Prolongación del tiempo QT
Eventos adversos de medicamentos
|Dolor de cabeza|
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Explicaciones de las sustancias para pacientes.
No existen advertencias adicionales para la combinación de loratadina y triazolam. Consulte también la información especializada pertinente.
Los cambios informados en la exposición corresponden a los cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [ AUC ]. No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a loratadina, cuando se combina con triazolam (100%). No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a triazolam, cuando se combina con loratadina (100%).
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La loratadina tiene una baja biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar fuertemente con una interacción. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es 100 % fuerte. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2D6 y CYP3A4, entre otros y el transporte activo tiene lugar especialmente a través de PGP.
La triazolam tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es relativamente corta a las 2.8 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] se alcanzan rápidamente. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 100 % y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] se encuentra en el rango medio a 38 litros, Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede conducir a una mayor exposición. El metabolismo tiene lugar principalmente a través de CYP3A4.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la loratadina ni la triazolam aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Recomendación: Como precaución, se debe prestar atención a los síntomas anticolinérgicos, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La Loratadina y triazolam solo tienen un efecto leve sobre el sistema anticolinérgico. El riesgo de síndrome anticolinérgico con este medicamento es relativamente bajo si la dosis se encuentra en el rango habitual.
Prolongación del tiempo QT
No conocemos ningún potencial de prolongación del intervalo QT de la loratadina y triazolam.
Efectos adversos generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||lor||tri|
|Dolor de cabeza||20.5 %||12.0||9.7|
|Sintiéndose nervioso||5.2 %||n.a.||5.2|
|Efecto rebote||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
|Insuficiencia hepática||0.0 %||n.a.||0.0|
|Reacción anafiláctica||0.0 %||n.a.||0.0|
Depresion respiratoria: triazolam
Con base en sus respuestas e información científica, evaluamos el riesgo individual de efectos secundarios adversos. Estas recomendaciones están destinadas a asesorar a los profesionales y no sustituyen la consulta con un médico. En la versión de prueba restringida (alfa), el riesgo de todas las sustancias aún no se ha evaluado de manera concluyente.
Abstract: This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Skin biopsies of normal hand skin showed focal parakeratosis and moderately dense dermal infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis and in the superficial dermis and a mononuclear dermal infiltrate consisting of peripheral T lymphocytes with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5-6/1. Biopsies of the immediate vesicular reactions induced by foods showed spongiotic vesicles within the epidermis and a moderate to dense mononuclear dermal perivascular infiltrate. The immunohistochemical features were similar to those described in apparently normal skin. The mechanism of this immediate vesicular reaction requires further research. The rapid appearance of the lesions (after 20-30 min) probably excludes an immunological cell-mediated pathogenesis. A non-immunological mechanism due to direct liberation of mediators by foods is more readily conceivable than an immediate immunological type of contact reaction.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of coadministration of loratadine and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic repolarization (QTc) pharmacodynamics of loratadine and its metabolite descarboethoxyloratadine in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were studied in a prospective, double-blind crossover design while confined in a Clinical Research Center. The primary pharmacodynamic end point of the study was the difference between baseline and day 10 mean QTc intervals obtained from surface electrocardiograms. Plasma concentrations of loratadine, descarboethoxyloratadine, and erythromycin were measured on treatment day 10 for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjects received in random sequence the following three treatments for 10 consecutive days during three separate study periods: 10 mg loratadine every morning plus 500 mg erythromycin stearate every 8 hours, or 10 mg loratadine every morning plus placebo every 8 hours, or placebo every morning plus 500 mg erythromycin stearate. RESULTS: Concomitant administration of loratadine and erythromycin was associated with increased plasma concentrations of loratadine (40% increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]) and descarboethoxyloratadine (46% increase in AUC) compared with loratadine alone. Analysis of variance showed no difference between the treatment groups in effect on QTc intervals compared with baseline, and no significant change from baseline was observed. No clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed, and there were no reports of sedation nor syncope. CONCLUSION: Although concomitant administration of loratadine and erythromycin was associated with increased plasma concentrations of loratadine and descarboethoxyloratadine, no clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed. In this study, 10 mg loratadine administered orally for 10 consecutive days was well tolerated when coadministered with therapeutic doses of erythromycin stearate.
