at steady state was 1,670 l and total clearance was around 57 l/h for i.v. dosing. Mirabegron pharmacokinetics were linear after i.v. dosing (7.5 - 50 mg), but exposure increased more than proportionally after oral dosing due to increased F (29% for 25 mg to 45% at 150 mg). About 20% of the (absorbed) dose was excreted unchanged into urine. Area under the curve (AUC) was 27% and 64% higher in females than males after i.v. and oral dosing respectively; differences were mostly attributed to body weight, and for oral dosing, also to F. CONCLUSIONS: Mirabegron pharmacokinetics were linear after i.v. dosing (7.5 - 50 mg), but increased more than proportionally after oral dosing (25 - 150 mg) as a result of increased F. Sex differences in exposure could be explained by body weight and for oral dosing, also by F. Mirabegron was in general well tolerated up to the highest doses studied, 50 mg i.v. and 150 mg oral.
Abstract: Potential effects of the selective β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron on cardiac repolarization were studied in healthy subjects. The four-arm, parallel, two-way crossover study was double-blind and placebo- and active (moxifloxacin)-controlled. After 2 baseline ECG days, subjects were randomized to one of eight treatment sequences (22 females and 22 males per sequence) of placebo crossed over with once-daily (10 days) 50, 100, or 200 mg mirabegron or a single 400-mg moxifloxacin dose on day 10. In each period, continuous ECGs were recorded at two baselines and on the last drug administration day. The lower one-sided 95% confidence interval for moxifloxacin effect on QTcI was >5 ms, demonstrating assay sensitivity. According to ICH E14 criteria, mirabegron did not cause QTcI prolongation at the 50-mg therapeutic and 100-mg supratherapeutic doses in either sex. Mirabegron prolonged QTcI interval at the 200-mg supratherapeutic dose (upper one-sided 95% CI >10 ms) in females, but not in males.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mirabegron is a β3-adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder. There has been little information published or presented about the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes 3A and 2D6 in the metabolism of mirabegron in humans; in vitro data indicate that oxidative metabolism is primarily mediated by CYP3A with a minor role for CYP2D6. OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent CYP3A and CYP2D6 isoenzymes are involved in mirabegron metabolism. METHODS: Two open-label, randomized, one-sequence crossover drug-drug interaction studies in healthy subjects were conducted to assess the effect of ketoconazole and rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of mirabegron and two parallel-group studies in healthy subjects with either known confirmed or predicted CYP2D6 phenotype. RESULTS: Co-administration of multiple dosages of 400 mg/day ketoconazole with a single 100 mg mirabegron oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) dose increased mirabegron maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC∞) to 145 % (90 % confidence interval [CI] 123-172 %] and 181 % (90 % CI 163-201 %), respectively. Co-administration of multiple dosages of 600 mg/day rifampicin with a single 100 mg mirabegron OCAS dose decreased mirabegron C max and AUC∞ to 65 % (90 % CI 50-86 %) and 56 % (90 % CI 49-65 %), respectively, without an effect on terminal elimination half-life (t(½)). The urinary excretion of mirabegron was increased by ketoconazole and decreased by rifampicin, reflecting the AUC changes, whereas renal clearance was not affected. Ketoconazole decreased mirabegron t ½ from 50.9 to 37.6 h suggesting that volume of distribution as well as first-pass effect decreased. Rifampicin did not affect mirabegron t ½, suggesting that it affects first pass through the intestinal wall or liver. Rifampicin greatly increased the ratio to parent drug of the presumed CYP-mediated mirabegron metabolites M8 and M15 by 777 and 646 %. Steady-state mirabegron pharmacokinetic parameters (50 and 100 mg mirabegron OCAS) were similar in 13 CYP2D6 poor, 40 intermediate, and 99 extensive metabolizers, whereas C max and AUC under the dosing interval τ of 24 h (AUCτ) were 30-47 % lower in 10 ultrarapid metabolizers. After administration of 160 mg mirabegron immediate release, C(max) was 14 % and AUC∞ 19 % higher in eight poor metabolizers than in eight extensive metabolizers (phenotyped) with similar t ½. All treatments were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Mirabegron is metabolized by CYP3A and to a minor extent by CYP2D6 in humans. Mirabegron is not considered a sensitive substrate of CYP3A in vivo, as ketoconazole increased mirabegron exposure by less than 2-fold. The effect of CYP2D6 phenotype on mirabegron exposure is small and likely of limited clinical importance.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The Holter bin method evaluates QT interval changes in the presence of heart rate changes without correcting the QT interval. However, the method does not allow time-matched comparisons, thus contradicting available guidance and good practice. We report a modification of the methods that allows time-matched comparisons without any heart rate correction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The modified Holter bin method (a) finds matching baseline heart rates for each QT reading on treatment and (b) calculates ΔQT values from the QT intervals on baseline and on treatment that match in heart rates. The difference between ΔQT values on active treatment and placebo provides the ΔΔQT value. The method was compared with the individual correction method in the data of the mirabegron thorough QT study in which supratherapeutic doses of this β3-adrenoceptor agonist led to substantial heart rate changes. The modified Holter bin method reproduced closely the results obtained with the individual heart rate correction. At all time points of the mirabegron study, the differences between the mean ΔΔQT values by the Holter bin method and the individual correction method were below 1 millisecond. Compared to the individual correction, the Holter bin method led to slight increases in the standard deviations of ΔΔQT values, but these were on average below 0.25 millisecond. CONCLUSIONS: The Holter bin methodology can be modified to make it compatible with the available guidance and with good practice of clinical investigations. The results obtained with the modified Holter bin method are practically the same as with individualized heart rate corrected QT intervals. The close correspondence between the 2 methods demonstrates that the present possibilities of comparing QT interval duration in the presence of experiment-induced heart rate differences are not influenced by methodological artifacts.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: This was the first study to construct a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for mirabegron which incorporates the overall elimination pathways of metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and renal excretion. The objective was to assess the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) by estimating the contribution of each elimination pathway and simulating the magnitude of the DDIs with UGT2B7 inhibitors. A PBPK model for mirabegron was constructed to reproduce the plasma concentration-time curves from a phase 1 study and the magnitude of the DDI with ketoconazole taking into account the overall elimination pathways. The PBPK model was subsequently verified using data from other DDI studies. The constructed PBPK model estimated the contribution for each elimination pathway: 44% and 29% for CYP3A4 and UGT2B7 in the liver, 1.6% for UGT2B7 in the kidney, 3.2% for BChE in plasma, and 22% for renal excretion. Co-administration of probenecid (an UGT2B7 inhibitor) or fluconazole (an UGT2B7 and CYP3A4 inhibitor) was predicted to increase area under the curve for mirabegron to 115% or 174%, respectively. In conclusion, PBPK modeling and simulation revealed a low DDI risk for mirabegron following co-administration with BChE or UGT2B7 inhibitors.