Extension de temps QT
Effets indésirables des médicaments
Variantes ✨Pour l'évaluation intensive en calcul des variantes, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications pour les patients
Nous n'avons aucun avertissement supplémentaire pour l'association de mexilétine, abirateron et de théophylline. Veuillez également consulter les informations spécialisées pertinentes.
|Mexilétine||1.06 [0.64,4.21] 1,2||1.06||1|
Les changements d'exposition mentionnés sont liés aux changements de la courbe concentration plasmatique en fonction du temps [ASC]. L'exposition à la théophylline augmente à 166%, lorsqu'il est associé à la mexilétine (148%) et à la abirateron (108%). Cela peut entraîner une augmentation des effets secondaires. L'exposition à la mexilétine augmente à 106%, lorsqu'il est associé à la abirateron (106%) et à la théophylline (100%). L'ASC est comprise entre 64% et 421% selon le
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La mexilétine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 76%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 6.3 heures et les taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 9 999 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est plutôt faible à 58% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 446 litres, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut augmenter l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP1A2, CYP2B6 et le CYP2D6, entre autres.
La abirateron a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 50%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 18 heures et les taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 9 999 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très forte à 99.8% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 2815 litres, Le métabolisme s'effectue principalement via le CYP3A4.
La théophylline a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 85%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à peu changer pendant une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 7 heures et les taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 9 999 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est plutôt faible à 40% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est de 36 litres dans la fourchette moyenne, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut augmenter l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 et le CYP3A4, entre autres.
|Les scores||∑ Points||mex||abi||thé|
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Évaluation: Selon nos connaissances, ni la mexilétine, abirateron ni la théophylline n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Les scores||∑ Points||mex||abi||thé|
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||Ø||+|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à des doses dans l'intervalle thérapeutique supérieur.
Évaluation: La théophylline n'a qu'un effet léger sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la posologie se situe dans la plage habituelle. Selon nos résultats, ni la mexilétine ni la abirateron n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Extension de temps QT
|Les scores||∑ Points||mex||abi||thé|
La abirateron peut potentiellement augmenter le temps QT, mais nous ne connaissons pas les arythmies des torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la mexilétine et la théophylline.
Effets secondaires généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ la fréquence||mex||abi||thé|
|Œdème périphérique||20.0 %||n.a.||20.0||n.a.|
|ALT élevé||13.0 %||n.a.||13.0||n.a.|
|AST élevé||13.0 %||n.a.||13.0||n.a.|
|Infection urinaire||10.0 %||n.a.||10.0||n.a.|
|La diarrhée||5.5 %||n.a.||5.5||n.a.|
Fibrillation auriculaire (2.6%): abirateron, théophylline
Angine de poitrine (1.6%): abirateron
Bloc auriculo-ventriculaire: mexilétine
Insuffisance cardiaque: mexilétine
La nausée: mexilétine
Vomissements: mexilétine, théophylline
Problème de coordination: mexilétine
Mal de crâne: théophylline
Crise d'épilepsie: mexilétine, théophylline
Hémorragie intracrânienne: théophylline
Vision floue: mexilétine
Réactions cutanées allergiques: théophylline
Réaction d'hypersensibilité: mexilétine
Lupus érythémateux: mexilétine
Réaction anaphylactique: théophylline
Augmentation de la fréquence des mictions: théophylline
Syndrome de Stevens-Johnson: mexilétine, théophylline
Sur la base de vos
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: To investigate a possible interaction between norfloxacin and theophylline, eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers (mean age 27 +/- 5.3 years) were administered aminophylline, 5 mg/kg, before and after a 6-day course of norfloxacin, 400 mg every 12 hours, and changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were measured and compared. Norfloxacin induced significant decreases in theophylline clearance (14.9%; p less than 0.01) and the terminal phase slope (13.3%; p less than 0.02) and increased the AUC (16.6%; p less than 0.01). The apparent volume of distribution at steady state was unchanged. The greatest norfloxacin-induced individual change in theophylline clearance was a reduction of 28.6%. Given these findings, we advise that, for patients who are treated with theophylline and are subsequently treated with norfloxacin, adjustment of the theophylline dosage may be necessary in some patients to minimize the risk of theophylline toxicity.
