Extensión de tiempo QT
Efectos adversos de las drogas
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Áreas de aplicación
Explicaciones para pacientes
Debe evitarse la administración de ciprofloxacina y teofilina.
Aumento de las concentraciones de teofilina: disminución del umbral convulsivo.Mecanismo: la ciprofloxacina inhibe el CYP1A2 y, por tanto, también el metabolismo de la teofilina. Ambas sustancias también pueden provocar un aumento de las convulsiones.
Efecto: Las concentraciones de teofilina aumentan en aproximadamente un 30% en combinación con ciprofloxacino. La combinación de quinolonas con teofilina también puede reducir el umbral convulsivo.
Medidas: Debe evitarse la combinación de teofilina y ciprofloxacino. Ofloxacino o levofloxacino serían más adecuados, ya que con estas sustancias solo se observaron cambios mínimos en el aclaramiento de teofilina. Si se requiere la combinación, vigile los signos de aumento de la toxicidad de la teofilina y aumento de la actividad convulsiva. Debe comprobarse la concentración de teofilina y ajustarse la dosis para el paciente individual si es necesario. De acuerdo con las instrucciones del fabricante, la dosis de teofilina debe reducirse a un máximo del 60% cuando se coadministra con ciprofloxacino.
Los cambios en la exposición mencionados se refieren a cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [AUC]. No detectamos ningún cambio en la exposición a ciprofloxacina, cuando se combina con teofilina (100%). Actualmente no podemos estimar la influencia de la cafeína. La exposición a cafeína aumenta al 350%, cuando se combina con ciprofloxacina (350%) y teofilina (100%). Esto puede provocar un aumento de los efectos secundarios. La exposición a teofilina aumenta al 183%, cuando se combina con ciprofloxacina (168%) y cafeína (147%). Esto puede provocar un aumento de los efectos secundarios.
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La ciprofloxacina tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 70%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es bastante corta a las 3.5 horas y se alcanzan rápidamente niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ]. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es muy débil al 30%. Aproximadamente el 55.0% de la dosis administrada se excreta inalterada a través de los riñones y esta proporción rara vez se modifica por las interacciones. El metabolismo tiene lugar principalmente a través de CYP1A2. y el transporte activo se realiza en parte a través de BCRP, OATP1A2 y PGP.
La teofilina tiene una alta biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 85%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar poco durante una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 7 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 28 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es bastante débil al 40% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es de 36 litros en el rango medio, Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede aumentar la exposición. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 y CYP3A4, entre otros..
La cafeína tiene una alta biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 92%, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar poco durante una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 11.91 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 47.64 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es bastante débil al 30.5% y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es de 36 litros en el rango medio. Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede aumentar la exposición. El metabolismo tiene lugar principalmente a través de CYP1A2..
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la ciprofloxacina, teofilina ni la cafeína aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Recomendación: Como precaución, se debe prestar atención a los síntomas anticolinérgicos, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La teofilina solo tiene un efecto leve sobre el sistema anticolinérgico. El riesgo de síndrome anticolinérgico con este medicamento es bastante bajo si la dosis se encuentra en el rango habitual. Según nuestros hallazgos, ni la ciprofloxacina ni la cafeína aumentan la actividad anticolinérgica.
Extensión de tiempo QT
Clasificación: La ciprofloxacina potencialmente puede causar arritmias ventriculares torsades de pointes. No conocemos ningún potencial de prolongación del intervalo QT para teofilina y cafeína.
Efectos secundarios generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||cip||teo||caf|
|Dolor de cabeza||4.0 %||3.0||+||n.a.|
|Secreción nasal||3.0 %||3.0||n.a.||n.a.|
Taquicardia: cafeína, teofilina
Infarto de miocardio: ciprofloxacina
Fibrilación auricular: teofilina
Sintiéndose nervioso: cafeína
Necrolisis epidérmica toxica: ciprofloxacina
Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson: ciprofloxacina, teofilina
Diarrea por clostridium difficile: ciprofloxacina
Hemorragia gastrointestinal: ciprofloxacina
Insuficiencia hepática: ciprofloxacina
Reacción de hipersensibilidad: ciprofloxacina
Reacciones alérgicas de la piel: teofilina
Reacción anafiláctica: teofilina
Cistitis hemorrágica: ciprofloxacina
Insuficiencia renal: ciprofloxacina
Nefritis tubulointersticial: ciprofloxacina
Aumento de la frecuencia de la micción: teofilina
Incautación: ciprofloxacina, teofilina
Alteración de la atención: ciprofloxacina
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré: ciprofloxacina
Deterioro de la memoria: ciprofloxacina
Neuropatía periférica: ciprofloxacina
Pseudotumor cerebri: ciprofloxacina
Presión intracraneal elevada: ciprofloxacina
Hemorragia intracraneal: teofilina
Anemia aplásica: ciprofloxacina
Anemia hemolítica: ciprofloxacina
Miastenia gravis: ciprofloxacina
Rotura de tendón: ciprofloxacina
Aneurisma aortico: ciprofloxacina
Con base en sus
Referencias de literatura
Abstract: Six healthy volunteers received a single caffeine dose after pretreatment with norfloxacin, pipemidic acid, or placebo in a crossover, randomized, single-blind clinical trial. Quinolones altered the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, with a significant increase in the AUCs and a decrease in plasma clearance. The elimination half-life increased significantly with pipemidic acid. The apparent volume of distribution, mean renal clearance, and time to reach maximum caffeine concentrations remained unaltered. There was a decline in caffeine metabolite levels in the 24-hour urine samples for both quinolone treatments, suggesting that pipemidic acid and, to a lesser degree, norfloxacin inhibit metabolism of the N-demethylation pathways of caffeine. The practical consequence of this observation could be caffeine accumulation during repeated intake of coffee. In two additional healthy volunteers under a controlled multiple-dose regimen of caffeine ingestion, administration of pipemidic acid for 2 days caused a fourfold increase in the plasma concentrations of caffeine.
