Prolongación del tiempo QT
Eventos adversos de medicamentos
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Explicaciones de las sustancias para pacientes.
Se recomienda la monitorización de quetiapina y diazepam.
Aumento de la sedaciónMecanismo: Efectos aditivos sobre el sistema nervioso central. No hay evidencia de interacciones farmacocinéticas.
Efecto: Los efectos adversos como la sedación y la hipotensión (ortostática) pueden reforzarse mutuamente.
Medidas: Monitoree al paciente para ver si aumenta la sedación, controle la presión arterial.
|Diazepam||1 [0.83,1.53] 1||1|
Los cambios informados en la exposición corresponden a los cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [ AUC ]. No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a diazepam, cuando se combina con quetiapina (100%). El AUC se encuentra entre 0 % y 100 % dependiendo del
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La diazepam tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es relativamente extensa a las 36 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] sólo se alcanzan después de más de 144 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es 100 % fuerte y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 83 litros. Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede conducir a una mayor exposición. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2B6, CYP2C19 y CYP3A4, entre otros.
La quetiapina tiene una baja biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar fuertemente con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es relativamente corta a las 2.6 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] se alcanzan rápidamente. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 100 % y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es de 55 litros, Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede conducir a una mayor exposición. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2D6 y CYP3A4, entre otros y el transporte activo tiene lugar especialmente a través de PGP.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la diazepam ni la quetiapina aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Recomendación: Como precaución, se debe prestar atención a los síntomas anticolinérgicos, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La Diazepam y quetiapina solo tienen un efecto leve sobre el sistema anticolinérgico. El riesgo de síndrome anticolinérgico con este medicamento es relativamente bajo si la dosis se encuentra en el rango habitual.
Prolongación del tiempo QT
Recomendación: Asegúrese de minimizar los factores de riesgo que puedan influir. Deben compensarse los desequilibrios electrolíticos, como los niveles bajos de calcio, potasio y magnesio. Debe utilizarse la dosis mínima eficaz de quetiapina.
Clasificación: La quetiapina puede prolongar potencialmente el tiempo QT y, si existen factores de riesgo, pueden producirse arritmias del tipo torsades de pointes. No conocemos ningún potencial de prolongación del intervalo QT de la diazepam.
Efectos adversos generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||dia||que|
|Aumento de peso||15.5 %||n.a.||15.5|
|Hipotensión ortostática||7.0 %||n.a.||7.0|
|Apetito incrementado||7.0 %||n.a.||7.0|
Dispepsia (4.5%): quetiapina
Disartria (2%): diazepam, quetiapina
Trastorno del sueño: quetiapina
Incautación: diazepam, quetiapina
Síndrome neuroléptico maligno: quetiapina
Discinesia tardía: quetiapina
Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson: quetiapina
Efecto hangover: diazepam
Efecto rebote: diazepam
ALT elevado: quetiapina
Elevado GGT: quetiapina
Depresion respiratoria: diazepam
Reacciones alérgicas de la piel: quetiapina
Tromboembolismo venoso: quetiapina
Con base en sus respuestas e información científica, evaluamos el riesgo individual de efectos secundarios adversos. Estas recomendaciones están destinadas a asesorar a los profesionales y no sustituyen la consulta con un médico. En la versión de prueba restringida (alfa), el riesgo de todas las sustancias aún no se ha evaluado de manera concluyente.
Abstract: The effects of steady state dosing with omeprazole and cimetidine on plasma diazepam levels have been studied in 12 healthy males. Single doses of diazepam (0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) were administered after one week of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cimetidine 400 mg b.d. or placebo, and the treatment was continued for a further 5 days. Blood was collected for 120 h after the dose of diazepam for the measurement of diazepam and its major metabolite desmethyl diazepam. The mean clearance of diazepam was decreased by 27% and 38% and its half-life was increased by 36% and 39% after omeprazole and cimetidine, respectively. Neither drug had any apparent effect on the volume of distribution of diazepam. Desmethyldiazepam appeared more slowly after both omeprazole and cimetidine. It is concluded that the decrease in diazepam clearance was associated with inhibition of hepatic metabolism both by omeprazole and cimetidine. However, since diazepam has a wide therapeutic range, it is unlikely that concomitant treatment with therapeutically recommended doses of either omeprazole or cimetidine will result in a clinically significant interaction with diazepam.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: 1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h.
