Prolongación del tiempo QT
Eventos adversos de medicamentos
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
El lorazepam se usa como parte de un concepto de tratamiento general para estados de inquietud, ansiedad y agitación o para enfermedades psicosomáticas en las que se desea un componente antiespasmódico y que alivie la ansiedad, por ejemplo, hipertensión psicógena o trastornos gastrointestinales. También se utiliza para inducir la anestesia. Se administra por vía oral como tableta o tableta bucodispersable, o como inyección intravenosa. El lorazepam es un representante moderadamente eficaz de las benzodiazepinas. Como todas las benzodiazepinas, aumenta la actividad del neurotransmisor (sustancia mensajera) GABA en el cerebro al unirse al receptor correspondiente. El GABA (ácido gamma-aminobutírico) es un neurotransmisor depresor; dependiendo de la concentración, provoca calma o sueño, reduce la ansiedad y tiene un efecto antiespasmódico y relajante muscular. Debido a los efectos secundarios, aumenta el riesgo de caídas. Ya después de poco tiempo puede provocar habituación o dependencia, por lo que la aplicación debe ser lo más corta posible.
Las advertencias se verifican para la combinación de varios principios activos. Para las sustancias individuales, consulte la información especializada correspondiente.
Dado que solo se introdujo lorazepam sin otras sustancias, no se puede detectar ninguna interacción farmacocinética.
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
La lorazepam tiene una alta biodisponibilidad oral [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que el nivel plasmático máximo [Cmax] tiende a cambiar poco durante una interacción. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es de 14.3 horas y se alcanzan niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] después de aproximadamente 57.2 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es moderadamente fuerte al 100 % y el volumen de distribución [ Vd ] es muy grande a 111 litros. El metabolismo no tiene lugar a través de los citocromos comunes y el transporte activo tiene lugar especialmente a través de UGT2B7.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||0||Ø|
Clasificación: Según nuestro conocimiento, la lorazepam no aumenta la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø|
Clasificación: El efecto anticolinérgico de la lorazepam no es relevante.
Prolongación del tiempo QT
No conocemos ningún potencial de prolongación del intervalo QT de la lorazepam.
Efectos adversos generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||lor|
|Efecto hangover||1.0 %||+|
|Efecto rebote||1.0 %||+|
Depresion respiratoria: lorazepam
Con base en sus respuestas e información científica, evaluamos el riesgo individual de efectos secundarios adversos. Estas recomendaciones están destinadas a asesorar a los profesionales y no sustituyen la consulta con un médico. En la versión de prueba restringida (alfa), el riesgo de todas las sustancias aún no se ha evaluado de manera concluyente.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: Eleven subjects received acetaminophen (650 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence, with and without concurrent administration of probenecid (500 mg) every 6 hr. Nine subjects similarly received lorazepam (2 mg. i.v.) with and without concurrent probenecid. Acetaminophen half-life was prolonged during probenecid treatment (mean +/- S.E., 4.30 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.16 hr; P less than .001) due to markedly decreased clearance (178 +/- 13 vs. 329 +/- 24 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (65 +/- 4 vs. 69 +/- 3 l; NS). Urinary excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide during 24 hr was decreased (84 +/- 9 vs. 260 +/- 21 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide; P less than .001) and acetaminophen sulfate excretion was increased (323 +/- 25 vs. 217 +/- 17 mg of acetaminophen as sulfate; P less than .005) during concurrent probenecid treatment. However, the sum of the two conjugated metabolites was not significantly different (407 +/- 28 vs. 476 +/- 20 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide plus sulfate excreted per 24 hr; NS). Lorazepam half-life was also prolonged during probenecid treatment (33.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 14.3 +/- 1.08 hr; P less than .001) due to decreased clearance (44.