Prolongación del tiempo QT
Eventos adversos de medicamentos
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Explicaciones de las sustancias para pacientes.
Se recomienda la monitorización de trimipramina y lorazepam.
Mayor efecto de amortiguación centralMecanismo: Ambas sustancias tienen un efecto depresor del SNC. No hay evidencia de interacciones farmacocinéticas relevantes.
Efecto: Tanto la trimipramina como las benzodiazepinas tienen un efecto sedante, en combinación pueden aumentar el efecto con un mayor riesgo de depresión respiratoria (especialmente en dosis altas). Los antidepresivos tricíclicos también se han relacionado con la reducción del umbral de convulsiones. Esto es especialmente importante en pacientes que usan benzodiazepinas para tratar la epilepsia.
Medidas: Preste atención al aumento de los síntomas depresores centrales, si es necesario reducción de la dosis.
Los cambios informados en la exposición corresponden a los cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [ AUC ]. No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a trimipramina, cuando se combina con lorazepam (100%). No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a lorazepam, cuando se combina con trimipramina (100%).
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La trimipramina tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 23.5 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 94 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 100 %. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP2C19, CYP2C9 y CYP2D6, entre otros y el transporte activo tiene lugar especialmente a través de PGP.
La lorazepam tiene una alta biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar poco durante una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 14.3 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 57.2 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 100 % y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 111 litros. El metabolismo no tiene lugar a través de los citocromos comunes y el transporte activo tiene lugar especialmente a través de UGT2B7.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||2||++||Ø|
Recomendación: Como medida de precaución, se deben tener en cuenta los síntomas de sobreestimulación serotoninérgica, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La trimipramina modula el sistema serotoninérgico en un grado moderado. El riesgo de síndrome serotoninérgico se puede clasificar como bajo con este medicamento si la dosis se encuentra en el rango habitual. Según nuestro conocimiento, la lorazepam no aumenta la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||+++||Ø|
Recomendación: Como precaución, se debe prestar atención a los síntomas anticolinérgicos, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La trimipramina aumenta en gran medida la actividad anticolinérgica. El efecto anticolinérgico de la lorazepam no es relevante.
Prolongación del tiempo QT
La trimipramina puede aumentar potencialmente el tiempo QT, pero no tenemos conocimiento de arritmias del tipo torsades de pointes. No conocemos ningún potencial de prolongación del intervalo QT de la lorazepam.
Efectos adversos generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||tri||lor|
|Efecto hangover||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
|Efecto rebote||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
Infarto de miocardio: trimipramina
Muerte cardíaca súbita: trimipramina
Aumento de peso: trimipramina
Visión borrosa: trimipramina
Depresión: lorazepam, trimipramina
Depresion respiratoria: lorazepam
Hepatitis colestásica: trimipramina
Con base en sus respuestas e información científica, evaluamos el riesgo individual de efectos secundarios adversos. Estas recomendaciones están destinadas a asesorar a los profesionales y no sustituyen la consulta con un médico. En la versión de prueba restringida (alfa), el riesgo de todas las sustancias aún no se ha evaluado de manera concluyente.