Abstract: A number of quinolone antibiotics have been found to reduce the hepatic clearance of coadministered drugs such as theophylline. Enoxacin appears to be the most potent inhibitor, consistently decreasing theophylline clearance by more than 50%, while a single study suggests a similar degree of inhibition with pipemidic acid. Ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin reduce theophylline clearance to a smaller extent (approximately 20 to 30%). However, with ciprofloxacin, larger changes and theophylline toxicity have been reported in some subjects. Norfloxacin, ofloxacin and nalidixic acid appear to have minimal effects on theophylline clearance. Enoxacin and ciprofloxacin have also been found to reduce the clearance of caffeine, while ofloxacin has no effect. Few other substrates have been studied. Enoxacin decreases the clearance of R-warfarin with no effect on S-warfarin. In addition, enoxacin has been reported to reduce the clearance of antipyrine, with no effect on chlorpropamide, glibenclamide (glyburide) or phenytoin. The mechanism of these interactions is largely unexplored. It has been suggested that inhibition may be related to the production of 4-oxoquinolone metabolites; however, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. No unique structural feature has been identified to date which explains differences between these compounds in their propensity to affect drug metabolism. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of these drugs on other substrates not yet examined and to assess whether or not inhibition is dose related. Clinically, caution is advised when using a quinolone, particularly enoxacin, pipemidic acid, ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin, in combination with theophylline. Close monitoring of theophylline concentrations is recommended in any patient receiving these drugs. The clinical significance of inhibited metabolism of other substrates remains unclear at present. Until further data are available, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of reduced drug clearance resulting in adverse effects whenever the fluoroquinolones are coadministered with drugs that depend on hepatic metabolism for their elimination.
Abstract: The effect of a multiple-dose regimen of oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 h for 11 doses) on the clearance and steady-state concentrations of theophylline in trough (predose) serum was evaluated in nine healthy male subjects, each serving as his own control. Theophylline was taken as a sustained release tablet per os in a dose of 200 mg every 12 h for 19 doses. Theophylline concentrations in serum were measured immediately before each theophylline dose. Ciprofloxacin was administered on study day 4 through the first dose of study day 8. Theophylline concentrations in serum were also measured on study days 3, 6, 8, and 10 at the following times after the first dose of each day: 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h. Steady-state theophylline concentrations in trough serum were significantly higher during ciprofloxacin treatment (day 8) than before (day 3) or after (day 10) ciprofloxacin administration (P less than 0.01). Likewise, theophylline clearance was significantly slower (P less than 0.01) during ciprofloxacin treatment (day 8) than before it (day 3) or after it (day 10). The magnitude of ciprofloxacin-induced changes was approximately 30%. These results suggest that a multidose regimen of ciprofloxacin significantly slows the clearance of theophylline and elevates theophylline concentrations in serum.
Abstract: To investigate a possible interaction between norfloxacin and theophylline, eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers (mean age 27 +/- 5.3 years) were administered aminophylline, 5 mg/kg, before and after a 6-day course of norfloxacin, 400 mg every 12 hours, and changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were measured and compared. Norfloxacin induced significant decreases in theophylline clearance (14.9%; p less than 0.01) and the terminal phase slope (13.3%; p less than 0.02) and increased the AUC (16.6%; p less than 0.01). The apparent volume of distribution at steady state was unchanged. The greatest norfloxacin-induced individual change in theophylline clearance was a reduction of 28.6%. Given these findings, we advise that, for patients who are treated with theophylline and are subsequently treated with norfloxacin, adjustment of the theophylline dosage may be necessary in some patients to minimize the risk of theophylline toxicity.