Abstract: To study the effects of cirrhosis of the liver on the pharmacokinetics of mexiletine a single i.v. dose of 200 mg was administered to six cirrhotic patients and to six healthy controls. The distribution of mexiletine in both study groups was similar, as indicated by similar values of V1 and Vss, but it tended to occur more slowly in the cirrhotics. The plasma protein binding of mexiletine was unchanged in the patients with cirrhosis. The elimination of mexiletine was markedly retarded in the cirrhotics, as indicated by its lower total clearance (2.31 vs. 8.27 ml/kg/h,) lower total elimination rate constant (0.059 vs 0.353 h-1), and longer elimination half-life (28.7 vs 9.9 h). The antipyrine half-life was 38.3 h in the patients and 14.7 h in the controls. One healthy volunteer had a Morgagni-Stokes-Adams type of syncopal attack 5 min after administration of mexiletine due to disturbance of AV conduction induced by the drug. Thus, on a pharmacokinetic basis the loading dose of mexiletine need not be modified in cirrhotic patients, whereas the maintenance dosage should be reduced to one fourth - one third of the usual dose.
Abstract: In 42 subjects with chronic obstructive lung disease receiving chronic oral theophylline therapy, the venous whole blood theophylline concentration was closely related to the total plasma theophylline concentrations (r = 0.976, p less than 0.001). The blood/plasma concentration ratio was 0.85 +/- 0.13 and was not related to the haematocrit or the free fraction of theophylline in plasma. The red blood cell theophylline concentration was closely related and numerically similar to the free plasma concentration. This indicates that the free plasma concentration is the most important determinant of red blood cell concentration, and that binding of drug by red blood cells or active uptake into erythrocytes is unlikely to occur. Whole blood concentration can be used to predict plasma theophylline concentration in subjects with obstructive lung disease in situations where preparation of plasma is inconvenient. The therapeutic range for whole blood concentration is approximately 8.5-17 mg/L.
Abstract: Cimetidine, a commonly used H2-receptor antagonist, was found to interact adversely with many drugs, including class I antiarrhythmics such as lidocaine and quinidine. To test the effect of cimetidine on the kinetics of mexiletine, a class I antiarrhythmic similar to lidocaine, the absorption and disposition of mexiletine were followed in six healthy subjects before and after 1 week of cimetidine, 300 mg by mouth four times a day. Cimetidine did not alter the distribution and elimination of mexiletine, as shown by similar mean kinetics including total body clearance, AUC, and the elimination t1/2 before and after cimetidine treatment. Cimetidine did have a significant effect on mexiletine absorption, as demonstrated by a longer mean absorption t1/2 (from 0.20 +/- 0.14 to 0.61 +/- 0.35 hours), a longer mean time to peak mexiletine concentration (from 1.13 +/- 0.31 to 1.88 +/- 0.83 hours), and decreased mexiletine plasma concentration (from 0.74 +/- 0.19 to 0.59 +/- 0.15 mg/ml). We conclude that cimetidine does not alter the disposition of oral mexiletine in normal subjects.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: To study the effects of enzyme induction on its pharmacokinetics, a single oral dose of the new antiarrhythmic agent mexiletine hydrochloride 400 mg was administered to 8 healthy volunteers before and after treatment with rifampicin 300 mg b.i.d. for ten days. The absorption and distribution of mexiletine were not changed after rifampicin, but its elimination half-life fell from 8.5 +/- 0.8 h (mean +/- SE) to 5.0 +/- 0.4 h (p less than 0.01), and its nonrenal clearance increased from 435 +/- 68 ml/min to 711 +/- 101 ml/min (p less than 0.01). The mean renal clearance of mexiletine did not change, but it showed an exponential correlation with urinary pH. The amount of unchanged mexiletine excreted in urine over two days decreased from 32 +/- 7 to 18 +/- 3 mg (p less than 0.01). The half-life of antipyrine fell from 11.8 +/- 0.4 to 5.5 +/- 0.3 h and its clearance increased from 40 +/- 3 ml to 74 +/- 3 ml/min (p less than 0.01). There was a significant (p less than 0.05) positive linear correlation between both the half-lives and the clearances of antipyrine and mexiletine. The clearances were positively correlated with serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The results suggest that the dosage of mexiletine should be adjusted when enzyme inducing drugs are started or stopped during therapy with it.