Abstract: The effects of pretreatment with a seven day course of ciprofloxacin on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an intravenous (5 mg) dose of diazepam were investigated in a group of 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Ciprofloxacin pretreatment significantly reduced diazepam CL (without ciprofloxacin: 19.5 ml.h-1 kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 12.3 ml.h-1 kg-1). Diazepam t1/2 was also prolonged (without ciprofloxacin: 36.7 h; with ciprofloxacin: 71.1 h), but volume of distribution was unaltered (without ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1). However, no significant changes were detected in psychometric tests of digit symbol substitution, tapping rate and short memory, as well as levels of concentration, vigilance and tension measured by visual analogue scales.
Abstract: 1. We have examined the metabolism of diazepam by ten human cytochrome P450 forms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5) expressed in HepG2 cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. 2. Among the P450 forms tested, diazepam was significantly demethylated by CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4 and 3A5, with 2C19 exhibiting the highest rate at concentrations < 0.1 mM, and hydroxylated only by the latter three enzymes, with 3A5 being the most active. The N-demethylation activity of diazepam by 2C19 at a concentration of 20 microM was six times of that by 3A4. However, that by 2C9 was detected at only a trace level. 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam. CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation. 4. Diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes correlated with diazepam 3-hydroxylation, but not S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. 5. Our results suggest that in the human liver, the metabolism of diazepam to nordiazepam is mediated by CYP3A4, which has been reported as the most abundant P450 form in human liver as well as 2C19, which has been reported as a polymorphic enzyme.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Quetiapine is a dibenzothiazepine derivative that has been evaluated for management of patients with the manifestations of psychotic disorders. In pharmacokinetic studies in humans, quetiapine was rapidly absorbed after oral administration, with median time to reach maximum observed plasma concentration ranging from 1 to 2 hours. The absolute bioavailability is unknown, but the relative bioavailability from orally administered tablets compared with a solution was nearly complete. Food has minimal effects on quetiapine absorption. The drug is approximately 83% bound to serum proteins. Single and multiple dose studies have demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics in the clinical dose range (up to 375mg twice daily). The drug is eliminated with a mean terminal half-life of approximately 7 hours. The primary route of elimination is through hepatic metabolism. In vitro studies show that quetiapine is predominantly metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. After administration of [14C]quetiapine, approximately 73% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine and 21% in faeces. Quetiapine accounted for less than 1% of the excreted radioactivity. 11 metabolites formed through hepatic oxidation have been identified. Two were found to be pharmacologically active, but they circulate in plasma at 2 to 12% of the concentration of quetiapine and are unlikely to contribute substantially to the pharmacological effects of the drug. The pharmacokinetics of quetiapine do not appear to be altered by cigarette smoking. Oral clearance declines with age, and was reduced in 2 of 8 patients with hepatic dysfunction but not in patients with renal impairment. Quetiapine has no effect on the in vitro activity of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 at clinically relevant concentrations. The lack of effect of quetiapine on hepatic oxidation was confirmed in vivo by the lack of effect of quetiapine on antipyrine disposition. Quetiapine had no effect on serum lithium concentration. Phenytoin and thioridazine increase the clearance of quetiapine, and ketoconazole decreases clearance. No clinically significant effects of cimetidine, haloperidol, risperidone or imipramine on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine were noted. Quetiapine dosage adjustment, therefore, may be necessary when coadministered with phenytoin, thioridazine or other potent CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors. The relationship between the therapeutic effects and the plasma concentrations of quetiapine has been investigated in a multicentre clinical trial. There was no statistically significant association between trough plasma quetiapine concentration and clinical response as measured by traditional assessments of psychotic symptom severity. Subsequent clinical studies of the plasma concentration versus effect relationships for quetiapine may help to further define guidelines for dosage regimen design.
Abstract: (R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms mediating R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation in human liver, with the long term objective of elucidating the molecular genetic basis for this drug metabolism polymorphism. All available recombinant UGT isoforms were screened for R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation activities. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in representative human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in UGTs that showed significant activity. Of 12 different UGTs evaluated, only UGT2B15 showed significant S-oxazepam glucuronidation. Furthermore, the apparent K(m) for UGT2B15 (29-35 microM) was similar to values determined for HLMs (43-60 microM). In contrast, R-oxazepam was glucuronidated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Although apparent K(m) values for HLMs (256-303 microM) were most similar to UGT2B7 (333 microM) rather than UGT1A9 (12 microM), intrinsic clearance values for UGT1A9 were 10 times higher than for UGT2B7. A common genetic variation results in aspartate (UGT2B15*1) or tyrosine (UGT2B15*2) at position 85 of the UGT2B15 protein. Microsomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells overexpressing UGT2B15*1 showed 5 times higher S-oxazepam glucuronidation activity than did UGT2B15*2 microsomes. Similar results were obtained for other substrates, including eugenol, naringenin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and androstane-3alpha-diol. In conclusion, S-oxazepam is stereoselectively glucuronidated by UGT2B15, whereas R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by multiple UGT isoforms. Allelic variation associated with the UGT2B15 gene may explain polymorphic S-oxazepam glucuronidation in humans.
Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is important to consider when concentrations in whole blood (eg, in forensic toxicology) are compared with therapeutic and toxic concentrations based on the analysis of plasma or serum. The plasma to whole blood distribution of diazepam (D) and its major metabolite nordiazepam (ND) was investigated under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Studies in vitro were done by spiking whole blood with D and ND to give concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g. Venous blood was also obtained from hospital blood donors (n = 66) after informed consent. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and water content of blood specimens were determined by routine procedures before D and ND were added to produce target concentrations of approximately 0.5 microg/g for each substance. The ex vivo work was done with blood specimens from hospital outpatients who were being medicated with D. Concentrations of D and ND were determined in body fluids by capillary column gas chromatography after adding prazepam as internal standard and solvent extraction with butyl acetate. The method limit of quantitation was 0.03 microg/g for both D and ND. The concentrations of D and ND were highest in plasma and lowest in erythrocytes. The plasma/blood (P/B) distribution ratios did not depend on drug concentration between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/g. The mean P/B ratios were 1.79:1 for D and 1.69:1 for ND when hematocrit was 45%. Furthermore, the P/B ratio for D (y) was positively correlated with blood hematocrit (x) and the regression equation was y = 0.636 + 0.025x (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). A similar strong association was found between the P/B ratio and hematocrit for ND (r = 0.79). P/B ratios of D and ND, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the water content differed between sexes (P < 0.001). The overall mean P/B ratios for D and ND were 1.69 +/- 0.097 (+/- SD) and 1.62 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.001, n = 66) respectively when the mean hematocrit was 42.9 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD). For forensic purposes, it would be better to forgo making any conversion of a drug concentration measured in whole blood to that expected in plasma or serum; instead, therapeutic and toxic concentrations should be established for the actual specimens received.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of erythromycin on metabolism of quetiapine in Chinese suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS: Nineteen patients received multiple doses of quetiapine (200 mg, twice daily) with or without co-administered erythromycin (500 mg, three times daily). Blood samples were collected at specified time intervals for determination of plasma concentrations of quetiapine and some of its metabolites. RESULTS: With erythromycin co-administration: for quetiapine, maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), area under concentration-time curve of 0-infinity h (AUC0-infinity) and terminal-phase elimination half-life time (t1/2) increased 68, 129 and 92%, respectively, and clearance (CL) and terminal elimination rate constant (Ke) decreased 52% and 55%, respectively; for quetiapine sulfoxide (QTP-SF), Cmax, AUC0-infinity and AUC ratio decreased 64, 23, and 70%, respectively, and t1/2 increased 211%; for 7-hydroxy-quetiapine (QTP-H), Ke and AUC ratio decreased 61% and 45%, respectively, and t1/2 increased 203%; for 7-hydroxy-N-desalkyl-quetiapine (QTP-ND), Cmax, AUC0-infinity and AUC ratio decreased 36, 40 and 71%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Erythromycin has a noticeable effect on the metabolism of quetiapine. When quetiapine is co-administered with CYP3A inhibitors such as erythromycin, the dosing regimen should be modified according to quetiapine TDM.
Abstract: The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported.
