Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Nous n'avons pas de mise en garde supplémentaire concernant l'association de astémizole et de bépridil. Veuillez également consulter les informations pertinentes des spécialistes.
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. Nous n'avons détecté aucun changement dans l'exposition à la astémizole. Nous ne pouvons actuellement pas estimer l'influence de la bépridil. Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la bépridil, lorsqu'il est associé à la astémizole (100%).
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La astémizole a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer fortement avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 22 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 88 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est 100 % forte. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP2D6 et CYP3A4, entre autres.
La biodisponibilité de la bépridil est inconnue. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] n'est pas connue. Le métabolisme se fait principalement via CYP2D6.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø|
Note: À notre connaissance, ni la astémizole ni la bépridil n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Notation: À notre connaissance, ni la astémizole ni la bépridil n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Allongement du temps QT
Note: En association, la astémizole et la bépridil peuvent potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires de type torsades de pointes.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||ast||bép|
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: Bepridil is a calcium antagonist that prolongs the duration of ventricular repolarization, whereas CERM 4205, another calcium antagonist, seems to be devoid of any effect on QT interval. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of bepridil and CERM 4205 on the QT-RR relation at different heart rates during rest and exercise and the results of pharmacologic tests designed to vary neurovegetative tone. Twelve healthy men (21 to 37 years) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover, double-blind study and received either bepridil (200 mg/day twice daily) or CERM 4205 (200 mg/day twice daily), or matching placebo during three 14-day treatment periods at 2-week intervals. Bepridil, but not CERM 4205, caused a significant prolongation of resting QT interval. The RR-QT relation was monoexponential for all subjects during resting and exercising physiologic conditions and remained unchanged after 14 days with placebo or CERM 4205. Bepridil significantly shifted the relation upward, resulting in a rate-dependent QT prolongation that predominated during bradycardia. After isoprenaline, QT no longer adapted to changes in heart rate, whereas atropine resulted in a rate-dependent shortening in QT. These results suggest that bepridil and CERM 4205 exert different effects on ventricular repolarization, since only bepridil significantly prolonged QT duration. Bepridil-induced prolongation of QT increased at slow heart rates, which could explain the greater incidence of torsades de pointes in bradycardia.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Studies were undertaken with bepridil, a new calcium blocker that prolongs the QT interval, to determine the antiarrhythmic and possible arrhythmogenic properties of this agent. The technique of programmed electrical stimulation was employed to evaluate bepridil in 15 patients with symptomatic ventricular tachycardia (VT). Bepridil prevented VT induction in 7 of 15 patients. Bepridil prolonged the QT and refractoriness and a linear correlation could be demonstrated between the percent change in QTc and refractory period prolongation for the bepridil-protected group. Bepridil in one patient reduced by one the number of stimuli required to induce VT, but no spontaneous arrhythmias were noted. Bepridil thus possesses antiarrhythmic properties with a minimal proarrhythmic effect.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that female prevalence is greater than expected among reported cases of torsades de pointes associated with cardiovascular drugs that prolong cardiac repolarization. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search of the English-language literature for the period of 1980 through 1992, using the terms torsade de pointes, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, atypical ventricular tachycardia, proarrhythmia, and drug-induced ventricular tachycardia, supplemented by pertinent references (dating back to 1964) from the reviewed articles and by personal communications with researchers involved in this field. STUDY SELECTION: Ninety-three articles were identified describing at least one case of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (with gender specified) associated with quinidine, procainamide hydrochloride, disopyramide, amiodarone, sotalol hydrochloride, bepridil hydrochloride, or prenylamine. A total of 332 patients were included in the analysis following application of prospectively defined criteria (eg, corrected QT [QTc] interval of 0.45 second or greater while receiving drug). DATA EXTRACTION: Clinical and electrocardiographic descriptors were extracted for analysis. Expected female prevalence for torsades de pointes associated with quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide, and aminodarone was conservatively estimated from gender-specific data reported for antiarrhythmic drug prescriptions in 1986, as derived from the National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a large pharmaceutical database; expected female prevalence for torsades de pointes associated with sotalol, bepridil, and prenylamine was assumed to be 50% or less since these agents are prescribed for male-predominant cardiovascular conditions. RESULTS: Women made up 70% (95% confidence interval, 64% to 75%) of the 332 reported cases of cardiovascular-drug-related torsades de pointes, and a female prevalence exceeding 50% was observed in 20 (83%) of 24 studies having at least four included cases. When analyzed according to various descriptors, women still constituted the majority (range, 51% to 94% of torsades de pointes cases), irrespective of the presence or absence of underlying coronary artery or rheumatic heart disease, left ventricular dysfunction, type of underlying arrhythmia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, bradycardia, concomitant digoxin treatment, or level of QTc at baseline or while receiving drug. When cases of torsades de pointes were analyzed by individual drug, observed female prevalence was always greater than expected, representing a statistically significant difference (P < .05) for all agents except procainamide. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly suggest that women are more prone than men to develop torsades de pointes during administration of cardiovascular drugs that prolong cardiac repolarization. The pathophysiological basis for, and therapeutic implications of, this gender disparity should be further investigated.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate variability in the pharmacokinetics of bepridil in 38 Japanese patients with arrhythmias, and to investigate the effects of aprindine as well as CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms on the oral clearance of bepridil. We determined the polymorphic alleles of CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 in each subject. The plasma concentration of bepridil at steady-state following repetitive oral administration was measured with an HPLC-based method, and the oral clearance was estimated using the nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM) program. Mean oral clearance was significantly greater in the patients with the CYP2D6*10 allele than in those without it. On the other hand, no significant effect of the CYP3A5 polymorphism was observed on the pharmacokinetics of bepridil. In addition, aprindine seemed to reduce the oral clearance of bepridil in the patients with the CYP2D6*10 allele.
Abstract: Concomitant consumption of grapefruit juice (GFJ) causes increases in the plasma concentration of a variety of drugs due to inhibition of intestinal CYP3A enzyme. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers belong to the category of drugs that are most prone to undergo such interaction. Increases in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) due to GFJ differ greatly depending on the dihydropyridine administered. Therefore, a meta-analysis of each dihydropyridine was performed based on available literature. The criteria for using a publication were: subjects were healthy adults, dihydropyridines were taken with GFJ concomitantly or within one hour after intake of the juice, and the control group administered water in place of GFJ. In these studies, the investigations on GFJ interactions with 13 dihydropyridines such as amlodipine, azelnidipine, benidipine, cilnidipine, efonidipine, felodipine, manidipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nimodipine, nisoldipine, nitrendipine and pranidipine were reported. As a result of meta-analyses, statistically significant interactions were not identified in amlodipine. Next, correlation analyses between the physicochemical properties and interaction strengths of the dihydropyridines were performed to clarify the cause of the variation in the strengths that was dependent on the dihydropyridine. LogP, molecular weight, topological polar surface area (tPSA), molar refractivity, water diffusion, molecular volume, molecular density, molecular polarizability, and refractive index were calculated from the chemical structures. The interaction strength was defined as the logarithmic values of the increasing AUC ratio. The correlation analyses indicated a relationship of logP and tPSA with the interaction strengths. These findings suggest that the wide difference in the potency of interaction of each dihydropyridine may be explained by the presence of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between dihydropyridines and intestinal CYP3A enzyme.