Abstract: The effect of erythromycin base on theophylline kinetics was studied in eight informed, nonsmoking, adult males who received a 15-min infusion of theophylline (aminophylline) 5 mg/kg, prior to (control) and after (experimental) a 7-day course of 1 gm daily erythromycin base (E-Mycin). Each subject acted as his own control. Multiple serum samples were collected for 24 hr after each dose and were analyzed for theophylline by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean +/- SD pharmacokinetic parameters for each phase of study were as follows: apparent volume of distribution (L/kg) 0.45 +/- 0.05 (control), 0.41 +/- 0.05 (experimental); clearance (ml . min/kg) 0.83 +/- 0.17 (control), 0.60 +/- 0.11 (experimental); elimination half-life (hr) 6.65 +/- 1.88 (control), 8.10 +/- 1.58 (experimental). Erythromycin significantly affected the elimination half-life and clearance of theophylline (p less than 0.05). The apparent volume of distribution was unaffected (p greater than 0.05). Therefore patients being administered theophylline appear to be at added risk for the development of toxicity when erythromycin is added to the therapeutic regimen.
Abstract: Single-dose kinetics of mexiletine (MEX) was studied in six healthy subjects after three different formulations. The respective doses were 200 mg (intravenous infusion), 400 mg (two conventional capsules), and 432 mg (sustained-release dosage forms). By a three-compartment open model with lag time the kinetic parameters of the drug were calculated from the experimental plasma level data. The mathematical analysis of the processes of distribution and elimination was restricted to the intravenous data only, and the resulting transfer constants were introduced into the evaluations of the oral experiments. With this procedure one common value for the plasma t 1/2 of elimination was obtained (t 1/2 gamma = 6.34 +/- 1.5 hr). Mean values for the total volume of distribution (Vdtot) and the total body clearance (Cltot) were 5.5 l/kg and 10.3 ml/min/kg. After capsules, peak plasma concentrations (Cmax = 0.77 microgram/ml) were reached after 2.2 hr. and the sustained-release form built up a flat maximum of concentration (Cmax = 0.34 microgram/ml) after 9.2 hr. Mexiletine is highly bioavailable, almost identical for the two oral formulations: 87.3% (capsule) and 78.7% (slow release). Under physiologic urinary pH1 7.5% to 9.2% of the dose was excreted unchanged by the kidneys.
Abstract: The effects of famotidine (80 mg per day), cimetidine (1600 mg per day), and placebo on theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were compared. This was an open-label, randomized, three-period cross-over study, in which each subject first underwent a seven-day theophylline washout period, and thereafter received three single intravenous doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg infused over 30 minutes) during the study. Each of the experimental treatments was administered orally every 12 hours for a total of 9.5 days (19 doses). Theophylline was infused after the 17th dose of each treatment. Fourteen serial blood samples were collected before the start of each infusion, and for 30 hours after the end of each infusion. Plasma samples were assayed for theophylline, pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated, and treatment effects on each parameter were compared. Fourteen COPD patients completed all three periods of the investigation. Famotidine treatment had virtually no effect on any of theophylline's pharmacokinetic parameters. In contrast, cimetidine treatment significantly altered every pharmacokinetic parameter of theophylline as follows: Cimetidine decreased theophylline geometric mean CL from 2.74 L/h to 2.07 L/h (P < .001), and prolonged theophylline harmonic mean half-life from 6.6 to 9.6 hours (P < .001) and mean residence time from 10.8 to 15.0 hours (P < .001). Cimetidine treatment slightly increased theophylline volume of distribution by approximately 10%, and that change also was statistically significant (P = .032). The authors conclude that the treatment effects of cimetidine on theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were in accord with those reported by others, and that famotidine treatment had no effect on any of theophylline's pharmacokinetic parameters in COPD patients.