Abstract: The effect of pipemidic acid and five new synthetic antibacterial agents--norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and pefloxacin--on the serum level of theophylline was studied in healthy male adult volunteers after concomitant oral administration of these agents with a slow release preparation of theophylline. The results indicated that enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, and pipemidic acid might decrease the clearance of theophylline in the liver, and the attention should be paid in clinical use when enoxacin or pipemidic acid is coadministered with theophylline.
Abstract: Pharmacokinetic parameters of the bronchodilator theophylline were assessed in eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease when administered alone and when comedicated with ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily, ofloxacin 400 mg twice daily, or pefloxacin 400 mg twice daily. Compared to the control period, in which only theophylline was administered, the total body clearance of theophylline decreased significantly during ciprofloxacin (30.4%) and pefloxacin (29.4%) coadministration, whereas no change of the renal clearance of theophylline occurred. Ofloxacin did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline. From these observations it is concluded that ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin reduce the metabolic clearance of theophylline.
Abstract: Enoxacin decreases the metabolic clearance of the bronchodilator theophylline not only in severely ill patients, but also in patients with stable chronic obstructive airways disease. In this comparative study, significantly increased plasma theophylline concentrations were measured during co-administration of enoxacin (110.9%) and, to a lesser degree, also during co-administration of pefloxacin (19.6%) and ciprofloxacin (22.8%). Total body clearance of theophylline was significantly decreased by enoxacin (63.6%), ciprofloxacin (30.4%) and pefloxacin (29.4%). The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline did not change during co-administration of ofloxacin and nalidixic acid. There is growing evidence that the observed interaction is caused not by the parent drugs, but by the 4-oxo metabolite of enoxacin, pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin.
Abstract: During a clinical trial of orally administered ciprofloxacin in respiratory tract infections, changes in serum theophylline levels were evaluated in 33 hospitalized patients who also required theophylline therapy. Patients received intravenous theophylline in standard titrated doses and 750 mg of oral ciprofloxacin twice daily. Serum theophylline levels in all patients were measured before and during ciprofloxacin therapy. The mean serum pretreatment theophylline level was 7.8 +/- 4.6 micrograms/ml; during ciprofloxacin therapy, the level increased to 14.6 +/- 7.4 micrograms/ml. Twenty of the 33 (61 percent) patients evaluated had increases in serum theophylline levels by a mean value of 10.5 micrograms/ml. In 30 percent of patients who experienced increases, theophylline concentrations were in the toxic range. This occurred more frequently in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In light of the frequency and potential severity of this interaction, careful monitoring of serum theophylline levels in patients receiving theophylline and ciprofloxacin is recommended.
Abstract: In an acute experiment in healthy volunteers and in patients under long-term treatment for cardiac arrhythmias, mexiletine inhibits caffeine elimination by about 50%. The clearance of mexiletine is not influenced by caffeine. Some side effects of mexiletine may possibly at least partially be attributable to a retention of caffeine.
Abstract: Five subjects who participated in an earlier study (Lelo et al., 1986b) of the comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA) and its primary monodemethylated metabolites paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were administered CA to steady-state. Using areas under the plasma concentration-time curves for each of the dimethylxanthines derived from CA in the steady-state study and individual plasma clearances of PX, TB and TP determined in the previous study, the fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP and the individual partial clearances of CA have been defined. The mean (+/- s.d.) fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP was 79.6 +/- 21.0%, 10.8 +/- 2.4% and 3.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. When only demethylation pathways are considered PX, TB and TP accounted for 83.9 +/- 5.4%, 12.1 +/- 4.1% and 4.0 +/- 1.4%, respectively of the CA demethylations. The mean partial clearance of CA to PX was approximately 8-fold and 23-fold greater than those to TB and TP respectively. These data confirm earlier reports that PX is the major metabolite of CA in humans but suggest that PX formation is quantitatively more important than previously believed.
Abstract: In 42 subjects with chronic obstructive lung disease receiving chronic oral theophylline therapy, the venous whole blood theophylline concentration was closely related to the total plasma theophylline concentrations (r = 0.976, p less than 0.001). The blood/plasma concentration ratio was 0.85 +/- 0.13 and was not related to the haematocrit or the free fraction of theophylline in plasma. The red blood cell theophylline concentration was closely related and numerically similar to the free plasma concentration. This indicates that the free plasma concentration is the most important determinant of red blood cell concentration, and that binding of drug by red blood cells or active uptake into erythrocytes is unlikely to occur. Whole blood concentration can be used to predict plasma theophylline concentration in subjects with obstructive lung disease in situations where preparation of plasma is inconvenient. The therapeutic range for whole blood concentration is approximately 8.5-17 mg/L.
