Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
|Gain de poids|
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Nous n'avons pas de mise en garde supplémentaire concernant l'association de triazolam et de asénapine. Veuillez également consulter les informations pertinentes des spécialistes.
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la triazolam, lorsqu'il est associé à la asénapine (100%). Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la asénapine, lorsqu'il est associé à la triazolam (100%).
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La triazolam a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 50%, c'est pourquoi les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte (2.8 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont rapidement atteints. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 89% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est dans la moyenne à 38 litres, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0.24, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut entraîner une augmentation de l'exposition. Le métabolisme se fait principalement via CYP3A4.
La asénapine a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 2%, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer fortement avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 24 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 96 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 95% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 1700 litres. Le métabolisme se fait principalement via CYP1A2 et le transport actif s'effectue notamment via UGT1A4.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø|
Note: À notre connaissance, ni la triazolam ni la asénapine n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à de celles situées dans la marge thérapeutique supérieure.
Notation: La triazolam et la asénapine n'ont qu'un effet modéré sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la dosage est respecté.
Allongement du temps QT
La asénapine peut potentiellement augmenter le temps QT, mais nous ne savons pas concernant les arythmies en torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la triazolam.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||tri||asé|
|Gain de poids||11.5 %||n.a.||11.5|
|Mal de crâne||9.7 %||9.7||n.a.|
|Hypotension orthostatique||1.5 %||n.a.||1.5|
Effet de rebond: triazolam
La dépression: triazolam
Crise d'épilepsie: asénapine
Syndrome malin des neuroleptiques: asénapine
Réaction d'hypersensibilité: asénapine
Réaction anaphylactique: triazolam
Insuffisance hépatique: triazolam
Dépression respiratoire: triazolam
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the relative and absolute bioavailability of triazolam, 0.25 mg, after the administration of the marketed oral tablet and a sublingual prototype wafer; an intravenous dose was used as a reference. Twelve men were evaluated in a three-way crossover study; study days were separated by 1 week. A single dose was administered to each subject at approximately 8 a.m.; serial blood samples were obtained for the determination of triazolam concentration. The fraction absorbed relative to intravenous was 20% higher in the sublingual than in the oral treatment (p = 0.0128); the difference between treatments was greatest in the first 2 hours as indicated by the area under the curve from 0 to 2 hours (p < 0.05). The extraction ratio ranged from 0.05 to 0.25, and the predicted availability after oral administration was 86% with a range of 75 to 95%. In contrast, the observed mean absolute availability was 44% (oral) and 53% (sublingual). A potential explanation for this discrepancy between predicted and observed bioavailability is that after oral administration, a fraction of triazolam may be metabolized by cytochrome P450IIIA4 in the gut wall, with a separate fraction subject to first-pass metabolism in the liver. Although this study was not designed to identify sites of triazolam metabolism, the proposed explanation is consistent with the occurrence of P450IIIA4 in the stomach, small intestine, and liver. Doses administered sublingually avoid first-pass metabolism, producing earlier and higher peak concentrations than do doses administered orally.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Kinetic and dynamic consequences of metabolic inhibition were evaluated in a study of the interaction of ketoconazole, a P4503A inhibitor, with alprazolam and triazolam, two 3A substrate drugs with different kinetic profiles. METHODS: In a double-blind, 5-way crossover study, healthy volunteers received (A) ketoconazole placebo plus 1.0 mg alprazolam orally, (B) 200 mg ketoconazole twice a day plus 1.0 mg alprazolam, (C) ketoconazole placebo plus 0.25 mg triazolam orally, (D) 200 mg ketoconazole twice a day plus 0.25 mg triazolam, and (E) 200 mg ketoconazole twice a day plus benzodiazepine placebo. Plasma concentrations and pharmacodynamic parameters were measured after each dose. RESULTS: For trial B versus trial A, alprazolam clearance was reduced (27 versus 86 mL/min; P < .002) and apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) prolonged (59 versus 15 hours; P < .03), whereas peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was only slightly increased (16.1 versus 14.7 ng/mL). The 8-hour pharmacodynamic effect areas for electroencephalographic (EEG) beta activity were increased by a factor of 1.35, and those for digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) decrement were increased by 2.29 for trial B versus trial A. For trial D versus trial C, triazolam clearance was reduced (40 versus 444 mL/min; P < .002), t1/2 was prolonged (18.3 versus 3.0 hours; P < .01), and Cmax was increased (2.6 versus 5.4 ng/mL; P < .001). The 8-hour effect area for EEG was increased by a factor of 2.51, and that for DSST decrement was increased by 4.33. Observed in vivo clearance decrements due to ketoconazole were consistent with those anticipated on the basis of an in vitro model, together with in vivo plasma concentrations of ketoconazole. CONCLUSION: For triazolam, an intermediate-extraction compound, impaired clearance by ketoconazole has more profound clinical consequences than those for alprazolam, a low extraction compound.