Abstract: It was reported previously that mexiletine undergoes stereoselective disposition in humans and that formation of three of its major metabolites co-segregates with polymorphic debrisoquin 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) activity. In this study, the hypothesis was tested that the CYP2D6-mediated oxidation pathways of mexiletine are responsible for the stereoselective disposition of the racemate in humans. Fourteen healthy subjects (10 extensive metabolizers [EMs] and 4 poor metabolizers [PMs]) participated in this study. They received a single 200-mg oral dose of racemic mexiletine hydrochloride on two occasions: once alone and once during administration of low-dose quinidine (50 mg four times a day). Blood and urine samples were obtained over 48 hr after the administration of mexiletine and analyzed by a stereoselective high-performance liquid chromatography assay. As reported previously, RS-mexiletine disposition was altered by a genetically determined (PM) or drug-induced (quinidine) decrease in CYP2D6 activity. In contrast, R/S ratio of the apparent total and nonrenal clearances of mexiletine and the R/S ratio of the urinary recovery of both enantiomers were similar in EMs and PMs. Moreover, these ratios were unaltered by quinidine administration. Partial metabolic clearance of N-hydroxymexiletine glucuronide, a non-CYP2D6 dependent metabolite, was highly stereoselective; the R/S ratio was 11.3 +/- 3.4. This ratio was similar in subjects with either an EM or a PM phenotype and was not altered by quinidine administration. Thus, the results obtained in this study suggest that non-CYP2D6-dependent metabolic pathways are responsible for the stereoselective disposition of mexiletine in humans.
Abstract: Marked interindividual variation has been observed in the pharmacokinetics of the antiarrhythmic agent mexiletine. The fact that its urinary excretion is dependent on urinary pH may account, in part, for such variation. The influence that genetic differences in hepatic metabolism of the debrisoquine-type may have on mexiletine pharmacokinetics was considered in this study. The pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of mexiletine (250 mg administered intravenously) were investigated in 5 rapid extensive metabolisers (EM), 5 slow EM and 5 poor metabolisers (PM) of debrisoquine, under conditions of controlled urinary pH. Mexiletine disposition kinetics was found to be altered in PM individuals. These subjects showed higher total area under the curve (AUC), (15.7 versus 8.16 micrograms.h.ml-1) prolonged elimination half-lives (in serum and urine) (serum: 18.5 versus 11.6 h, urine: 19.2 versus 11.7 h) and lower total clearance values compared with EM (216 versus 450 ml.min-1). In this respect, slow EM individuals generally presented intermediate values of those pharmacokinetic parameters. A higher incidence of adverse-effects was also observed among slow EM and PM subjects. It is concluded that genetic differences in mexiletine oxidation of the debrisoquine-type have an influence on its observed pharmacokinetic variability. The clinical consequences are discussed.
Abstract: Rifampin and rifabutin induce the metabolism of many drugs, which may result in subtherapeutic concentrations and failure of therapy. However, differences between rifabutin and rifampin in potency of induction, and the specific enzymes which are altered, are not clear. This study, involving 12 adult male volunteers, compared the effects of 14-day courses of rifampin and rifabutin on clearance of theophylline, a substrate for the hepatic microsomal enzyme CYP1A2. Subjects were given oral theophylline solution (5 mg/kg of body weight) on day 1 and then randomized to receive daily rifampin (300 mg) or rifabutin (300 mg) on days 3 to 16. Theophylline was readministered as described above on day 15. The first treatment sequence was followed by a 2-week washout period; subjects then received the alternative treatment. Theophylline concentrations were determined for 46 h after each dose, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. One subject developed flu-like symptoms while taking rifabutin and withdrew voluntarily. Results from the remaining 11 subjects are reported. Compared with the baseline, the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (+/- standard deviation) for theophylline declined significantly following rifampin treatment (from 140 +/- 37 to 100 +/- 24 micrograms . h/ml, P <0.001); there was no significant change following rifabutin treatment (136 +/- 48 to 128 +/- 45 micrograms.h/ml). Baseline theophylline AUCs before each treatment phase were not different. A comparison of equal doses of rifampin and rifabutin administered to healthy volunteers for 2 weeks indicates that induction of CYP1A2, as measured by theophylline clearance, is significantly less following rifabutin treatment than it is following rifampin treatment. However, the relative induction potency for other metabolic enzymes remains to be investigated.