Abstract: AIMS: To explore the potential for drug interactions on quetiapine pharmacokinetics using in vitro and in vivo assessments. METHODS: The CYP enzymes responsible for quetiapine metabolite formation were assessed using recombinant expressed CYPs and CYP-selective inhibitors. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transport was tested in MDCK cells expressing the human MDR1 gene. The effects of CYP3A4 inhibition were evaluated clinically in 12 healthy volunteers that received 25 mg quetiapine before and after 4 days of treatment with ketoconazole 200 mg daily. To assess CYP3A4 induction in vivo, 18 patients with psychiatric disorders were titrated to steady-state quetiapine levels (300 mg twice daily), then titrated to 600 mg daily carbamazepine for 2 weeks. RESULTS: CYP3A4 was found to be responsible for formation of quetiapine sulfoxide and N- and O-desalkylquetiapine and not a Pgp substrate. In the clinical studies, ketoconazole increased mean quetiapine plasma C(max) by 3.35-fold, from 45 to 150 ng ml(-1) (mean C(max) ratio 90% CI 2.51, 4.47) and decreased its clearance (Cl/F) by 84%, from 138 to 22 l h(-1) (mean ratio 90% CI 0.13, 0.20). Carbamazepine decreased quetiapine plasma C(max) by 80%, from 1042 to 205 ng ml(-1) (mean C(max) ratio 90% CI 0.14, 0.28) and increased its clearance 7.5-fold, from 65 to 483 l h(-1) (mean ratio 90% CI 6.04, 9.28). CONCLUSIONS: Cytochrome P450 3A4 is a primary enzyme responsible for the metabolic clearance of quetiapine. Quetiapine pharmacokinetics were affected by concomitant administration of ketoconazole and carbamazepine, and therefore other drugs and ingested natural products that strongly modulate the activity or expression of CYP3A4 would be predicted to change exposure to quetiapine.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The resulting conjugates from the coupling reactions with glucuronic acid are epimeric pairs of glucuronides. Due to the importance of stereochemical factors in drug disposition it is necessary to separate the diastereomeric forms after synthesis. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was developed and optimized by using microsomal UGT from fresh swine liver to receive multimilligram amounts of the benzodiazepine glucuronides, which were not accessible by standard synthetic procedures, like the Koenigs-Knorr- and Williamson-ether-synthesis. Swine liver microsomes were prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation of liver tissue. In the presence of liver microsomes the benzodiazepines and cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 24h. After incubation the microsomes were removed by protein precipitation and the residual benzodiazepines by liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane). The epimeric pairs of benzodiazepine glucuronides were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) to obtain the pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers. The synthesis products were characterized by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Abstract: Many antipsychotic drugs cause QT prolongation, although the effect differs based on the particular drug. We sought to determine the potential for antipsychotic drugs to prolong the QTc interval (>470 ms in men and >480 ms in women) using the Bazett formula in a "real-world" setting by analyzing the electrocardiograms of 1017 patients suffering from schizophrenia. Using logistic regression analysis to calculate the adjusted relative risk (RR), we found that chlorpromazine (RR for 100 mg=1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14 to 1.64; p<.005), intravenous haloperidol (RR for 2 mg=1.29, 95% CI=1.18 to 1.43; p<.001), and sultopride (RR for 200 mg=1.45, 95% CI=1.28 to 1.63; p<.001) were associated with an increased risk of QTc prolongation. Levomepromazine also significantly lengthened the QTc interval. The second-generation antipsychotic drugs (i.e., olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and zotepine), mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines, and antiparkinsonian drugs did not prolong the QTc interval. Our results suggest that second-generation antipsychotic drugs are generally less likely than first-generation antipsychotic drugs to produce QTc interval prolongation, which may be of use in clinical decision making concerning the choice of antipsychotic medication.
Abstract: Variability in response to atypical antipsychotic drugs is due to genetic and environmental factors. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms are implicated in the metabolism of drugs, while the P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp), encoded by the ABCB1 gene, may influence both the blood and brain drug concentrations. This study aimed to identify the possible associations of CYP and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms with quetiapine and norquetiapine plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations and with response to treatment. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia receiving 600 mg of quetiapine daily were genotyped for four CYP isoforms and ABCB1 polymorphisms. Quetiapine and norquetiapine peak plasma and CSF concentrations were measured after 4 weeks of treatment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ABCB1 3435C > T (rs1045642), 2677G > T (rs2032582) and 1236C > T (rs1128503) polymorphisms predicted plasma quetiapine concentrations, explaining 41% of the variability (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the ABCB1 polymorphisms predicted 48% (p = 0.024) of the variability of the Δ PANSS total score, with the non-carriers of the 3435TT showing higher changes in the score. These results suggest that ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms may be a predictive marker of quetiapine treatment in schizophrenia.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: PURPOSE: QT prolongation can occur with both first- (FGA) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGA). QT prolongation was identified in an adult patient who presented to the emergency room with schizophrenia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and pneumonia. Quetiapine, an SGA, was a component of the pharmacotherapy regimen. Based on the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale rating criteria, a probable causal association was made. METHODS: PubMed and Ovid were searched using the terms antipsychotic, psychotropic, QT interval, corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, and quetiapine. References were examined for additional articles related to antipsychotic drugs and the QT interval. DISCUSSION: In this patient, the use of quetiapine was identified as a contributing factor in QT prolongation. Prior QT prolongation was experienced with ziprasidone, another SGA. The antidepressant and dose remained consistent throughout the inpatient course of treatment. Other risk factors in this patient included hypokalemia, dehydration, pneumonia, age, gender, and concurrent usage of an antidepressant. Dual psychiatric diagnoses, preexisting cardiovascular disease, and electrolyte disturbances may increase this risk potential. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric patients may be more at risk of cardiovascular complications, such as QT interval prolongation. The pharmacist can help evaluate risk factors and provide input into the care of all patients, particularly those identified as at risk.