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The viral protease inhibitor ritonavir has the capacity to inhibit and induce the activity of cytochrome P450-3A (CYP3A) isoforms, leading to drug interactions that may influence the efficacy and toxicity of other antiretroviral therapies, as well as pharmacologic treatments of coincident or complicating diseases. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of ritonavir on the biotransformation of the hypnotic agents triazolam and zolpidem was tested in vitro using human liver microsomes. In a double-blind clinical study, volunteer study subjects received 0.125 mg triazolam or 5.0 mg zolpidem concurrent with low-dose ritonavir (four doses of 200 mg), or with placebo. RESULTS: Ritonavir was a potent in vitro inhibitor of triazolam hydroxylation but was less potent as an inhibitor of zolpidem hydroxylation. In the clinical study, ritonavir reduced triazolam clearance to < 4% of control values (p < .005), prolonged elimination half-life (41 versus 3 hours; p < .005), and magnified benzodiazepine agonist effects such as sedation and performance impairment. In contrast, ritonavir reduced zolpidem clearance to 78% of control values (p < .08), and slightly prolonged elimination half-life (2.4 versus 2.0 hours; NS). Benzodiazepine agonist effects of zolpidem were not altered by ritonavir. CONCLUSION: Short-term low-dose administration of ritonavir produces a large and significant impairment of triazolam clearance and enhancement of clinical effects. In contrast, ritonavir produced small and clinically unimportant reductions in zolpidem clearance. The findings are consistent with the complete dependence of triazolam clearance on CYP3A activity, compared with the partial dependence of zolpidem clearance on CYP3A.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for the prediction of the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) in man for a heterogeneous series of drugs. The relationship of many computed, and some experimental, structural descriptors with Vd, and the Vd corrected for protein binding (unbound Vd), was investigated. Models were constructed using stepwise regression analysis for all the 70 drugs in the dataset, as well as for acidic drugs and basic drugs separately. The predictive power of the models was assessed using half the chemicals as a test set, and revealed that the models for Vd yielded lower prediction errors than those constructed for the unbound Vd (mean fold error of 2.01 for Vd compared with 2.28 for unbound Vd). Moreover, the separation of the compounds into acids and bases did not reduce the prediction error significantly.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have not demonstrated good correlations between various presumed phenotypic measures of in vivo cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. However, in reality, few have used appropriate and validated in vivo probes that consider the complexities of CYP3A. Accordingly, the disposition of 3 closely related benzodiazepines with extensive and similar CYP3A-mediated metabolism characteristics but different pharmacokinetics was investigated, and correlations between the drugs were examined. METHODS: The single-dose oral clearances of alprazolam, midazolam, and triazolam and the systemic clearances of the latter 2 drugs were separately determined in 21 healthy subjects (10 men) according to a randomized experimental design with a minimum 1-week period between the individual studies. An erythromycin breath test was also performed. RESULTS: After intravenous administration, systemic clearance varied 3-fold compared with a 6-fold range in clearance after an oral dose for all 3 drugs. However, mean values differed markedly between the drugs, with the systemic clearance of midazolam being almost double that of triazolam (383 +/- 73 mL/min versus 222 +/- 54 mL/min). Oral clearances were even more dissimilar: alprazolam, 75 +/- 36 mL/min; triazolam, 360 +/- 195 mL/min; and midazolam, 533 +/- 759 mL/min. Estimates of CYP3A-mediated extraction by the intestine and liver indicated approximately equal contributions by both organs but larger values for midazolam than for triazolam, and these differences accounted for the differences in oral bioavailability, 30% +/- 13% versus 55% +/- 20%, respectively. Statistically significant ( P = .001 to .004) correlations between the 3 drugs' oral clearances ranged from 0.60 to 0.68 ( r s value), whereas the correlation for the systemic clearances of midazolam and triazolam was 0.66 ( P = .001). No statistically significant relationships were observed between any of the clearance parameters and the erythromycin breath test. CONCLUSION: Despite alprazolam, midazolam, and triazolam having markedly different pharmacokinetic characteristics, statistically significant correlations were present between the oral and systemic clearances of the 3 drugs, consistent with a major involvement of CYP3A in their metabolism and elimination. However, the magnitude of the coefficients of determination ( r s ) was such to suggest that an in vivo probe approach, even with the use of valid phenotypic trait values, will be unable to accurately and reliably predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of another CYP3A substrate, as determined by the enzyme's constitutive activity.