Abstract: The disposition of caffeine and its metabolites was studied in six healthy subjects by use of sensitive and specific assays. The primary degradation of caffeine in man was found to be N-demethylation and/or ring oxidation to theophylline, paraxanthine, theobromine and 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid. These compounds were further degraded to dimethylated uric acids, monomethylxanthines and monomethyluric acids. About 3 and 6% of the drug was converted to theophylline and theobromine, respectively. The elimination of paraxanthine after its formation did not follow linear kinetics. A large urine recovery of 1-methylxanthine after caffeine administration in comparison with the amount recovered after administration of theophylline suggests an inhibitory effect on the degradation of this metabolite by either caffeine itself or another metabolite of caffeine. Caffeine and its primary metabolites, dimethylxanthines, were extensively reabsorbed in the renal tubule. Their renal clearances were highly urine flow-dependent and their urinary excretion varied with urine output during the study. About 70% of the dose was recovered in the urine. Postulated degradation pathways of caffeine are discussed.
Abstract: The effect of erythromycin base on theophylline kinetics was studied in eight informed, nonsmoking, adult males who received a 15-min infusion of theophylline (aminophylline) 5 mg/kg, prior to (control) and after (experimental) a 7-day course of 1 gm daily erythromycin base (E-Mycin). Each subject acted as his own control. Multiple serum samples were collected for 24 hr after each dose and were analyzed for theophylline by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean +/- SD pharmacokinetic parameters for each phase of study were as follows: apparent volume of distribution (L/kg) 0.45 +/- 0.05 (control), 0.41 +/- 0.05 (experimental); clearance (ml . min/kg) 0.83 +/- 0.17 (control), 0.60 +/- 0.11 (experimental); elimination half-life (hr) 6.65 +/- 1.88 (control), 8.10 +/- 1.58 (experimental). Erythromycin significantly affected the elimination half-life and clearance of theophylline (p less than 0.05). The apparent volume of distribution was unaffected (p greater than 0.05). Therefore patients being administered theophylline appear to be at added risk for the development of toxicity when erythromycin is added to the therapeutic regimen.
Abstract: In a controlled clinical trial, the elimination of caffeine was examined in 20 healthy women prior to and during one cycle of treatment with either of two oral contraceptive formulations, one containing 0.075 mg gestodene and 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol and one containing 0.125 mg levonorgestrel and 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol. In addition, caffeine clearance was determined 1 month after the last intake of the oral contraceptives. Compared with pretreatment values, the clearance of caffeine was reduced by about 54% and 55% after one treatment cycle with gestodene- and the levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptive, respectively. Other pharmacokinetic parameters of caffeine, such as tmax and Cmax, were not affected. Clearance values returned to pretreatment values 1 month after the last administration of the oral contraceptives. There was no difference in the reduction of caffeine clearance between contraceptive formulations. A small, but significant difference in the AUC(0-24 h) values of ethinylestradiol was noted between both preparations. There was no correlation between the AUC(model) values of caffeine and the AUC(0-24 h) values of ethinylestradiol. In the present study, a somewhat more pronounced effect on the elimination of caffeine was observed than in previous investigations, where several contraceptive steroids were administered only for a period of 2 weeks.
Abstract: The effects of famotidine (80 mg per day), cimetidine (1600 mg per day), and placebo on theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were compared. This was an open-label, randomized, three-period cross-over study, in which each subject first underwent a seven-day theophylline washout period, and thereafter received three single intravenous doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg infused over 30 minutes) during the study. Each of the experimental treatments was administered orally every 12 hours for a total of 9.5 days (19 doses). Theophylline was infused after the 17th dose of each treatment. Fourteen serial blood samples were collected before the start of each infusion, and for 30 hours after the end of each infusion. Plasma samples were assayed for theophylline, pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated, and treatment effects on each parameter were compared. Fourteen COPD patients completed all three periods of the investigation. Famotidine treatment had virtually no effect on any of theophylline's pharmacokinetic parameters. In contrast, cimetidine treatment significantly altered every pharmacokinetic parameter of theophylline as follows: Cimetidine decreased theophylline geometric mean CL from 2.74 L/h to 2.07 L/h (P < .001), and prolonged theophylline harmonic mean half-life from 6.6 to 9.6 hours (P < .001) and mean residence time from 10.8 to 15.0 hours (P < .001). Cimetidine treatment slightly increased theophylline volume of distribution by approximately 10%, and that change also was statistically significant (P = .032). The authors conclude that the treatment effects of cimetidine on theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were in accord with those reported by others, and that famotidine treatment had no effect on any of theophylline's pharmacokinetic parameters in COPD patients.