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: Eleven subjects received acetaminophen (650 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence, with and without concurrent administration of probenecid (500 mg) every 6 hr. Nine subjects similarly received lorazepam (2 mg. i.v.) with and without concurrent probenecid. Acetaminophen half-life was prolonged during probenecid treatment (mean +/- S.E., 4.30 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.16 hr; P less than .001) due to markedly decreased clearance (178 +/- 13 vs. 329 +/- 24 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (65 +/- 4 vs. 69 +/- 3 l; NS). Urinary excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide during 24 hr was decreased (84 +/- 9 vs. 260 +/- 21 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide; P less than .001) and acetaminophen sulfate excretion was increased (323 +/- 25 vs. 217 +/- 17 mg of acetaminophen as sulfate; P less than .005) during concurrent probenecid treatment. However, the sum of the two conjugated metabolites was not significantly different (407 +/- 28 vs. 476 +/- 20 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide plus sulfate excreted per 24 hr; NS). Lorazepam half-life was also prolonged during probenecid treatment (33.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 14.3 +/- 1.08 hr; P less than .001) due to decreased clearance (44.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 80.3 +/- 13.2 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (111 +/- 5 vs. 111 +/- 7 l; NS). Formation of the ether glucuronides of acetaminophen and lorazepam is impaired markedly by therapeutic doses of probenecid. Sulfate conjugation is not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics and dynamics of lorazepam during administration as a bolus plus an infusion, using electroencephalography as a pharmacodynamic end point. METHODS: Nine volunteers received a 2-mg bolus loading dose of lorazepam, coincident with the start of a 2 microg/kg/hr zero-order infusion. The infusion was stopped after 4 hrs. Plasma lorazepam concentrations and electroencephalographic activity in the 13- to 30-Hz range were monitored for 24 hrs. RESULTS: The bolus-plus-infusion scheme rapidly produced plasma lorazepam concentrations that were close to those predicted to be achieved at true steady state. Mean kinetic values for lorazepam were as follows: volume of distribution, 126 L; elimination half-life, 13.8 hrs; and clearance, 109 mL/min. Electroencephalographic effects were maximal 0.5 hr after the loading dose, were maintained essentially constant during infusion, and then declined in parallel with plasma concentrations after the infusion was terminated. There was no evidence of tolerance. Plots of pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect vs. plasma lorazepam concentration demonstrated counterclockwise hysteresis, consistent with an effect-site equilibration delay. This was incorporated into a kinetic-dynamic model in which hypothetical effect-site concentration was related to pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect via the sigmoid Emax model. The analysis yielded the following mean estimates: maximum electroencephalographic effect, 12.7% over baseline; 50% effective concentration, 13.1 ng/mL; and effect-site equilibration half-life, 8.8 mins. CONCLUSION: Despite the delay in effect onset, continuous infusion of lorazepam, preceded by a bolus loading dose, produces a relatively constant sedative effect on the central nervous system, which can be utilized in the context of critical care medicine.
Abstract: Little is known about the impact of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on the metabolism of trimipramine, which is still widely used as antidepressant due to its positive effect on sleep patterns. A single oral dose of 75 mg trimipramine was given to 42 healthy volunteers selected according to their CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 genotypes. The reference group included 8 subjects with homozygous active wild-type genotypes of all 3 enzymes (EM). This group was compared with 7 intermediate (IM) with 1 and 7 poor metabolizers (PM) with zero active alleles of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, respectively, and with 4 subjects with the genotype CYP2C9*3/*3. Pharmacokinetics of trimipramine and its demethylated metabolite strongly depended on the CYP2D6 genotype. Median oral clearance of trimipramine was 276 L/h (range 180-444) in the reference group but only 36 L/h (range 24-48) in CYP2D6 PMs (P < 0.001). These differences could only be explained by an effect of CYP genotypes on both parameters, systemic clearance and bioavailability, the latter being at least 3-fold higher in CYP2D6 PMs than in the reference group. The desmethyltrimipramine area under the concentration-time curve was 40-fold greater in CYP2D6 PMs than in the reference group (1.7 vs. 0.04 mg/L x h in EMs), but below the quantification limit in most carriers of deficiencies of CYP2C19 or CYP2C9. This indicates that both CYP2C enzymes contribute to the demethylation of desmethyltrimipramine and CYP2D6 to further metabolism.