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the relative and absolute bioavailability of triazolam, 0.25 mg, after the administration of the marketed oral tablet and a sublingual prototype wafer; an intravenous dose was used as a reference. Twelve men were evaluated in a three-way crossover study; study days were separated by 1 week. A single dose was administered to each subject at approximately 8 a.m.; serial blood samples were obtained for the determination of triazolam concentration. The fraction absorbed relative to intravenous was 20% higher in the sublingual than in the oral treatment (p = 0.0128); the difference between treatments was greatest in the first 2 hours as indicated by the area under the curve from 0 to 2 hours (p < 0.05). The extraction ratio ranged from 0.05 to 0.25, and the predicted availability after oral administration was 86% with a range of 75 to 95%. In contrast, the observed mean absolute availability was 44% (oral) and 53% (sublingual). A potential explanation for this discrepancy between predicted and observed bioavailability is that after oral administration, a fraction of triazolam may be metabolized by cytochrome P450IIIA4 in the gut wall, with a separate fraction subject to first-pass metabolism in the liver. Although this study was not designed to identify sites of triazolam metabolism, the proposed explanation is consistent with the occurrence of P450IIIA4 in the stomach, small intestine, and liver. Doses administered sublingually avoid first-pass metabolism, producing earlier and higher peak concentrations than do doses administered orally.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Kinetic and dynamic consequences of metabolic inhibition were evaluated in a study of the interaction of ketoconazole, a P4503A inhibitor, with alprazolam and triazolam, two 3A substrate drugs with different kinetic profiles. METHODS: In a double-blind, 5-way crossover study, healthy volunteers received (A) ketoconazole placebo plus 1.0 mg alprazolam orally, (B) 200 mg ketoconazole twice a day plus 1.0 mg alprazolam, (C) ketoconazole placebo plus 0.25 mg triazolam orally, (D) 200 mg ketoconazole twice a day plus 0.25 mg triazolam, and (E) 200 mg ketoconazole twice a day plus benzodiazepine placebo. Plasma concentrations and pharmacodynamic parameters were measured after each dose. RESULTS: For trial B versus trial A, alprazolam clearance was reduced (27 versus 86 mL/min; P < .002) and apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) prolonged (59 versus 15 hours; P < .03), whereas peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was only slightly increased (16.1 versus 14.7 ng/mL). The 8-hour pharmacodynamic effect areas for electroencephalographic (EEG) beta activity were increased by a factor of 1.35, and those for digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) decrement were increased by 2.29 for trial B versus trial A. For trial D versus trial C, triazolam clearance was reduced (40 versus 444 mL/min; P < .002), t1/2 was prolonged (18.3 versus 3.0 hours; P < .01), and Cmax was increased (2.6 versus 5.4 ng/mL; P < .001). The 8-hour effect area for EEG was increased by a factor of 2.51, and that for DSST decrement was increased by 4.33. Observed in vivo clearance decrements due to ketoconazole were consistent with those anticipated on the basis of an in vitro model, together with in vivo plasma concentrations of ketoconazole. CONCLUSION: For triazolam, an intermediate-extraction compound, impaired clearance by ketoconazole has more profound clinical consequences than those for alprazolam, a low extraction compound.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The viral protease inhibitor ritonavir has the capacity to inhibit and induce the activity of cytochrome P450-3A (CYP3A) isoforms, leading to drug interactions that may influence the efficacy and toxicity of other antiretroviral therapies, as well as pharmacologic treatments of coincident or complicating diseases. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of ritonavir on the biotransformation of the hypnotic agents triazolam and zolpidem was tested in vitro using human liver microsomes. In a double-blind clinical study, volunteer study subjects received 0.125 mg triazolam or 5.0 mg zolpidem concurrent with low-dose ritonavir (four doses of 200 mg), or with placebo. RESULTS: Ritonavir was a potent in vitro inhibitor of triazolam hydroxylation but was less potent as an inhibitor of zolpidem hydroxylation. In the clinical study, ritonavir reduced triazolam clearance to < 4% of control values (p < .005), prolonged elimination half-life (41 versus 3 hours; p < .005), and magnified benzodiazepine agonist effects such as sedation and performance impairment. In contrast, ritonavir reduced zolpidem clearance to 78% of control values (p < .08), and slightly prolonged elimination half-life (2.4 versus 2.0 hours; NS). Benzodiazepine agonist effects of zolpidem were not altered by ritonavir. CONCLUSION: Short-term low-dose administration of ritonavir produces a large and significant impairment of triazolam clearance and enhancement of clinical effects. In contrast, ritonavir produced small and clinically unimportant reductions in zolpidem clearance. The findings are consistent with the complete dependence of triazolam clearance on CYP3A activity, compared with the partial dependence of zolpidem clearance on CYP3A.