Abstract: Five adults completed this four-way randomized crossover study to compare the effects of oral treatment with ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and a combination of the two drugs on theophylline pharmacokinetics. The area under the concentration-time curve for theophylline during combination therapy was not different from that for ciprofloxacin alone. Beta error may explain this finding, but any real effect from combination treatment appears to be clinically unimportant.
Abstract: Rifampin and rifabutin induce the metabolism of many drugs, which may result in subtherapeutic concentrations and failure of therapy. However, differences between rifabutin and rifampin in potency of induction, and the specific enzymes which are altered, are not clear. This study, involving 12 adult male volunteers, compared the effects of 14-day courses of rifampin and rifabutin on clearance of theophylline, a substrate for the hepatic microsomal enzyme CYP1A2. Subjects were given oral theophylline solution (5 mg/kg of body weight) on day 1 and then randomized to receive daily rifampin (300 mg) or rifabutin (300 mg) on days 3 to 16. Theophylline was readministered as described above on day 15. The first treatment sequence was followed by a 2-week washout period; subjects then received the alternative treatment. Theophylline concentrations were determined for 46 h after each dose, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. One subject developed flu-like symptoms while taking rifabutin and withdrew voluntarily. Results from the remaining 11 subjects are reported. Compared with the baseline, the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (+/- standard deviation) for theophylline declined significantly following rifampin treatment (from 140 +/- 37 to 100 +/- 24 micrograms . h/ml, P <0.001); there was no significant change following rifabutin treatment (136 +/- 48 to 128 +/- 45 micrograms.h/ml). Baseline theophylline AUCs before each treatment phase were not different. A comparison of equal doses of rifampin and rifabutin administered to healthy volunteers for 2 weeks indicates that induction of CYP1A2, as measured by theophylline clearance, is significantly less following rifabutin treatment than it is following rifampin treatment. However, the relative induction potency for other metabolic enzymes remains to be investigated.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pefloxacin is reported to cause clinically relevant inhibition of theophylline metabolism in vivo, but in vitro pefloxacin was only a weak inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, mediating main theophylline biotransformation. We therefore further characterized the interaction between pefloxacin and CYP1A2. METHODS: A randomized 3-period change-over study was conducted in 12 healthy young volunteers on the steady-state interactions between pefloxacin or enoxacin (400 mg twice a day) with caffeine (183 mg once daily), a validated marker of CYP1A2. Caffeine pharmacokinetics were estimated after its fifth dose. Studies in human liver microsomes were carried out to measure the effect of pefloxacin and norfloxacin on caffeine 3-demethylation, an in vitro CYP1A2 probe, and to identify the enzyme(s) that mediate pefloxacin N-4'-demethylation with selective inhibitors. RESULTS: For the in vivo study, ANOVA-based point estimates (90% confidence intervals [CI]) for the ratios of caffeine pharmacokinetics with and without pefloxacin coadministration were 1.11 for maximal steadystate plasma concentrations (Cmax,ss; 90% CI, 0.99 to 1.26), 0.53 for total clearance (CLt,ss; 90% CI, 0.49 to 0.58), and 1.04 for the beta-phase distribution volume (Vdbeta; 90% CI, 0.96 to 1.13). The values for enoxacin were 1.99 for Cmax,ss (90% CI, 1.77 to 2.23), 0.17 for CLt,ss (90% CI, 0.16 to 0.19), and 1.01 for Vdbeta (90% CI, 0.90 to 1.13). Thus pefloxacin caused a 2-fold decrease in caffeine clearance, and enoxacin caused a 6-fold decrease in caffeine clearance. In vitro, norfloxacin and pefloxacin competitively inhibited CYP1A2, with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 0.1 and 1 mmol/L, respectively, and CYP1A2 was the only enzyme with a relevant contribution (approximately 50%) to pefloxacin N-4'-demethylation. CONCLUSIONS: Enoxacin and to a lesser extent pefloxacin may cause clinically relevant interactions with further CYP1A2 substrates. The data suggest that the pefloxacin interaction is partly mediated by its major metabolite norfloxacin.