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine urinary excretion profiles of two major triazolam metabolites, alpha-hydroxytriazolam (alpha-OHTRZ) and 4-hydroxytriazolam (4-OHTRZ) in humans. Urine samples were collected from three healthy male volunteers who had been previously administered single 0.25- and 0.5-mg doses of triazolam 24 h and 48 h, respectively, before sample collection. After enzymatic hydrolysis and extraction, each sample was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. alpha-OHTRZ was rapidly excreted, with the maximum concentrations appearing in the first or second sample collected after ingestion, with the majority of the drug being excreted within 12 h. Meanwhile, 4-OHTRZ was excreted more slowly than alpha-OHTRZ. The alpha-OHTRZ/4-OHTRZ ratios were initially greater than 19.7, then decreased rapidly, reaching a nearly constant value for times in excess of 12 h.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: An assessment of the effects of asenapine on QTc interval in patients with schizophrenia revealed a discrepancy between the results obtained by two different methods: an intersection-union test (IUT) (as recommended in the International Conference on Harmonisation E14 guidance) and an exposure-response (E-R) analysis. Simulations were performed in order to understand and reconcile this discrepancy. Although estimates of the time-matched, placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline (ddQTc) at peak plasma concentrations from the E-R analysis ranged from 2 to 5 ms per dose level, the IUT applied to simulated data from the E-R model yielded maximum ddQTc estimates of 7-10 ms for the various doses of asenapine. These results indicate that the IUT can produce biased estimates that may induce a high false-positive rate in individual thorough QTc trials. In such cases, simulations from an E-R model can aid in reconciling the results from the two methods and may support the use of E-R results as a basis for labeling.
Abstract: The metabolism and excretion of asenapine [(3aRS,12bRS)-5-chloro-2-methyl-2,3,3a,12b-tetrahydro-1H-dibenzo[2,3:6,7]-oxepino [4,5-c]pyrrole (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)] were studied after sublingual administration of [(14)C]-asenapine to healthy male volunteers. Mean total excretion on the basis of the percent recovery of the total radioactive dose was ∼90%, with ∼50% appearing in urine and ∼40% excreted in feces; asenapine itself was detected only in feces. Metabolic profiles were determined in plasma, urine, and feces using high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Approximately 50% of drug-related material in human plasma was identified or quantified. The remaining circulating radioactivity corresponded to at least 15 very polar, minor peaks (mostly phase II products). Overall, >70% of circulating radioactivity was associated with conjugated metabolites. Major metabolic routes were direct glucuronidation and N-demethylation. The principal circulating metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide; other circulating metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoyl-glucuronide, N-desmethylasenapine, and asenapine 11-O-sulfate. In addition to the parent compound, asenapine, the principal excretory metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide. Other excretory metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoylglucuronide, 11-hydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation, 10,11-dihydroxy-N-desmethylasenapine, 10,11-dihydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation (several combinations of these routes were found) and N-formylasenapine in combination with several hydroxylations, and most probably asenapine N-oxide in combination with 10,11-hydroxylations followed by conjugations. In conclusion, asenapine was extensively and rapidly metabolized, resulting in several regio-isomeric hydroxylated and conjugated metabolites.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics are not well understood. Drug exposure may increase in patients with hepatic disease, owing to a reduction of certain metabolic enzymes. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of asenapine and its N-desmethyl and N⁺-glucuronide metabolites. METHODS: Two clinical studies were performed to assess exposure to asenapine, desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time data, using standard noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic variables that were studied included the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t(max)). Eligible subjects, from inpatient and outpatient clinics, were aged ≥18 years with a body mass index of ≥18 kg/m² and ≤32 kg/m². Sublingual asenapine (Saphris®) was administered as a single 5 mg dose. RESULTS: Thirty subjects participated in the hepatic impairment study (normal hepatic function, n = 8; mild hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class A], n = 8; moderate hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class B], n = 8; severe hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class C], n = 6). Thirty-three subjects were enrolled in the renal impairment study (normal renal function, n = 9; mild renal impairment, n = 8; moderate renal impairment, n = 8; severe renal impairment, n = 8). Asenapine and N-desmethylasenapine exposures were unaltered