Abstract: Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident.
Abstract: AIMS: Mexiletine has been reported to be hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in humans. However, the involvement of CYP1A2 in the metabolism of mexiletine has been proposed based on the interaction with theophylline which is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of human CYP1A2 in mexiletine metabolism. METHODS: Human CYP isoforms involved in mexiletine metabolism were investigated using microsomes from human liver and B-lymphoblastoid cells expressing human CYPs. The contributions of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 to mexiletine metabolism were estimated by the relative activity factor (RAF). RESULTS: Mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities in human liver microsomes were inhibited by ethoxyresorufin and furafylline as well as quinidine. Mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities in microsomes from nine human livers correlated significantly with bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.907, P < 0.001 and r = 0.886, P < 0.01, respectively). Microsomes of B-lymphoblastoid cells expressing human CYP1A2 exhibited lower mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities than those expressing human CYP2D6. It was estimated by RAF that the major isoform involved in mexiletine metabolism was CYP2D6, and the contribution of CYPIA2 to both mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities was 7-30% in human liver microsomes. However, the Km values of the expressed CYP1A2 (approximately 15 microM) were almost identical with those of the expressed CYP2D6 (approximately 22 microM) and human liver microsomes. CONCLUSIONS: Mexiletine is a substrate of CYP1A2. The data obtained in this study suggest that the interaction of mexiletine with theophylline might be due to competitive inhibition of CYP1A2.
Abstract: Mexiletine, a class Ib antiarrhythmic agent, is rapidly and completely absorbed following oral administration with a bioavailability of about 90%. Peak plasma concentrations following oral administration occur within 1 to 4 hours and a linear relationship between dose and plasma concentration is observed in the dose range of 100 to 600 mg. Mexiletine is weakly bound to plasma proteins (70%). Its volume of distribution is large and varies from 5 to 9 L/kg in healthy individuals. Mexiletine is eliminated slowly in humans (with an elimination half-life of 10 hours). It undergoes stereoselective disposition caused by extensive metabolism. Eleven metabolites of mexiletine are presently known, but none of these metabolites possesses any pharmacological activity. The major metabolites are hydroxymethyl-mexiletine, p-hydroxy-mexiletine, m-hydroxy-mexiletine and N-hydroxy-mexiletine. Formation of hydroxymethyl-mexiletine, p-hydroxy-mexiletine and m-hydroxy-mexiletine is genetically determined and cosegregates with polymorphic debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6] activity. On the other hand, CYP1A2 seems to be implicated in the N-oxidation of mexiletine. Various physiological, pathological, pharmacological and environmental factors influence the disposition of mexiletine. Myocardial infarction, opioid analgesics, atropine and antacids slow the rate of absorption, whereas metoclopramide enhances it. Rifampicin (rifampin), phenytoin and cigarette smoking significantly enhance the rate of elimination of mexiletine, whereas ciprofloxacin, propafenone and liver cirrhosis decrease it. Cimetidine, ranitidine, fluconazole and omeprazole do not modify the disposition of mexiletine. Conversely, mexiletine is known to alter the disposition of other drugs, such as caffeine and theophylline. Factors affecting the elimination of mexiletine may be clinically important and dosage adjustments are often necessary.