Abstract: Caffeine from dietary sources (mainly coffee, tea and soft drinks) is the most frequently and widely consumed CNS stimulant in the world today. Because of its enormous popularity, the consumption of caffeine is generally thought to be safe and long term caffeine intake may be disregarded as a medical problem. However, it is clear that this compound has many of the features usually associated with a drug of abuse. Furthermore, physicians should be aware of the possible contribution of dietary caffeine to the presenting signs and symptoms of patients. The toxic effects of caffeine are extensions of their pharmacological effects. The most serious caffeine-related CNS effects include seizures and delirium. Other symptoms affecting the cardiovascular system range from moderate increases in heart rate to more severe cardiac arrhythmia. Although tolerance develops to many of the pharmacological effects of caffeine, tolerance may be overwhelmed by the nonlinear accumulation of caffeine when its metabolism becomes saturated. This might occur with high levels of consumption or as the result of a pharmacokinetic interaction between caffeine and over-the-counter or prescription medications. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 participates in the metabolism of caffeine as well as of a number of clinically important drugs. A number of drugs, including certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (particularly fluvoxamine), antiarrhythmics (mexiletine), antipsychotics (clozapine), psoralens, idrocilamide and phenylpropanolamine, bronchodilators (furafylline and theophylline) and quinolones (enoxacin), have been reported to be potent inhibitors of this isoenzyme. This has important clinical implications, since drugs that are metabolised by, or bind to, the same CYP enzyme have a high potential for pharmacokinetic interactions due to inhibition of drug metabolism. Thus, pharmacokinetic interactions at the CYP1A2 enzyme level may cause toxic effects during concomitant administration of caffeine and certain drugs used for cardiovascular, CNS (an excessive dietary intake of caffeine has also been observed in psychiatric patients), gastrointestinal, infectious, respiratory and skin disorders. Unless a lack of interaction has already been demonstrated for the potentially interacting drug, dietary caffeine intake should be considered when planning, or assessing response to, drug therapy. Some of the reported interactions of caffeine, irrespective of clinical relevance, might inadvertently cause athletes to exceed the urinary caffeine concentration limit set by sports authorities at 12 mg/L. Finally, caffeine is a useful and reliable probe drug for the assessment of CYP1A2 activity, which is of considerable interest for metabolic studies in human populations.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Oltipraz is currently undergoing clinical evaluation as a cancer chemopreventive agent, especially with respect to aflatoxin-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. The agent's ability to induce phase II xenobiotic enzymes that detoxify the ultimate carcinogen formed in vivo is thought to be an important mechanism by which disease risk may be attenuated. However, an additional mechanism could be a reduction in the activation of environmental procarcinogens by certain cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. This hypothesis was tested with respect to CYP1A2, by using the clearance of caffeine by N-demethylation as a phenotypic trait measurement of the isoform's catalytic activity. METHODS: Subjects received a single oral dose of caffeine (200 mg) on five separate occasions: on the day prior to oltipraz administration (day 0), 2 h after the first (day 1) of eight daily oral doses of oltipraz (125 mg) and 2 h after the last dose (day 8). In addition, CYP1A2 activity was also measured 2 and 14 days (days 10 and 22, respectively) after discontinuation of oltipraz administration. Plasma concentrations of caffeine and its N-demethylated metabolite, paraxanthine, over 24 h after drug administration, were determined by HPLC. RESULTS: A single 125-mg dose of oltipraz markedly reduced CYP1A2 activity by 75 +/- 13% in nine healthy subjects, resulting in a higher caffeine plasma level and prolongation of the in vivo probe's elimination half-life. Daily administration of 125 mg oltipraz for 8 days resulted in further inhibition so that only 19 +/- 13% of the original baseline level of activity was present. However, 2 days after discontinuation of oltipraz treatment, CYP1A2 activity had returned to 66 +/- 33% of its original level and complete recovery was achieved within 14 days of the chemopreventive agent being stopped. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that oltipraz is a potent, in vivo inhibitor of CYP1A2 in humans and, because this isoform is importantly involved in procarcinogen activation, they also indicate that such inhibition probably contributes to oltipraz's cancer-chemopreventive effect. In addition, the findings also suggest the likelihood of significant drug interactions between oltipraz and drugs whose metabolism is mediated by CYP1A2.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of the concomitant administration of theophylline and toborinone on the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in poor and extensive metabolizers via CYP2D6. In period 1, a single dose of 3.5 mg/kg theophylline was administered orally. In period 2, a single dose of 1.0 microg/kg/min toborinone was infused over 6 hours. In period 3, 3.5 mg/kg theophylline was coadministered with 1.0 microg/kg/min toborinone. Serial blood and pooled urine samples were collected before and after toborinone administration for the quantification of toborinone and its metabolites in plasma and urine. Serial blood samples were collected before and after theophylline administration for the quantification of theophylline and its metabolites in plasma. No significant differences were observed in toborinone pharmacokinetics between poor and extensive metabolizers via CYP2D6. Toborinone coadministration with theophylline did not result in a substantive effect on the disposition of theophylline and vice versa.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential effect of daidzein on CYP1A2 activity and on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline by inhibiting its metabolism. METHODS: The experiment was conducted in a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. The caffeine metabolic ratio (CMR) used as an indicator of CYP1A2 function was completed at baseline and after daidzein or placebo co-administration. A single dose of 100 mg theophylline was taken by all 20 volunteers on day 3. Thereafter, volunteers were allocated for one of two regimens. One group received 200 mg daidzein twice daily for 10 days. The other group received placebo. On day 12, the test group received 200 mg daidzein with 100 mg theophylline; the parallel group received 100 mg theophylline with placebo. RESULTS: The baseline value of CMR between test group and control group did not show a difference (P=0.215). The percentage decrease in CMR ranged from -50% to 20%, with an average value of -19.8+/-19.7%. The percentage decrease in test group was statistically significant (P=0.009), and no significant changes were shown in the control group (t=0.12, P=0.914). By comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline before and after daily treatment with daidzein, the effect of daidzein on the metabolism of theophylline was evident. Comparing the kinetics parameters of theophylline of day 1 (without co-medication) with those of day 12 (10-day daidzein), the AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), C(max) and t(1/2) were significantly increased by 33.57+/-21.75% (CI, 1.21-1.46, P< 0.05), 33.77+/-21.45% (CI, 1.20-1.46, P<0.05), 23.54+/-16.93% (CI, 1.23-1.52, P< 0.05) and 41.39+/-45.92% (t=-3.19, P=0.011), respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline within the placebo group showed no statistically significant difference (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Daidzein, a principal isoflavone in soybean, in higher doses may inhibit CYP1A2 activity in vivo, and physicians should be aware of potential drug-food interactions.