Abstract: AIMS: To evaluate whether ketoconazole or cimetidine alter the pharmacokinetics of loratadine, or its major metabolite, desloratadine (DCL), or alter the effects of loratadine or DCL on electrocardiographic repolarization in healthy adult volunteers. METHODS: Two randomized, evaluator-blind, multiple-dose, three-way crossover drug interaction studies were performed. In each study, subjects received three 10 day treatments in random sequence, separated by a 14 day washout period. The treatments were loratadine alone, cimetidine or ketoconazole alone, or loratadine plus cimetidine or ketoconazole. The primary study endpoint was the difference in mean QTc intervals from baseline to day 10. In addition, plasma concentrations of loratadine, DCL, and ketoconazole or cimetidine were obtained on day 10. RESULTS: Concomitant administration of loratadine and ketoconazole significantly increased the loratadine plasma concentrations (307%; 90% CI 205-428%) and DCL concentrations (73%; 62-85%) compared with administration of loratadine alone. Concomitant administration of loratadine and cimetidine significantly increased the loratadine plasma concentrations (103% increase; 70-142%) but not DCL concentrations (6% increase; 1-11%) compared with administration of loratadine alone. Cimetidine or ketoconazole plasma concentrations were unaffected by coadministration with loratadine. Despite increased concentrations of loratadine and DCL, there were no statistically significant differences for the primary electrocardiographic repolarization parameter (QTc) among any of the treatment groups. No other clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed as assessed by electrocardiographic parameters (mean (90% CI) QTc changes: loratadine vs loratadine + ketoconazole = 3.6 ms (-2.2, 9.4); loratadine vs loratadine + cimetidine = 3.2 ms (-1.6, 7.9)), clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Loratadine 10 mg daily was devoid of any effects on electrocardiographic parameters when coadministered for 10 days with therapeutic doses of ketoconazole or cimetidine in healthy volunteers. It is concluded that, although there was a significant pharmacokinetic drug interaction between ketoconazole or cimetidine and loratadine, this effect was not accompanied by a change in the QTc interval in healthy adult volunteers.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for the prediction of the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) in man for a heterogeneous series of drugs. The relationship of many computed, and some experimental, structural descriptors with Vd, and the Vd corrected for protein binding (unbound Vd), was investigated. Models were constructed using stepwise regression analysis for all the 70 drugs in the dataset, as well as for acidic drugs and basic drugs separately. The predictive power of the models was assessed using half the chemicals as a test set, and revealed that the models for Vd yielded lower prediction errors than those constructed for the unbound Vd (mean fold error of 2.01 for Vd compared with 2.28 for unbound Vd). Moreover, the separation of the compounds into acids and bases did not reduce the prediction error significantly.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have not demonstrated good correlations between various presumed phenotypic measures of in vivo cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. However, in reality, few have used appropriate and validated in vivo probes that consider the complexities of CYP3A. Accordingly, the disposition of 3 closely related benzodiazepines with extensive and similar CYP3A-mediated metabolism characteristics but different pharmacokinetics was investigated, and correlations between the drugs were examined. METHODS: The single-dose oral clearances of alprazolam, midazolam, and triazolam and the systemic clearances of the latter 2 drugs were separately determined in 21 healthy subjects (10 men) according to a randomized experimental design with a minimum 1-week period between the individual studies. An erythromycin breath test was also performed. RESULTS: After intravenous administration, systemic clearance varied 3-fold compared with a 6-fold range in clearance after an oral dose for all 3 drugs. However, mean values differed markedly between the drugs, with the systemic clearance of midazolam being almost double that of triazolam (383 +/- 73 mL/min versus 222 +/- 54 mL/min). Oral clearances were even more dissimilar: alprazolam, 75 +/- 36 mL/min; triazolam, 360 +/- 195 mL/min; and midazolam, 533 +/- 759 mL/min. Estimates of CYP3A-mediated extraction by the intestine and liver indicated approximately equal contributions by both organs but larger values for midazolam than for triazolam, and these differences accounted for the differences in oral bioavailability, 30% +/- 13% versus 55% +/- 20%, respectively. Statistically significant ( P = .001 to .004) correlations between the 3 drugs' oral clearances ranged from 0.60 to 0.68 ( r s value), whereas the correlation for the systemic clearances of midazolam and triazolam was 0.66 ( P = .001). No statistically significant relationships were observed between any of the clearance parameters and the erythromycin breath test. CONCLUSION: Despite alprazolam, midazolam, and triazolam having markedly different pharmacokinetic characteristics, statistically significant correlations were present between the oral and systemic clearances of the 3 drugs, consistent with a major involvement of CYP3A in their metabolism and elimination. However, the magnitude of the coefficients of determination ( r s ) was such to suggest that an in vivo probe approach, even with the use of valid phenotypic trait values, will be unable to accurately and reliably predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of another CYP3A substrate, as determined by the enzyme's constitutive activity.