Abstract: The antipsychotic drug quetiapine has been approved for the treatment of unipolar and bipolar depression. The antidepressant activity is considered to be mediated by the active metabolite N-desalkylquetiapine, which is mainly formed by CYP3A4. Little is known about the subsequent elimination of this metabolite. Therefore, this study investigated the possible involvement of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in the metabolism of N-desalkylquetiapine. Screening for and interpretation of metabolites were performed by incubating N-desalkylquetiapine in human liver microsomes (HLM) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The possible involvement of P450 enzymes in N-desalkylquetiapine metabolism was evaluated by coincubation of selective P450 inhibitors in HLM and subsequent experiments with recombinant human P450 enzymes. In HLM experiments, three chromatographic peaks were interpreted as possible metabolites of N-desalkylquetiapine, namely, N-desalkylquetiapine sulfoxide, 7-hydroxy-N-desalkylquetiapine, and an unrecognized metabolite (denoted M3). Inhibition of CYP2D6 (by quinidine) reduced formation of 7-hydroxy-N-desalkylquetiapine by 81%, whereas the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole inhibited formation of N-desalkylquetiapine sulfoxide and M3 by 65 and 34%, respectively. Inhibitors of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 showed only limited changes in metabolite formation. In recombinant systems, 7-hydroxy-N-desalkylquetiapine was exclusively formed by CYP2D6, whereas N-desalkylquetiapine sulfoxide and M3 were formed by both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Overall, intrinsic clearance of N-desalkylquetiapine was 12-fold higher by recombinant CYP2D6 relative to CYP3A4. In conclusion, N-desalkylquetiapine is metabolized by both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in vitro with preference for the former enzyme. The pharmacologically active metabolite, 7-hydroxy-N-desalkylquetiapine, was exclusively formed by CYP2D6, whereas the two other metabolites were mainly formed by CYP3A4.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oral fluid provides a noninvasive method of sample collection. The aim of this study was to obtain oral fluid, plasma, and whole blood from patients prescribed amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or sulpiride and to measure plasma:whole blood and plasma:oral fluid analyte distribution. METHODS: Matched oral fluid, plasma and whole-blood samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: There were 101 sets of samples from 90 (56 male, 34 female) patients (nine prescribed 2 antipsychotics, and one 3). There were ≤ 5 samples for aripiprazole, amisulpride, and sulpiride. There was a good relationship between the plasma and hemolyzed whole-blood concentrations (R > 0.95), with plasma:whole-blood ratios varying between 0.7 (amisulpride) and 1.8 (aripiprazole). Amisulpride plasma and oral fluid concentrations were similar, whereas aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole oral fluid concentrations were approximately 8% of those in the plasma, reflecting the weak and strong plasma protein binding of these compounds, respectively. For the other analytes, plasma concentrations were 2-4 times higher than oral fluid concentrations. In general, there was a poor relationship (R = 0.3-0.7) between the plasma and oral fluid concentrations, possibly due to intrapatient saliva pH variation during sample collection. CONCLUSIONS: This work shows that hemolyzed whole-blood samples can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes for the analytes of interest, provided that the plasma:whole-blood ratio is taken into account when interpreting results. For aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole, measurements in oral fluid will probably not be feasible. However, the relationship between plasma and oral fluid concentration for amisulpride, clozapine (and norclozapine), quetiapine (and possibly quetiapine metabolites), and risperidone/9-hydroxyrisperidone shows potential for oral fluid analysis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia and acute episodes of mania. Quetiapine is metabolized by CYP3A enzymes including CYP3A5 and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, an efflux drug transporter encoded by the ABCB1 gene. We assessed the effects of ABCB1 [c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), c.3435C>T (rs1045642)] and CYP3A5*3 (6986A>G) (rs776746) polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy male individuals were enrolled, and their ABCB1 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms were assessed. After a single dose of 100 mg quetiapine was administered, plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured for 24 h and pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out. RESULTS: The ABCB1 polymorphisms including c.1236C>T, c.2677G>T/A, and c.3435C>>T did not affect plasma levels of quetiapine, and its pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ among ABCB1 genotype groups. However, the CYP3A5*3 polymorphism significantly affected the plasma level of quetiapine and its pharmacokinetics. The peak plasma concentration of quetiapine was 208.39 ng/ml for CYP3A5*1/*1, 243.46 ng/ml for CYP3A5*1/*3, and 332.94 ng/ml for CYP3A5*3/*3 (P=0.0118). The mean AUC(inf) (area under the time vs. concentration curve from 0 to infinity) value was 627.3, 712.77, and 1045.29 ng h/ml, respectively (P=0.0017). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5*3 but not ABCB1 significantly influences the plasma level of quetiapine and its pharmacokinetics. These findings suggest that the CYP3A5 genetic polymorphism affects the disposition of quetiapine and provide a plausible explanation for interindividual variation in the disposition of this drug.
