Prolongación del tiempo QT
Eventos adversos de medicamentos
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Explicaciones de las sustancias para pacientes.
No existen advertencias adicionales para la combinación de lorazepam y metformina. Consulte también la información especializada pertinente.
Los cambios informados en la exposición corresponden a los cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [ AUC ]. No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a lorazepam, cuando se combina con metformina (100%). No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a metformina, cuando se combina con lorazepam (100%).
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La lorazepam tiene una alta biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar poco durante una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 14.3 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 57.2 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 100 % y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 111 litros. El metabolismo no tiene lugar a través de los citocromos comunes y el transporte activo tiene lugar especialmente a través de UGT2B7.
La metformina tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 12.5 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 50 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es muy débil al 100 % y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 654 litros. Dado que la sustancia tiene una tasa de extracción hepática baja de 0,9, el desplazamiento de la unión a proteínas [Pb] en el contexto de una interacción puede conducir a una mayor exposición. El metabolismo no tiene lugar a través de los citocromos comunes.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, ni la lorazepam ni la metformina aumentan la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Clasificación: Los efectos anticolinérgicos de la lorazepam y la metformina no son relevantes.
Prolongación del tiempo QT
No conocemos ningún potencial de prolongación del intervalo QT de la lorazepam y metformina.
Efectos adversos generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||lor||met|
|Dolor de cabeza||6.0 %||n.a.||6.0|
Efecto hangover: lorazepam
Efecto rebote: lorazepam
Trastorno del gusto: metformina
Depresion respiratoria: lorazepam
Acidosis láctica: metformina
Con base en sus respuestas e información científica, evaluamos el riesgo individual de efectos secundarios adversos. Estas recomendaciones están destinadas a asesorar a los profesionales y no sustituyen la consulta con un médico. En la versión de prueba restringida (alfa), el riesgo de todas las sustancias aún no se ha evaluado de manera concluyente.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: To determine whether cimetidine altered the renal handling of metformin, seven subjects took 0.25 g metformin daily with and without cimetidine 0.4 g twice daily. Blood and urine samples were collected and assayed for metformin, cimetidine and creatinine by h.p.l.c. Cimetidine significantly increased the area under the plasma metformin concentration-time curve by an average of 50% and reduced its renal clearance over 24 h by 27% (P less than 0.008). There was no alteration in the total urinary recovery of metformin when cimetidine was co-administered. The effect of cimetidine on the renal clearance of metformin was time dependent, being significantly reduced up to 6 h following cimetidine. These results appeared to be consistent with competitive inhibition of renal tubular secretion. Cimetidine had no effect on the renal clearance of creatinine, but time-dependent variations in both metformin and creatinine renal clearance were observed. Metformin had no effect on cimetidine disposition. It is concluded that cimetidine inhibits the renal tubular secretion of metformin in man, resulting in higher circulating plasma concentrations. Because of its propensity for causing dose and concentration-dependent adverse effects, the dose of metformin should be reduced when cimetidine is co-prescribed.
