Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
|Mal de crâne|
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Nous n'avons pas de mise en garde supplémentaire concernant l'association de astémizole et de isradipine. Veuillez également consulter les informations pertinentes des spécialistes.
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la astémizole, lorsqu'il est associé à la isradipine (100%). Nous n'avons détecté aucun changement dans l'exposition à la isradipine. Nous ne pouvons actuellement pas estimer l'influence de la astémizole.
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La astémizole a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer fortement avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 22 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 88 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est 100 % forte. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP2D6 et CYP3A4, entre autres.
La isradipine a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer fortement avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 8 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 32 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 95%. Le métabolisme se fait principalement via CYP3A4.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø|
Note: À notre connaissance, ni la astémizole ni la isradipine n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Notation: À notre connaissance, ni la astémizole ni la isradipine n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Allongement du temps QT
Note: En association, la astémizole et la isradipine peuvent potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires de type torsades de pointes.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||ast||isr|
|Œdème périphérique||19.7 %||n.a.||19.7|
|Mal de crâne||16.1 %||n.a.||16.1|
|Sensation de chaleur et de bouffées vasomotrices||3.1 %||n.a.||3.1|
|Infarctus du myocarde||0.8 %||n.a.||0.8|
|Accident ischémique transitoire||0.8 %||n.a.||0.8|
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) is believed to reflect sympathovagal balance. It has also been established that beta-blockers and dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blockers (DHPCCB) influence the autonomic nervous system. This study tested the hypothesis that QTc interval length is a predictor of the blood pressure reduction induced by beta1-selective beta-blockers or DHPCCB. The predictive values of pretreatment heart rate and of the heart rate change with therapy were also evaluated. The authors conducted an historical reanalysis of 5 clinical trials that looked at the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers (nebivolol) or DHPCCB (amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, nifedipine). Correlation and quintile analyses were performed to measure the association between QTc interval, heart rate, or heart rate change and therapeutic blood pressure response. Separate analyses were undertaken for beta-blockers and DHPCCB. Seventy-three and 98 hypertensive subjects respectively were included in the beta-blocker and DHPCCB analyses. QTc interval, pretreatment heart rate, and heart rate change with therapy were not associated with therapeutic blood pressure response. In this study, QTc interval length, pretreatment heart rate, and heart rate change with therapy were not good predictors of the blood pressure response to beta1-selective beta-blockers or DHPCCB in hypertensive subjects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To study whether NOS1AP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10494366 T>G and rs10918594 C>G, modify the heart-rate-corrected QT (QTc) prolonging effect of calcium channel blockers. BACKGROUND: Common variation in the NOS1AP gene has been associated with QT interval variation in several large population samples. NOS1 is presumed to influence intracellular calcium. METHODS: The prospective population-based Rotterdam Study includes 16 603 ECGs from 7565 participants (>or=55 years), after exclusion of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, left and right bundle branch block, as well as carriers of pacemakers. The endpoint was the length of the QTc interval in calcium channel blocker users and non-users with the minor alleles compared with the major alleles (wild type). We used a repeated-measurement analysis, adjusted for all known confounders. RESULTS: Use of verapamil was associated with a significant QTc interval prolongation [6.0 ms 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7; 10.2] compared with non-users. Furthermore, users of verapamil with the rs10494366 GG genotype showed significantly more QTc prolongation than users with the TT genotype [25.4 ms (95% CI: 5.9-44.9)] (P value for multiplicative interaction 0.0038). Users of isradipine with the GG genotype showed more QTc prolongation than users with the TT genotype [19.8 ms (95% CI: 1.9-37.7)]; however, SNP rs10494366 did not modify the effect on QTc interval on a multiplicative scale (P=0.3563). SNP rs10918594 showed similar results. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we showed that the minor alleles of both NOS1AP SNPs significantly potentiate the QTc prolonging effect of verapamil.
Abstract: Drug discovery and development is a high-risk enterprise that requires significant investments in capital, time and scientific expertise. The studies of xenobiotic metabolism remain as one of the main topics in the research and development of drugs, cosmetics and nutritional supplements. Antihypertensive drugs are used for the treatment of high blood pressure, which is one the most frequent symptoms of the patients that undergo cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infraction and strokes. In current cardiovascular disease pharmacology, four drug clusters - Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Beta-Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers and Diuretics - cover the major therapeutic characteristics of the most antihypertensive drugs. The pharmacokinetic and specifically the metabolic profile of the antihypertensive agents are intensively studied because of the broad inter-individual variability on plasma concentrations and the diversity on the efficacy response especially due to the P450 dependent metabolic status they present. Several computational methods have been developed with the aim to: (i) model and better understand the human drug metabolism; and (ii) enhance the experimental investigation of the metabolism of small xenobiotic molecules. The main predictive tools these methods employ are rule-based approaches, quantitative structure metabolism/activity relationships and docking approaches. This review paper provides detailed metabolic profiles of the major clusters of antihypertensive agents, including their metabolites and their metabolizing enzymes, and it also provides specific information concerning the computational approaches that have been used to predict the metabolic profile of several antihypertensive drugs.