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of the concomitant administration of theophylline and toborinone on the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in poor and extensive metabolizers via CYP2D6. In period 1, a single dose of 3.5 mg/kg theophylline was administered orally. In period 2, a single dose of 1.0 microg/kg/min toborinone was infused over 6 hours. In period 3, 3.5 mg/kg theophylline was coadministered with 1.0 microg/kg/min toborinone. Serial blood and pooled urine samples were collected before and after toborinone administration for the quantification of toborinone and its metabolites in plasma and urine. Serial blood samples were collected before and after theophylline administration for the quantification of theophylline and its metabolites in plasma. No significant differences were observed in toborinone pharmacokinetics between poor and extensive metabolizers via CYP2D6. Toborinone coadministration with theophylline did not result in a substantive effect on the disposition of theophylline and vice versa.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential effect of daidzein on CYP1A2 activity and on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline by inhibiting its metabolism. METHODS: The experiment was conducted in a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. The caffeine metabolic ratio (CMR) used as an indicator of CYP1A2 function was completed at baseline and after daidzein or placebo co-administration. A single dose of 100 mg theophylline was taken by all 20 volunteers on day 3. Thereafter, volunteers were allocated for one of two regimens. One group received 200 mg daidzein twice daily for 10 days. The other group received placebo. On day 12, the test group received 200 mg daidzein with 100 mg theophylline; the parallel group received 100 mg theophylline with placebo. RESULTS: The baseline value of CMR between test group and control group did not show a difference (P=0.215). The percentage decrease in CMR ranged from -50% to 20%, with an average value of -19.8+/-19.7%. The percentage decrease in test group was statistically significant (P=0.009), and no significant changes were shown in the control group (t=0.12, P=0.914). By comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline before and after daily treatment with daidzein, the effect of daidzein on the metabolism of theophylline was evident. Comparing the kinetics parameters of theophylline of day 1 (without co-medication) with those of day 12 (10-day daidzein), the AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), C(max) and t(1/2) were significantly increased by 33.57+/-21.75% (CI, 1.21-1.46, P< 0.05), 33.77+/-21.45% (CI, 1.20-1.46, P<0.05), 23.54+/-16.93% (CI, 1.23-1.52, P< 0.05) and 41.39+/-45.92% (t=-3.19, P=0.011), respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline within the placebo group showed no statistically significant difference (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Daidzein, a principal isoflavone in soybean, in higher doses may inhibit CYP1A2 activity in vivo, and physicians should be aware of potential drug-food interactions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 by fluvoxamine causes a reduction in the clearance of the high-extraction drug lidocaine, which decreases in proportion to the degree of liver dysfunction. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of liver cirrhosis on the inhibition by fluvoxamine of the metabolic disposition of theophylline, a CYP1A2 substrate with a low-extraction ratio, to assess whether decreased sensitivity to CYP1A2 inhibition in liver disease is a general characteristic of CYP1A2 substrates, regardless of their pharmacokinetic properties, and (2) to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the effect of liver dysfunction on CYP1A2 inhibition. METHODS: The study was carried out in 10 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with cirrhosis, 10 with mild liver dysfunction (Child class A) and 10 with severe liver dysfunction (Child class C), according to a randomized, double-blind, 2-phase, crossover design. In one phase all participants received placebo for 7 days; in the other phase they received one 50-mg fluvoxamine dose for 2 days and two 50-mg fluvoxamine doses, 12 hours apart, in the next 5 days. On day 6, 4 mg/kg of theophylline was administered orally 1 hour after the morning fluvoxamine dose. Concentrations of theophylline and its metabolites, 3-methylxanthine, 1-methyluric acid, and 1,3-dimethyluric acid, were then measured in plasma and urine up to 48 hours. RESULTS: Fluvoxamine-induced inhibition of theophylline clearance decreased from 62% in healthy subjects to 52% and 12% in patients with mild cirrhosis and those with severe cirrhosis, respectively. CYP1A2-mediated formations of 3-methylxanthine and 1-methyluric acid were almost totally inhibited in control subjects, whereas they were only reduced by one third in patients with Child class C cirrhosis. Inhibition of 1,3-dimethyluric acid formation, which is catalyzed by CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, progressively decreased from 58% in healthy subjects to 43% and 7% in patients with mild cirrhosis and those with severe cirrhosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of liver dysfunction on the inhibition of CYP1A2-mediated drug elimination is a general phenomenon, independent of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the CYP1A2 substrate. Therefore, for any drug metabolized by CYP1A2, the clinical consequences of enzyme inhibition are expected to become less and less important as liver function worsens. Two mechanisms, as follows in order of importance, are responsible for the effect of liver dysfunction: (1) decreased sensitivity to fluvoxamine of CYP1A2-mediated biotransformations in the cirrhotic liver, probably resulting from reduced uptake of the inhibitory drug, and (2) reduced hepatic expression of CYP1A2, which makes its contribution to overall drug elimination less important.