Abstract: Eleven subjects received acetaminophen (650 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence, with and without concurrent administration of probenecid (500 mg) every 6 hr. Nine subjects similarly received lorazepam (2 mg. i.v.) with and without concurrent probenecid. Acetaminophen half-life was prolonged during probenecid treatment (mean +/- S.E., 4.30 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.16 hr; P less than .001) due to markedly decreased clearance (178 +/- 13 vs. 329 +/- 24 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (65 +/- 4 vs. 69 +/- 3 l; NS). Urinary excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide during 24 hr was decreased (84 +/- 9 vs. 260 +/- 21 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide; P less than .001) and acetaminophen sulfate excretion was increased (323 +/- 25 vs. 217 +/- 17 mg of acetaminophen as sulfate; P less than .005) during concurrent probenecid treatment. However, the sum of the two conjugated metabolites was not significantly different (407 +/- 28 vs. 476 +/- 20 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide plus sulfate excreted per 24 hr; NS). Lorazepam half-life was also prolonged during probenecid treatment (33.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 14.3 +/- 1.08 hr; P less than .001) due to decreased clearance (44.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 80.3 +/- 13.2 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (111 +/- 5 vs. 111 +/- 7 l; NS). Formation of the ether glucuronides of acetaminophen and lorazepam is impaired markedly by therapeutic doses of probenecid. Sulfate conjugation is not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The biguanide metformin (dimethylbiguanide) is an oral antihyperglycaemic agent used in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It reduces blood glucose levels, predominantly by improving hepatic and peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin without affecting the secretion of this hormone. Metformin also appears to have potentially beneficial effects on serum lipid levels and fibrinolytic activity, although the long term clinical implications of these effects are unclear. Metformin possesses similar antihyperglycaemic efficacy to sulphonylureas in obese and nonobese patients with NIDDM. Additionally, interim data from the large multicentre United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) indicated similar antihyperglycaemic efficacy for metformin and insulin in newly diagnosed patients with NIDDM. Unlike the sulphonylureas and insulin, however, metformin treatment is not associated with increased bodyweight. Addition of metformin to existing antidiabetic therapy confers enhanced antihyperglycaemic efficacy. This may be of particular use in improving glycaemic control in patients with NIDDM not adequately controlled with sulphonylurea monotherapy, and may serve to reduce or eliminate the need for daily insulin injections in patients with NIDDM who require this therapy. The acute, reversible gastrointestinal adverse effects seen with metformin may be minimised by administration with or after food, and by using lower dosages, increased slowly where necessary. Lactic acidosis due to metformin is rare, and the risk of this complication may be minimised by observance of prescribing precautions and contraindications intended to avoid accumulation of the drug or lactate in the body. Unlike the sulphonylureas, metformin does not cause hypoglycaemia. Thus, metformin is an effective antihyperglycaemic agent which appears to improve aberrant plasma lipid and fibrinolytic profiles associated with NIDDM. Possible long term clinical benefits of this drug with regard to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are not yet established but are being assessed in a major ongoing study. Since metformin does not promote weight gain or hypoglycaemia it should be considered first-line pharmacotherapy in obese patients with NIDDM inadequately controlled by nonpharmacological measures. Metformin appears similarly effective for the pharmacological management of NIDDM in nonobese patients.
Abstract: The biguanide metformin (dimethylbiguanide) is an oral antihyperglycaemic agent widely used in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Considerable renewal of interest in this drug has been observed in recent years. Metformin can be determined in biological fluids by various methods, mainly using high performance liquid chromatography, which allows pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers and diabetic patients. Metformin disposition is apparently unaffected by the presence of diabetes and only slightly affected by the use of different oral formulations. Metformin has an absolute oral bioavailability of 40 to 60%, and gastrointestinal absorption is apparently complete within 6 hours of ingestion. An inverse relationship was observed between the dose ingested and the relative absorption with therapeutic doses ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 g, suggesting the involvement of an active, saturable absorption process. Metformin is rapidly distributed following absorption and does not bind to plasma proteins. No metabolites or conjugates of metformin have been identified. The absence of liver metabolism clearly differentiates the pharmacokinetics of metformin from that of other biguanides, such as phenformin. Metformin undergoes renal excretion and has a mean plasma elimination half-life after oral administration of between 4.0 and 8.7 hours. This elimination is prolonged in patients with renal impairment and correlates with creatinine clearance. There are only scarce data on the relationship between plasma metformin concentrations and metabolic effects. Therapeutic levels may be 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L in the fasting state and 1 to 2 mg/L after a meal, but monitoring has little clinical value except when lactic acidosis is suspected or present. Indeed, when lactic acidosis occurs in metformin-treated patients, early determination of the metformin plasma concentration appears to be the best criterion for assessing the involvement of the drug in this acute condition. After confirmation of the diagnosis, treatment should rapidly involve forced diuresis or haemodialysis, both of which favour rapid elimination of the drug. Although serious, lactic acidosis due to metformin is rare and may be minimised by strict adherence to prescribing guidelines and contraindications, particularly the presence of renal failure. Finally, only very few drug interactions have been described with metformin in healthy volunteers. Plasma levels may be reduced by guar gum and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and increased by cimetidine, but no data are yet available in the diabetic population.