Abstract: Children's risks can differ from those in adults for numerous reasons, one being differences in the pharmacokinetic handling of chemicals. Immature metabolism and a variety of other factors in neonates can affect chemical disposition and clearance. These factors can be incorporated into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that simulate the fate of environmental toxicants in both children and adults. PBPK models are most informative when supported by empirical data, but typically pediatric pharmacokinetic data for toxicants are not available. In contrast, pharmacokinetic data in children are readily available for therapeutic drugs. The current analysis utilizes data for caffeine and theophylline, closely related xanthines that are both cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A2 substrates, in developing PBPK models for neonates and adults. Model development involved scale-up of in vitro metabolic parameters to whole liver and adjusting metabolic function for the ontological pattern of CYP1A2 and other CYPs. Model runs were able to simulate the large differences in half-life and clearance between neonates and adults. Further, the models were able to reproduce the faster metabolic clearance of theophylline relative to caffeine in neonates. This differential between xanthines was found to be due primarily to an extra metabolic pathway available to theophylline, back-methylation to caffeine, that is not available to caffeine itself. This pathway is not observed in adults exemplifying the importance of secondary or novel routes of metabolism in the immature liver. Greater CYP2E1 metabolism of theophylline relative to caffeine in neonates also occurs. Neonatal PBPK models developed for these drugs may be adapted to other CYP1A2 substrates (e.g., arylamine toxicants). A stepwise approach for modeling environmental toxicants in children is proposed.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the likelihood of artemisinin and thiabendazole causing pharmacokinetic interactions involving cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2) in humans given their potent inhibitory effects on the isoform in vitro. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers received caffeine (136.5 mg), and after a washout period of 48 h, the volunteers were given a caffeine tablet (136.5 mg) together with thiabendazole (500 mg). After an additional 14 days, the volunteers received caffeine together with artemisinin (500 mg). After each treatment, plasma was obtained up to 24 h post-dose. The plasma concentrations of the drugs were measured by HPLC with UV and MS detection. RESULTS: Using the ratio of paraxanthine to caffeine after 4 h as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity, thiabendazole and artemisinin inhibited 92 and 66%, respectively, of the enzyme activity in vivo. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine were altered in the presence of the drugs; increases in AUC(0-24) of 1.6-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.3-fold of caffeine in the presence of thiabendazole and artemisinin respectively were measured. The use of in vitro data to predict the effects of thiabendazole on the formation of paraxanthine yielded good results and underestimated the effects of artemisinin when total plasma concentrations were used. Corrections for protein binding resulted in underestimation of inhibitory effects on CYP1A2. CONCLUSIONS: Co-administration of thiabendazole or artemisinin with CYP1A2 substrates could result in clinically significant effects. Our results highlight the validity of in vitro data in predicting in vivo CYP inhibition. The formation of paraxanthine seems to be a better indicator of in vivo CYP1A2 activity than caffeine levels.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 by fluvoxamine causes a reduction in the clearance of the high-extraction drug lidocaine, which decreases in proportion to the degree of liver dysfunction. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of liver cirrhosis on the inhibition by fluvoxamine of the metabolic disposition of theophylline, a CYP1A2 substrate with a low-extraction ratio, to assess whether decreased sensitivity to CYP1A2 inhibition in liver disease is a general characteristic of CYP1A2 substrates, regardless of their pharmacokinetic properties, and (2) to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the effect of liver dysfunction on CYP1A2 inhibition. METHODS: The study was carried out in 10 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with cirrhosis, 10 with mild liver dysfunction (Child class A) and 10 with severe liver dysfunction (Child class C), according to a randomized, double-blind, 2-phase, crossover design. In one phase all participants received placebo for 7 days; in the other phase they received one 50-mg fluvoxamine dose for 2 days and two 50-mg fluvoxamine doses, 12 hours apart, in the next 5 days. On day 6, 4 mg/kg of theophylline was administered orally 1 hour after the morning fluvoxamine dose. Concentrations of theophylline and its metabolites, 3-methylxanthine, 1-methyluric acid, and 1,3-dimethyluric acid, were then measured in plasma and urine up to 48 hours. RESULTS: Fluvoxamine-induced inhibition