in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, compared with healthy controls. Severe hepatic impairment was associated with increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) values for total asenapine, N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide (5-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively), with slight increases in the C(max) of asenapine but 3- and 2-fold decreases in the C(max) values for N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide, respectively, compared with healthy controls. The mean AUC(∞) of unbound asenapine was more than 7-fold higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment than in healthy controls. Mild renal impairment was associated with slight elevations in the AUC(∞) of asenapine compared with healthy controls; alterations observed with moderate and severe renal impairment were marginal. N-desmethylasenapine exposure was only slightly altered by renal impairment. No correlations were observed between exposure and creatinine clearance. CONCLUSION: Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) was associated with pronounced increases in asenapine exposure, but significant increases were not seen with mild (Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment, or with any degree of renal impairment. Asenapine is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment; no dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, or in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: This study aimed to demonstrate the added value of integrating prior in vitro data and knowledge-rich physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models with pharmacodynamics (PDs) models. Four distinct applications that were developed and tested are presented here. PBPK models were developed for metoprolol using different CYP2D6 genotypes based on in vitro data. Application of the models for prediction of phenotypic differences in the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and PD compared favorably with clinical data, demonstrating that these differences can be predicted prior to the availability of such data from clinical trials. In the second case, PK and PD data for an immediate release formulation of nifedipine together with in vitro dissolution data for a controlled release (CR) formulation were used to predict the PK and PD of the CR. This approach can be useful to pharmaceutical scientists during formulation development. The operational model of agonism was used in the third application to describe the hypnotic effects of triazolam, and this was successfully extrapolated to zolpidem by changing only the drug related parameters from in vitro experiments. This PBPK modeling approach can be useful to developmental scientists who which to compare several drug candidates in the same therapeutic class. Finally, differences in QTc prolongation due to quinidine in Caucasian and Korean females were successfully predicted by the model using free heart concentrations as an input to the PD models. This PBPK linked PD model was used to demonstrate a higher sensitivity to free heart concentrations of quinidine in Caucasian females, thereby providing a mechanistic understanding of a clinical observation. In general, permutations of certain conditions which potentially change PK and hence PD may not be amenable to the conduct of clinical studies but linking PBPK with PD provides an alternative method of investigating the potential impact of PK changes on PD.
Abstract: Asenapine is one of the newer atypical antipsychotics on the market. It is a sublingually administered drug that is indicated for the treatment of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and is considered to be safe and well tolerated. Herein, we report a 71-year-old female with a history of bipolar disorder who had ventricular trigemini and experienced a large increase in her QTc interval after starting treatment with asenapine. These changes ceased following withdrawal of asenapine. In this case report, we discuss the importance of cardiac monitoring when switching antipsychotics, even to those that are considered to have low cardiac risk.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been described for the determination of asenapine (ASE) in presence of its inactive metabolites-desmethyl asenapine (DMA) and asenapine--glucuronide (ASG). ASE, and ASE 13C-d3, used as internal standard (IS), were extracted from 300 µL human plasma by a simple and precise liquid-liquid extraction procedure using methyl-butyl ether. Baseline separation of ASE from its inactive metabolites was achieved on Chromolith Performance RP(100 mm × 4.6 mm) column using acetonitrile-5.0 mM ammonium acetate-10% formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) within 4.5 min. Quantitation of ASE was done on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for ASE and ASE 13C-d3 were286.1 → 166.0 and290.0 → 166.1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method were 0.0025 ng/mL and 0.050 ng/mL respectively in a linear concentration range of 0.050-20.0 ng/mL for ASE. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) and mean relative recovery across quality control levels were ≤ 5.8% and 87.3%, respectively. Matrix effect, evaluated as IS-normalized matrix factor, ranged from 1.03 to 1.05. The stability of ASE under different storage conditions was ascertained in presence of the metabolites. The developed method is much simpler, matrix free, rapid and economical compared to the existing methods. The method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of asenapine in healthy Indian subjects for the first time.