Extension de temps QT
Effets indésirables des médicaments
Variantes ✨Pour l'évaluation intensive en calcul des variantes, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications pour les patients
L'administration de voriconazole et de midazolam est contre-indiquée.
Augmentation de la concentration de midazolam - sédation accrue et prolongéeMécanisme: le midazolam est métabolisé par le CYP3A4. Les antimycotiques azolés sont des inhibiteurs du CYP3A4, qui peuvent inhiber la dégradation du midazolam et entraîner une augmentation des concentrations de benzodiazépines.
Effet: L'administration simultanée d'inhibiteurs puissants du CYP3A4 tels que l'itraconazole ou le voriconazole avec du midazolam est contre-indiquée selon les informations techniques suisses. Des études ont montré qu'avec l'association, l'ASC du midazolam augmentait jusqu'à 10 fois, avec une demi-vie également jusqu'à 4 fois plus longue. Les effets peuvent être intensifiés et prolongés (par exemple, sédation accrue, somnolence, ataxie, dysarthrie, nystagmus).
Mesures: L'utilisation simultanée est contre-indiquée. Des hypnotiques alternatifs, tels que les benzodiazépines lorazépam ou oxazépam, qui ne sont pas métabolisés par les enzymes CYP, doivent être utilisés.
|Voriconazole||1.55 [0.99,3.19] 1||1.55||1|
Les changements d'exposition mentionnés sont liés aux changements de la courbe concentration plasmatique en fonction du temps [ASC]. L'exposition à la voriconazole augmente à 155%, lorsqu'il est associé à la cimétidine (155%) et à la midazolam (100%). L'ASC est comprise entre 99% et 319% selon le
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La voriconazole a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 88%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à peu changer pendant une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 6 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est plutôt faible à 58% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 90 litres, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut augmenter l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP2C19, CYP2C9 et le CYP3A4, entre autres.
La cimétidine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 65%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 1.6333333 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très faible à 19% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 91 litres. Le métabolisme ne se fait pas via les cytochromes communs et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via BCRP et PGP.
La midazolam a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 29%, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer de manière significative avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 4.1 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 94.3% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 147 litres, c'est pourquoi, à un taux d'extraction hépatique moyen de 0,9, le débit sanguin hépatique [Q] et une modification de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] sont pertinents. Le métabolisme s'effectue principalement via le CYP3A4 et le transport actif se fait notamment via UGT1A4.
|Les scores||∑ Points||vor||cim||mid|
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Évaluation: Selon nos connaissances, ni la voriconazole, cimétidine ni la midazolam n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Les scores||∑ Points||vor||cim||mid|
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à des doses dans l'intervalle thérapeutique supérieur.
Évaluation: La cimétidine n'a qu'un effet léger sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la posologie se situe dans la plage habituelle. Selon nos résultats, la voriconazole n'augmente pas l'activité anticholinergique. L'effet anticholinergique de la midazolam est insignifiant.
Extension de temps QT
|Les scores||∑ Points||vor||cim||mid|
Évaluation: En association, la voriconazole et la cimétidine peuvent potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires de type torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la midazolam.
Effets secondaires généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ la fréquence||vor||cim||mid|
|Vision floue||26.0 %||26.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|Douleur abdominale||12.0 %||12.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|Mal de crâne||9.8 %||3.0||n.a.||7.0↑|
|Démangeaison de la peau||7.0 %||7.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|La nausée||6.3 %||5.4||n.a.||+|
Photophobie (6%): voriconazole
Névrite optique: voriconazole
Fièvre (5.7%): voriconazole
Hépatite cholestatique (4.9%): voriconazole
Hépatotoxicité (1.9%): voriconazole
Jaunisse (1.9%): voriconazole
Insuffisance hépatique (1.9%): voriconazole
Vomissements (4.4%): voriconazole
La diarrhée (1.9%): voriconazole
Pancréatite: voriconazole, cimétidine
Gynécomastie (4%): cimétidine
Œdème périphérique (1.9%): voriconazole
Insuffisance cardiaque: midazolam
Érythème polymorphe (1.9%): voriconazole
Mélanome malin (1.9%): voriconazole
Carcinome squameux (1.9%): voriconazole
Syndrome de Stevens-Johnson (1.9%): voriconazole
Nécrolyse épidermique toxique (1.9%): voriconazole
Effet de hangover: midazolam
Troubles de la cognition: midazolam
Insuffisance rénale: voriconazole
Comportement agressif: midazolam
La dépression: midazolam
Dépression respiratoire: midazolam
Sur la base de vos