Abstract: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug with a high permeability, moderate solubility and defined as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class ll compound. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the quetiapine immediate-release (IR) formulation has been studied in both adults and children, but the quetiapine extended-release (XR) formulation has only been conducted in adults. The purpose of the current study was to use physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) quantitatively to predict the PK of the XR formulation in children and adolescents. Using a 'learn and confirm' approach, PBPK models were developed employing in vitro ADME and physicochemical data, clinical PK data of quetiapine IR/XR in adults and clinical PK data of quetiapine IR in children. These models can predict well the effects of CYP3A4 inhibition and induction on the PK of quetiapine, the PK profile of quetiapine IR in children and adults, and the PK profile of quetiapine XR in adults. The AUC and Cmax ratios (children vs adults) for the different age groups were in reasonable agreement with the observed ratios. In addition, the PBPK model predicted that children and adolescents are likely to achieve a similar exposure following administration of either the XR formulation once daily or the IR formulation twice daily at similar total daily doses. The results from the study can help inform dosing regimens in pediatrics using the quetiapine XR formulation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of genetic variability in CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 on steady-state serum concentrations of quetiapine and the active metabolite, N-desalkylquetiapine, in psychiatric patients. METHODS: Measured serum concentrations of quetiapine and N-desalkylquetiapine from patients with biobanked DNA samples were included retrospectively from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring database. The impact of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 (345C>T) genotypes on dose-adjusted serum concentrations (C/D ratios) of quetiapine and N-desalkylquetiapine was investigated by multivariate mixed model analysis. RESULTS: In total, 289 patients with 633 serum measurements were included. In the multivariate analysis, mean C/D ratio of N-desalkylquetiapine was estimated to be 33% and 22% higher in inherent CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (P = 0.03) and heterozygous extensive metabolizers (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with inherent extensive metabolizers. The ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism and CYP3A5 genotype had no significant influence on either of the substances in the present material. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variability in CYP2D6 contributes to the interindividual variability in steady-state serum concentrations of N-desalkylquetiapine. Although the metabolite exhibits relevant pharmacological activity, the quantitative effect of CYP2D6 genotype on serum concentration of N-desalkylquetiapine is probably of limited clinical relevance for quetiapine treatment.
Abstract: Quetiapine fumarate is an antipsychotic drug with poor oral bioavailability (9%) due to first-pass metabolism. Present work is an attempt to improve oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by incorporating in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Six quetiapine fumarate SLN formulations were developed using three different lipids by hot homogenisation followed by ultrasonication. The drug excipient compatibility was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Stable quetiapine fumarate SLNs having a mean particle size of 200-250 nm with entrapment efficiency varying in between 80% and 92% were developed. The physical stability of optimized formulation F3 was checked at room temperature for 2 months. Comparative bioavailability studies were conducted in male Wistar rats after oral administration of quetiapine fumarate suspension and SLN formulation. The relative bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate from optimized SLN preparation was increased by 3.71 times when compared with the reference quetiapine fumarate suspension. The obtained results are indicative of SLNs as potential lipid carriers for improving the bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by minimizing first-pass metabolism.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.