of theophylline clearance decreased from 62% in healthy subjects to 52% and 12% in patients with mild cirrhosis and those with severe cirrhosis, respectively. CYP1A2-mediated formations of 3-methylxanthine and 1-methyluric acid were almost totally inhibited in control subjects, whereas they were only reduced by one third in patients with Child class C cirrhosis. Inhibition of 1,3-dimethyluric acid formation, which is catalyzed by CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, progressively decreased from 58% in healthy subjects to 43% and 7% in patients with mild cirrhosis and those with severe cirrhosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of liver dysfunction on the inhibition of CYP1A2-mediated drug elimination is a general phenomenon, independent of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the CYP1A2 substrate. Therefore, for any drug metabolized by CYP1A2, the clinical consequences of enzyme inhibition are expected to become less and less important as liver function worsens. Two mechanisms, as follows in order of importance, are responsible for the effect of liver dysfunction: (1) decreased sensitivity to fluvoxamine of CYP1A2-mediated biotransformations in the cirrhotic liver, probably resulting from reduced uptake of the inhibitory drug, and (2) reduced hepatic expression of CYP1A2, which makes its contribution to overall drug elimination less important.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone plasma concentrations are decreased by nelfinavir. Methadone clearance and the drug interactions have been attributed to CYP3A4, but actual mechanisms of methadone clearance and the nelfinavir interaction are unknown. We assessed nelfinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity, and intestinal P-glycoprotein transport activity. CYP3A4/5 and transporters were assessed using alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy HIV-negative volunteers underwent a sequential crossover. On three consecutive days they received oral alfentanil plus fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral methadone. This was repeated after nelfinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were measured by pupil diameter change (miosis). RESULTS: Nelfinavir decreased intravenous and oral methadone plasma concentrations 40-50%. Systemic clearance, hepatic clearance, and hepatic extraction all increased 1.6- and 2-fold, respectively, for R- and S-methadone; apparent oral clearance increased 1.7- and 1.9-fold. Nelfinavir stereoselectively increased (S>R) methadone metabolism and metabolite formation clearance, and methadone renal clearance. Methadone bioavailability and P-glycoprotein activity were minimally affected. Nelfinavir decreased alfentanil systemic and apparent oral clearances 50 and 76%, respectively. Nelfinavir appeared to shift the methadone plasma concentration-effect (miosis) curve leftward and upward. CONCLUSIONS: Nelfinavir induced methadone clearance by increasing renal clearance, and more so by stereoselectively increasing hepatic metabolism, extraction and clearance. Induction occurred despite 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity and more than 75% inhibition of first-pass CYP3A4/5 activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone disposition. Nelfinavir may alter methadone pharmacodynamics, increasing clinical effects.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Ciprofloxacin can inhibit the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of theophylline, but the clinical relevance of this drug interaction is uncertain. We studied the risk of theophylline toxicity associated with the co-prescription of ciprofloxacin and theophylline. METHODS: This was a population-based, nested case-control study of a cohort of Ontario residents aged 66 years of age or older treated with theophylline between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2009. Within this group, case patients were those hospitalized with theophylline toxicity. For each case, 50 age- and sex-matched control patients were identified from the same cohort. The odds ratio (OR) for the association between hospitalization for theophylline toxicity and receipt of ciprofloxacin in the 14 days preceding hospitalization was determined. RESULTS: Among the 77,251 elderly patients receiving therapy with theophylline, 180 eligible case patients hospitalized for theophylline toxicity and 9000 matched controls were identified. Following multivariable adjustment, a nearly twofold increase in the risk of theophylline toxicity following the receipt of ciprofloxacin was observed [adjusted OR 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.93]. In contrast, there was no increased risk of theophylline toxicity within a group of patients receiving neutral comparator antibiotics (levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or cefuroxime) (adjusted OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.38-1.62). CONCLUSION: Treatment with ciprofloxacin is associated with a significant increase in the risk of theophylline toxicity. When clinically appropriate, alternate antibiotics should be considered for elderly patients receiving theophylline.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.