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics and dynamics of lorazepam during administration as a bolus plus an infusion, using electroencephalography as a pharmacodynamic end point. METHODS: Nine volunteers received a 2-mg bolus loading dose of lorazepam, coincident with the start of a 2 microg/kg/hr zero-order infusion. The infusion was stopped after 4 hrs. Plasma lorazepam concentrations and electroencephalographic activity in the 13- to 30-Hz range were monitored for 24 hrs. RESULTS: The bolus-plus-infusion scheme rapidly produced plasma lorazepam concentrations that were close to those predicted to be achieved at true steady state. Mean kinetic values for lorazepam were as follows: volume of distribution, 126 L; elimination half-life, 13.8 hrs; and clearance, 109 mL/min. Electroencephalographic effects were maximal 0.5 hr after the loading dose, were maintained essentially constant during infusion, and then declined in parallel with plasma concentrations after the infusion was terminated. There was no evidence of tolerance. Plots of pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect vs. plasma lorazepam concentration demonstrated counterclockwise hysteresis, consistent with an effect-site equilibration delay. This was incorporated into a kinetic-dynamic model in which hypothetical effect-site concentration was related to pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect via the sigmoid Emax model. The analysis yielded the following mean estimates: maximum electroencephalographic effect, 12.7% over baseline; 50% effective concentration, 13.1 ng/mL; and effect-site equilibration half-life, 8.8 mins. CONCLUSION: Despite the delay in effect onset, continuous infusion of lorazepam, preceded by a bolus loading dose, produces a relatively constant sedative effect on the central nervous system, which can be utilized in the context of critical care medicine.
Abstract: Metformin, a biguanide, has been available in the US for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus for nearly 8 years. Over this period of time, it has become the most widely prescribed antihyperglycaemic agent. Its mechanism of action involves the suppression of endogenous glucose production, primarily by the liver. Whether the drug actually has an insulin sensitising effect in peripheral tissues, such as muscle and fat, remains somewhat controversial. Nonetheless, because insulin levels decline with metformin use, it has been termed an 'insulin sensitiser'. Metformin has also been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and it is the only oral antihyperglycaemic agent thus far associated with decreased macrovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. Cardiovascular disease, impaired glucose tolerance and the polycystic ovary syndrome are now recognised as complications of the insulin resistance syndrome, and there is growing interest in the management of this extraordinarily common metabolic disorder. While diet and exercise remain the cornerstone of therapy for insulin resistance, pharmacological intervention is becoming an increasingly viable option. We review the role of metformin in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and describe the additional benefits it provides over and above its effect on glucose levels alone. We also discuss its potential role for a variety of insulin resistant and prediabetic states, including impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome and the metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV disease.
Abstract: The present study investigates the kinetic disposition with focus on the racemization, glucuronidation capacity and the transplacental transfer of lorazepam in term parturients during labor. The study was conducted on 10 healthy parturients aged 18-37 years with a gestational age of 36-40.1 weeks, treated with a single oral dose of 2 mg racemic lorazepam 2-9 h before delivery. Maternal venous blood and urine samples were obtained over a 0-48 h interval and the umbilical cord sample was obtained immediately after clamping. Lorazepam enantiomers were determined in plasma and urine samples by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-R column. In vitro racemization of lorazepam required the calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters as isomeric mixtures. The data were fitted to two-compartment model and the pharmacokinetic parameters are reported as means (95% CI): t(1/2a) 3.2h (2.6-3.7 h), K(a) 0.23 h(-1) (0.19-0.28 h(-1)), t(1/2) 10.4h (9.4-11.3h), beta 0.068 h(-1) (0.061-0.075h(-1)), AUC(0-infinity) 175.3(ngh)/ml (145.7-204.8(ngh)/ml), Cl/F 2.6 ml/(minkg) (2.3-2.9 ml/(minkg)), Vd/F178.8l (146.5-211.1l), Fel 0.3% (0.1-0.5%), and Cl(R) 0.010 ml/(minkg) (0.005-0.015 ml/(minkg)). Placental transfer of lorazepam evaluated as the ratio of vein umbilical/maternal vein plasma concentrations, obtained as an isomeric mixture, was 0.73 (0.52-0.94). Pregnancy changes the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam, with an increase in the apparent distribution volume, an increase in apparent oral clearance, and a reduction of elimination half-life. The increase in oral clearance may indicate an increase in glucuronidation capacity, with a possible reduction in the plasma concentrations of drugs depending on glucuronidation capacity as the major metabolic pathway.