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone plasma concentrations are decreased by nelfinavir. Methadone clearance and the drug interactions have been attributed to CYP3A4, but actual mechanisms of methadone clearance and the nelfinavir interaction are unknown. We assessed nelfinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity, and intestinal P-glycoprotein transport activity. CYP3A4/5 and transporters were assessed using alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy HIV-negative volunteers underwent a sequential crossover. On three consecutive days they received oral alfentanil plus fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral methadone. This was repeated after nelfinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were measured by pupil diameter change (miosis). RESULTS: Nelfinavir decreased intravenous and oral methadone plasma concentrations 40-50%. Systemic clearance, hepatic clearance, and hepatic extraction all increased 1.6- and 2-fold, respectively, for R- and S-methadone; apparent oral clearance increased 1.7- and 1.9-fold. Nelfinavir stereoselectively increased (S>R) methadone metabolism and metabolite formation clearance, and methadone renal clearance. Methadone bioavailability and P-glycoprotein activity were minimally affected. Nelfinavir decreased alfentanil systemic and apparent oral clearances 50 and 76%, respectively. Nelfinavir appeared to shift the methadone plasma concentration-effect (miosis) curve leftward and upward. CONCLUSIONS: Nelfinavir induced methadone clearance by increasing renal clearance, and more so by stereoselectively increasing hepatic metabolism, extraction and clearance. Induction occurred despite 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity and more than 75% inhibition of first-pass CYP3A4/5 activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone disposition. Nelfinavir may alter methadone pharmacodynamics, increasing clinical effects.
Abstract: Three open-label, single-dose studies investigated the impact of hepatic or renal impairment on abiraterone acetate pharmacokinetics and safety/tolerability in non-cancer patients. Patients (n = 8 each group) with mild/moderate hepatic impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-, BMI-matched healthy controls received a single oral 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate (tablet dose); while patients (n = 8 each) with severe hepatic impairment and matched healthy controls received 125- and 2,000-mg abiraterone acetate (suspension doses), respectively (systemic exposure of abiraterone acetate suspension is approximately half to that of tablet formulation). Blood was sampled at specified timepoints up to 72 or 96 hours postdose to measure plasma abiraterone concentrations. Abiraterone exposure was comparable between healthy controls and patients with mild hepatic impairment or ESRD, but increased by 4-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Despite a 16-fold reduction in dose, abiraterone exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment was about 22% and 44% of the Cmax and AUC∞ of healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that abiraterone pharmacokinetics were not changed markedly in patients with ESRD or mild hepatic impairment. However, the capacity to eliminate abiraterone was substantially compromised in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. A single-dose administration of abiraterone acetate was well-tolerated.
Abstract: Two novel oral drugs that target androgen signaling have recently become available for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Abiraterone acetate inhibits the synthesis of the natural ligands of the androgen receptor, whereas enzalutamide directly inhibits the androgen receptor by several mechanisms. Abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide appear to be equally effective for patients with mCRPC pre- and postchemotherapy. Rational decision making for either one of these drugs is therefore potentially driven by individual patient characteristics. In this review, an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics is given for both drugs and potential and proven drug-drug interactions are presented. Additionally, the effect of patient-related factors on drug disposition are summarized and the limited data on the exposure-response relationships are described. The most important pharmacological feature of enzalutamide that needs to be recognized is its capacity to induce several key enzymes in drug metabolism. The potency to cause drug-drug interactions needs to be addressed in patients who are treated with multiple drugs simultaneously. Abiraterone has a much smaller drug-drug interaction potential; however, it is poorly absorbed, which is affected by food intake, and a large interpatient variability in drug exposure is observed. Dose reductions of abiraterone or, alternatively, the selection of enzalutamide, should be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Understanding the pharmacological characteristics and challenges of both drugs could facilitate decision making for either one of the drugs.
Abstract: We present a case of a 77 year-old gentleman with previous coronary artery bypass grafting, admitted to hospital with recurrent torsades de pointes (TdP) due to abiraterone-induced hypokalaemia and prolonged QTc. The patient was on abiraterone and prednisone for metastatic prostate cancer. He required multiple defibrillations for recurrent TdP. Abiraterone is a relatively novel drug used in metastatic prostate cancer and we discuss this potential adverse effect and its management in this unusual presentation.