Abstract: The present study investigates the kinetic disposition with focus on the racemization, glucuronidation capacity and the transplacental transfer of lorazepam in term parturients during labor. The study was conducted on 10 healthy parturients aged 18-37 years with a gestational age of 36-40.1 weeks, treated with a single oral dose of 2 mg racemic lorazepam 2-9 h before delivery. Maternal venous blood and urine samples were obtained over a 0-48 h interval and the umbilical cord sample was obtained immediately after clamping. Lorazepam enantiomers were determined in plasma and urine samples by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-R column. In vitro racemization of lorazepam required the calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters as isomeric mixtures. The data were fitted to two-compartment model and the pharmacokinetic parameters are reported as means (95% CI): t(1/2a) 3.2h (2.6-3.7 h), K(a) 0.23 h(-1) (0.19-0.28 h(-1)), t(1/2) 10.4h (9.4-11.3h), beta 0.068 h(-1) (0.061-0.075h(-1)), AUC(0-infinity) 175.3(ngh)/ml (145.7-204.8(ngh)/ml), Cl/F 2.6 ml/(minkg) (2.3-2.9 ml/(minkg)), Vd/F178.8l (146.5-211.1l), Fel 0.3% (0.1-0.5%), and Cl(R) 0.010 ml/(minkg) (0.005-0.015 ml/(minkg)). Placental transfer of lorazepam evaluated as the ratio of vein umbilical/maternal vein plasma concentrations, obtained as an isomeric mixture, was 0.73 (0.52-0.94). Pregnancy changes the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam, with an increase in the apparent distribution volume, an increase in apparent oral clearance, and a reduction of elimination half-life. The increase in oral clearance may indicate an increase in glucuronidation capacity, with a possible reduction in the plasma concentrations of drugs depending on glucuronidation capacity as the major metabolic pathway.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential of anticholinergic drugs as a cause of non-degenerative mild cognitive impairment in elderly people. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: 63 randomly selected general practices in the Montpellier region of southern France. PARTICIPANTS: 372 people aged > 60 years without dementia at recruitment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anticholinergic burden from drug use, cognitive examination, and neurological assessment. RESULTS: 9.2% of subjects continuously used anticholinergic drugs during the year before cognitive assessment. Compared with non-users, they had poorer performance on reaction time, attention, delayed non-verbal memory, narrative recall, visuospatial construction, and language tasks but not on tasks of reasoning, immediate and delayed recall of wordlists, and implicit memory. Eighty per cent of the continuous users were classified as having mild cognitive impairment compared with 35% of non-users, and anticholinergic drug use was a strong predictor of mild cognitive impairment (odds ratio 5.12, P = 0.001). No difference was found between users and non-users in risk of developing dementia at follow-up after eight years. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people taking anticholinergic drugs had significant deficits in cognitive functioning and were highly likely to be classified as mildly cognitively impaired, although not at increased risk for dementia. Doctors should assess current use of anticholinergic drugs in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment before considering administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: Cases of catatonia in patients with renal failure have been rarely reported. In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. Case 1 involved a patient with end-stage renal disease and severe pneumonia related respiratory failure. He responded well to intramuscular lorazepam (total dose, 4 mg) whereby the catatonia was elieved. Case 2 involved a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and rhabdomyolysis-related acute renal failure. He showed great improvement with intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) whereby the catatonia was subsequently relieved. This report demonstrates that intramuscular lorazepam is safe, effective and rapid in relieving catatonia associated with renal function impairment. Neither of the patients had a recurrence of catatonia during a period of 6- months follow-up. In conclusion, intramuscular lorazepam may play an important role in the treatment of catatonia associated with renal insufficiency.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to ascertain, in the context of an integrated health care delivery system, the association between a comprehensive list of drugs known to have potential QT liability and QT prolongation or shortening. METHODS: By using a self-controlled crossover study with 59 467 subjects, we ascertained intra-individual change in log-linear regression-corrected QT (QTcreg ) during the period between 1995 and mid-2008 for 90 drugs while adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, comorbid conditions, number of electrocardiograms (ECGs), and time between pre-ECG and post-ECG. The proportion of users of each drug-developing incident long QT was also estimated. RESULTS: Two drugs (nicardipine and levalbuterol) had no statistically significant intra-individual QTcreg shortening effects, 10 drugs had no statistically significant prolonging effect, and 78 (87%) of the drugs had statistically significant intra-individual mean QTcreg lengthening effects, ranging from 7.6 ms for aripiprazole to 25.2 ms for amiodarone. Three drugs were associated with mean QTcreg prolongation of 20 ms or greater: amiodarone (antiarrhythmic), terfenadine (antihistaminic), and quinidine (antiarrhythmic); whereas 11 drugs were associated with mean QTcreg prolongation of 15 ms or greater but less than 20 ms: trimipramine (tricyclic antidepressant), clomipramine (tricyclic antidepressant), disopyramide (antiarrhythmic), chlorpromazine (antipsychotic), sotalol (beta blocker), itraconazole (antifungal), phenylpropanolamine (decongestant/anorectic), fenfluramine (appetite suppressant), midodrine (antihypotensive), digoxin (cardiac glycoside/antiarrhythmic), and procainamide (antiarrhythmic). CONCLUSIONS: QT prolonging effects were common and varied in strength. Our results lend support to past Food and Drug Administration regulatory actions and support the role for ongoing surveillance of drug-induced QT prolongation.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.