Abstract: Cases of catatonia in patients with renal failure have been rarely reported. In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. Case 1 involved a patient with end-stage renal disease and severe pneumonia related respiratory failure. He responded well to intramuscular lorazepam (total dose, 4 mg) whereby the catatonia was elieved. Case 2 involved a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and rhabdomyolysis-related acute renal failure. He showed great improvement with intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) whereby the catatonia was subsequently relieved. This report demonstrates that intramuscular lorazepam is safe, effective and rapid in relieving catatonia associated with renal function impairment. Neither of the patients had a recurrence of catatonia during a period of 6- months follow-up. In conclusion, intramuscular lorazepam may play an important role in the treatment of catatonia associated with renal insufficiency.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vandetanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and rearranged during transfection (RET) signalling, indicated for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. We investigated potential drug-drug interactions between vandetanib and metformin [organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) substrate; NCT01551615]; digoxin [P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; NCT01561781]; midazolam [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrate; NCT01544140]; omeprazole (proton pump inhibitor) or ranitidine (histamine H2-receptor antagonist; both NCT01539655). METHODS: Four open-label, phase I studies were conducted in healthy volunteers: n = 14 (metformin), n = 14 (digoxin), n = 17 (midazolam), n = 16 (omeprazole), n = 18 (ranitidine). Three of these comprised the following regimens: metformin 1000 mg ± vandetanib 800 mg, midazolam 7.5 mg ± vandetanib 800 mg, or digoxin 0.25 mg ± vandetanib 300 mg. The randomized study comprised vandetanib 300 mg alone and then either (i) omeprazole 40 mg (days 1-4), and omeprazole + vandetanib (day 5); or (ii) ranitidine 150 mg (day 1), and ranitidine + vandetanib (day 2). The primary objective assessed metformin, digoxin, midazolam and vandetanib pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Vandetanib + metformin increased metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) by 74 and 50 %, respectively, and decreased the geometric mean metformin renal clearance (CLR) by 52 % versus metformin alone. Vandetanib + digoxin increased digoxin area under the concentration-time curve from zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-last) and Cmax by 23 and 29 %, respectively, versus digoxin alone, with only a 9 % decrease in CLR. Vandetanib had no effect on midazolam exposure. Vandetanib exposure was unchanged during co-administration with omeprazole/ranitidine. Treatment combinations were generally well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Patients receiving vandetanib with metformin/digoxin may require additional monitoring of metformin/digoxin, with dose adjustments where necessary. Vandetanib with CYP3A4 substrates or omeprazole/ranitidine is unlikely to result in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions.
Abstract: IMPORTANCE: Metformin is widely viewed as the best initial pharmacological option to lower glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the drug is contraindicated in many individuals with impaired kidney function because of concerns of lactic acidosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of lactic acidosis associated with metformin use in individuals with impaired kidney function. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In July 2014, we searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for English-language articles pertaining to metformin, kidney disease, and lactic acidosis in humans between 1950 and June 2014. We excluded reviews, letters, editorials, case reports, small case series, and manuscripts that did not directly pertain to the topic area or that met other exclusion criteria. Of an original 818 articles, 65 were included in this review, including pharmacokinetic/metabolic studies, large case series, retrospective studies, meta-analyses, and a clinical trial. RESULTS: Although metformin is renally cleared, drug levels generally remain within the therapeutic range and lactate concentrations are not substantially increased when used in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rates, 30-60 mL/min per 1.73 m2). The overall incidence of lactic acidosis in metformin users varies across studies from approximately 3 per 100,000 person-years to 10 per 100,000 person-years and is generally indistinguishable from the background rate in the overall population with diabetes. Data suggesting an increased risk of lactic acidosis in metformin-treated patients with chronic kidney disease are limited, and no randomized controlled trials have been conducted to test the safety of metformin in patients with significantly impaired kidney function. Population-based studies demonstrate that metformin may be prescribed counter to prevailing guidelines suggesting a renal risk in up to 1 in 4 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus--use which, in most reports, has not been associated with increased rates of lactic acidosis. Observational studies suggest a potential benefit from metformin on macrovascular outcomes, even in patients with prevalent renal contraindications for its use. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Available evidence supports cautious expansion of metformin use in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease, as defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate, with appropriate dosage reductions and careful follow-up of kidney function.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract: This article summarizes 4 phase 1 trials that explored interactions between the novel, triazole antifungal isavuconazole and substrates of the drug transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug and toxin extrusion protein-1 (MATE1), organic anion transporters 1/3 (OAT1/OAT3), organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), organic cation transporters 1/2 (OCT1/OCT2), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Healthy subjects received single doses of atorvastatin (20 mg; OATP1B1 and P-gp substrate), digoxin (0.5 mg; P-gp substrate), metformin (850 mg; OCT1, OCT2, and MATE1 substrate), or methotrexate (7.5 mg; BCRP, OAT1, and OAT3 substrate) in the presence and absence of clinical doses of isavuconazole (200 mg 3 times a day for 2 days; 200 mg once daily thereafter). Coadministration with isavuconazole increased mean area under the plasma concentration-time curves (90% confidence interval) of atorvastatin, digoxin, and metformin to 137% (129, 145), 125% (117, 134), and 152% (138, 168) and increased mean maximum plasma concentrations to 103% (88, 121), 133% (119, 149), and 123% (109, 140), respectively. Methotrexate parameters were unaffected by isavuconazole. There were no serious adverse events. These findings indicate that isavuconazole is a weak inhibitor of P-gp, as well as OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, or a combination thereof but not of BCRP, OATP1B1, OAT1, or OAT3.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to define a safe, effective dose regimen for metformin in moderate and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD; stages 3A/3B and 4, respectively), after the lifting of restrictions on metformin use in patients with diabetes with moderate-to-severe CKD in the absence of prospective safety and efficacy studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Three complementary studies were performed:,) a dose-finding study in CKD stages 1-5, in which blood metformin concentrations were evaluated during a 1-week period after each dose increase;,) a 4-month metformin treatment study for validating the optimal metformin dose as a function of the CKD stage (3A, 3B, and 4), with blood metformin, lactate, and HbA,concentrations monitored monthly; and,) an assessment of pharmacokinetic parameters after the administration of a single dose of metformin in steady-state CKD stages 3A, 3B, and 4. RESULTS: First, in the dose-finding study, the appropriate daily dosing schedules were 1,500 mg (0.5 g in the morning [qam] +1 g in the evening [qpm]) in CKD stage 3A, 1,000 mg (0.5 g qam + 0.5 g qpm) in CKD stage 3B, and 500 mg (qam) in CKD stage 4. Second, after 4 months on these regimens, patients displayed stable metformin concentrations that never exceeded the generally accepted safe upper limit of 5.0 mg/L. Hyperlactatemia (>5 mmol/L) was absent (except in a patient with myocardial infarction), and HbA,levels did not change. Third, there were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters among the CKD stage groups. CONCLUSIONS: Provided that the dose is adjusted for renal function, metformin treatment appears to be safe and still pharmacologically efficacious in moderate-to-severe CKD.
Abstract: Metformin, together with lifestyle intervention, is considered first-line treatment for glycemic management in people with type 2 diabetes. Despite this widespread use, one of the areas of longstanding debate has been whether metformin can be used safely in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The concern is the possibility of an increased risk for lactic acidosis resulting from metformin accumulation in those with renal impairment. Options in this patient population are limited, and many believe this risk has been overstated, so several organizations around the world have made recommendations to allow for the cautious use of metformin in patients with CKD. Lalau and colleagues have added new evidence with the publication of 3 complementary studies of the use of metformin in people with CKD stages 3A, 3B or 4-a dose-finding study, a chronic metformin treatment study and a pharmacokinetic study. The authors tested adjusted dosage regimens based on level of CKD. The study demonstrates that although there is a relationship between eGFR and metformin levels, there is not a relationship between metformin levels and plasma lactate. In addition, as long as the metformin dosage was adjusted to the level of CKD, pharmacokinetics remained stable. Based on this new evidence, together with past epidemiologic data and systematic reviews, metformin appears to be a safe option for patients with CKD, assuming that the dosage is adjusted individually. Stopping the drug during acute illness is also imperative to ensure its safe use.