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 80.3 +/- 13.2 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (111 +/- 5 vs. 111 +/- 7 l; NS). Formation of the ether glucuronides of acetaminophen and lorazepam is impaired markedly by therapeutic doses of probenecid. Sulfate conjugation is not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics and dynamics of lorazepam during administration as a bolus plus an infusion, using electroencephalography as a pharmacodynamic end point. METHODS: Nine volunteers received a 2-mg bolus loading dose of lorazepam, coincident with the start of a 2 microg/kg/hr zero-order infusion. The infusion was stopped after 4 hrs. Plasma lorazepam concentrations and electroencephalographic activity in the 13- to 30-Hz range were monitored for 24 hrs. RESULTS: The bolus-plus-infusion scheme rapidly produced plasma lorazepam concentrations that were close to those predicted to be achieved at true steady state. Mean kinetic values for lorazepam were as follows: volume of distribution, 126 L; elimination half-life, 13.8 hrs; and clearance, 109 mL/min. Electroencephalographic effects were maximal 0.5 hr after the loading dose, were maintained essentially constant during infusion, and then declined in parallel with plasma concentrations after the infusion was terminated. There was no evidence of tolerance. Plots of pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect vs. plasma lorazepam concentration demonstrated counterclockwise hysteresis, consistent with an effect-site equilibration delay. This was incorporated into a kinetic-dynamic model in which hypothetical effect-site concentration was related to pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect via the sigmoid Emax model. The analysis yielded the following mean estimates: maximum electroencephalographic effect, 12.7% over baseline; 50% effective concentration, 13.1 ng/mL; and effect-site equilibration half-life, 8.8 mins. CONCLUSION: Despite the delay in effect onset, continuous infusion of lorazepam, preceded by a bolus loading dose, produces a relatively constant sedative effect on the central nervous system, which can be utilized in the context of critical care medicine.
Abstract: The present study investigates the kinetic disposition with focus on the racemization, glucuronidation capacity and the transplacental transfer of lorazepam in term parturients during labor. The study was conducted on 10 healthy parturients aged 18-37 years with a gestational age of 36-40.1 weeks, treated with a single oral dose of 2 mg racemic lorazepam 2-9 h before delivery. Maternal venous blood and urine samples were obtained over a 0-48 h interval and the umbilical cord sample was obtained immediately after clamping. Lorazepam enantiomers were determined in plasma and urine samples by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-R column. In vitro racemization of lorazepam required the calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters as isomeric mixtures. The data were fitted to two-compartment model and the pharmacokinetic parameters are reported as means (95% CI): t(1/2a) 3.2h (2.6-3.7 h), K(a) 0.23 h(-1) (0.19-0.28 h(-1)), t(1/2) 10.4h (9.4-11.3h), beta 0.068 h(-1) (0.061-0.075h(-1)), AUC(0-infinity) 175.3(ngh)/ml (145.7-204.8(ngh)/ml), Cl/F 2.6 ml/(minkg) (2.3-2.9 ml/(minkg)), Vd/F178.8l (146.5-211.1l), Fel 0.3% (0.1-0.5%), and Cl(R) 0.010 ml/(minkg) (0.005-0.015 ml/(minkg)). Placental transfer of lorazepam evaluated as the ratio of vein umbilical/maternal vein plasma concentrations, obtained as an isomeric mixture, was 0.73 (0.52-0.94). Pregnancy changes the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam, with an increase in the apparent distribution volume, an increase in apparent oral clearance, and a reduction of elimination half-life. The increase in oral clearance may indicate an increase in glucuronidation capacity, with a possible reduction in the plasma concentrations of drugs depending on glucuronidation capacity as the major metabolic pathway.
Abstract: Cases of catatonia in patients with renal failure have been rarely reported. In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. Case 1 involved a patient with end-stage renal disease and severe pneumonia related respiratory failure. He responded well to intramuscular lorazepam (total dose, 4 mg) whereby the catatonia was elieved. Case 2 involved a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and rhabdomyolysis-related acute renal failure. He showed great improvement with intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) whereby the catatonia was subsequently relieved. This report demonstrates that intramuscular lorazepam is safe, effective and rapid in relieving catatonia associated with renal function impairment. Neither of the patients had a recurrence of catatonia during a period of 6- months follow-up. In conclusion, intramuscular lorazepam may play an important role in the treatment of catatonia associated with renal insufficiency.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.