Abstract: Loratadine is known to be a substrate for both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 based on a previous in vitro study. In view of the large interindividual variability in loratadine pharmacokinetics and the greater genetically determined variability of CYP2D6 activity than of CYP3A4 in vivo, we hypothesized that CYP2D6 polymorphisms may contribute to the pharmacokinetic variability of loratadine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6 genotype (specifically the CYP2D6*10 allele) on the pharmacokinetics of loratadine in Chinese subjects. Three groups of healthy male Chinese subjects were enrolled: group I, homozygous CYP2D6*1 (*1/*1, n=4); group II, heterozygous CYP2D6*10 (*1/*10 or *2/*10, n=6); and group III, homozygous CYP2D6*10 (*10/*10, n=7) carriers. Each subject received a single oral dose of 20 mg of loratadine under fasting conditions. Multiple blood samples were collected over 48 h, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and its metabolite desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In comparing homozygous CYP2D6*10 (group III) to heterozygous CYP2D6*10 (group II) to homozygous CYP2D6*1 (group I) subjects, loratadine oral clearance values were 7.17+/- 2.54 versus 11.06+/-1.70 versus 14.59+/-2.43 l/h/kg, respectively [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.01], and the corresponding metabolic ratios [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)(desloratadine)/AUC(loratadine)] were 1.55+/-0.73 versus 2.47+/- 0.46 versus 3.32+/- 0.49, respectively (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05), indicating a gene-dose effect. The results demonstrated that CYP2D6 polymorphism prevalent in the Chinese population significantly affected loratadine pharmacokinetics.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine urinary excretion profiles of two major triazolam metabolites, alpha-hydroxytriazolam (alpha-OHTRZ) and 4-hydroxytriazolam (4-OHTRZ) in humans. Urine samples were collected from three healthy male volunteers who had been previously administered single 0.25- and 0.5-mg doses of triazolam 24 h and 48 h, respectively, before sample collection. After enzymatic hydrolysis and extraction, each sample was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. alpha-OHTRZ was rapidly excreted, with the maximum concentrations appearing in the first or second sample collected after ingestion, with the majority of the drug being excreted within 12 h. Meanwhile, 4-OHTRZ was excreted more slowly than alpha-OHTRZ. The alpha-OHTRZ/4-OHTRZ ratios were initially greater than 19.7, then decreased rapidly, reaching a nearly constant value for times in excess of 12 h.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: The present study demonstrated that in addition to CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, the metabolism of loratadine is also catalyzed by CYP1A1, CYP2C19, and to a lesser extent by CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5. The biotransformation of loratadine was associated with the formation of desloratadine (DL) and further hydroxylation of both DL and the parent drug (loratadine). Based on the inhibition and correlation studies contribution of CYP2C19 in the formation of the major circulating metabolite DL seems to be minor. Reported clinical results suggest that the steady state mean (%CV) plasma Cmax and AUC(24hr) of loratadine were 4.73 ng/ml (119%) and 24.1 ng.hr/ml (157%), respectively, after dosing with 10 mg loratadine tablets for 10 days. High inter-subject variability in loratadine steady-state data is probably due to the phenotypical characteristics of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. The relative abundance of CYP3A4 in the human liver exceeds that of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 and therefore the contribution of CYP3A4 in the metabolism of loratadine should be major (approximately 70%).
Abstract: This study aimed to demonstrate the added value of integrating prior in vitro data and knowledge-rich physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models with pharmacodynamics (PDs) models. Four distinct applications that were developed and tested are presented here. PBPK models were developed for metoprolol using different CYP2D6 genotypes based on in vitro data. Application of the models for prediction of phenotypic differences in the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and PD compared favorably with clinical data, demonstrating that these differences can be predicted prior to the availability of such data from clinical trials. In the second case, PK and PD data for an immediate release formulation of nifedipine together with in vitro dissolution data for a controlled release (CR) formulation were used to predict the PK and PD of the CR. This approach can be useful to pharmaceutical scientists during formulation development. The operational model of agonism was used in the third application to describe the hypnotic effects of triazolam, and this was successfully extrapolated to zolpidem by changing only the drug related parameters from in vitro experiments. This PBPK modeling approach can be useful to developmental scientists who which to compare several drug candidates in the same therapeutic class. Finally, differences in QTc prolongation due to quinidine in Caucasian and Korean females were successfully predicted by the model using free heart concentrations as an input to the PD models. This PBPK linked PD model was used to demonstrate a higher sensitivity to free heart concentrations of quinidine in Caucasian females, thereby providing a mechanistic understanding of a clinical observation. In general, permutations of certain conditions which potentially change PK and hence PD may not be amenable to the conduct of clinical studies but linking PBPK with PD provides an alternative method of investigating the potential impact of PK changes on PD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.