Abstract: Midazolam is a short-acting water-soluble benzodiazepine (at pH less than 4), a member of a new class of imidazobenzodiazepine derivatives. At physiological pH the drug becomes much more lipid soluble. Water solubility minimises pain on injection and venous thrombosis compared with diazepam administered in organic solvent. Midazolam is a hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and marked amnestic properties. To date it has been used mostly by the intravenous route, for sedation in dentistry and endoscopic procedures and as an adjunct to local anaesthetic techniques. It has proved less reliable than thiopentone, but preferable to diazepam, as an intravenous induction agent and is unlikely to replace the other well established drugs. However, due to the cardiorespiratory stability following its administration, midazolam is useful for anaesthetic induction in poor-risk, elderly and cardiac patients. The short elimination half-life (1.5-3.5h) and the absence of clinically important long acting metabolites make midazolam suitable for long term infusion as a sedative and amnestic for intensive care, but clinical trials have yet to be completed. Thus, a combination of properties make midazolam a useful addition to the benzodiazepine group.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of midazolam. METHODS: Eight healthy male subjects participated in this open crossover study. Intravenous (5 mg) or oral (15 mg) midazolam was administered after pretreatment with water or grapefruit juice. We measured the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (reaction time, Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], general impression judged by the investigators, and drug effect judged by the subjects) of midazolam and the pharmacokinetics of alpha-hydroxymidazolam. RESULTS: In comparison to water, pretreatment with grapefruit juice did not change the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of intravenous midazolam. After oral administration, pretreatment with grapefruit juice led to a 56% increase in peak plasma concentration (Cmax), a 79% increase in time to reach Cmax (tmax), and a 52% increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of midazolam, which was associated with an increase in the bioavailability from 24% +/- 3% (water) to 35% +/- 3% (Grapefruit juice; mean +/- SEM, p < 0.01) After oral administration of midazolam, pretreatment with grapefruit juice was associated with a 105% increase in tmax and with a 30% increase in the AUC of alpha-hydroxymidazolam. For oral midazolam, pretreatment with grapefruit juice led to significant increases in tmax for all dynamic parameters and in the AUC values for the reaction time and DSST, whereas the maximal dynamic effects remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with grapefruit juice is associated with increased bioavailability and changes in the pharmacodynamics of midazolam that may be clinically important, particularly in patients with other causes for increased midazolam bioavailability such as advanced age, cirrhosis of the liver, and administration of other inhibitors of cytochrome P450.
Abstract: Interaction between ketoconazole, itraconazole, and midazolam was investigated in a double-blind, randomized crossover study of three phases at intervals of 4 weeks. Nine volunteers were given either 400 mg ketoconazole, 200 mg itraconazole, or matched placebo orally once daily for 4 days. On day 4, the subjects ingested 7.5 mg midazolam. Plasma samples were collected and psychomotor performance was measured. Both ketoconazole and itraconazole increased the area under the midazolam concentration-time curve from 10 to 15 times (p < 0.001) and mean peak concentrations three to four times (p < 0.001) compared with the placebo phase. In psychomotor tests (e.g., the Digit Symbol Substitution Test), the interaction was statistically significant (p < 0.05) until at least 6 hours after drug administration. Inhibition of the cytochrome P450IIIA by ketoconazole and itraconazole may explain the observed pharmacokinetic interaction. Prescription of midazolam for patients receiving ketoconazole and itraconazole should be avoided.
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: Twelve healthy volunteers were given orally placebo, itraconazole 100 mg or terbinafine 250 mg for 4 days. Midazolam 7.5 mg was ingested on the fourth day, after which plasma samples were collected and psychomotor performance tests carried out for 17 h. Itraconazole increased the area under the midazolam concentration-time curve six-fold (P < 0.001), the peak concentration 2.5-fold (P < 0.001) and the elimination half-life two-fold (P < 0.001) compared with placebo and terbinafine pretreatments. The pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ between placebo and terbinafine phases. The higher concentrations of midazolam during the itraconazole phase were associated with increased effects. In contrast to itraconazole, terbinafine had no effect on midazolam pharmacokinetics and psychomotor performance tests were unchanged from placebo.
Abstract: We studied the interaction of azole antimycotics with intravenous (IV) and oral midazolam using a cross-over design in 12 volunteers, who ingested placebo, itraconazole, or fluconazole for 6 days. A 7.5-mg dose of midazolam was ingested on the first day, 0.05 mg/kg was administered IV on the fourth day, and 7.5 mg orally on the sixth day. Itraconazole reduced the clearance of IV midazolam by 69% and fluconazole reduced the clearance of IV midazolam by 51% (P < 0.001). A single dose of itraconazole and fluconazole increased the area under the oral midazolam concentration-time curve [AUC(0-infinity)] 3.5-fold (P < 0.001) and the peak concentration two-fold (P < 0.05) compared to placebo. On the sixth day the AUC(0-infinity) of oral midazolam was almost seven times greater with itraconazole (P < 0.001) and 3.6 times greater with fluconazole (P < 0.001) than without the antimycotics. The psychomotor effects of midazolam were also profoundly increased (P < 0.001). The psychomotor tests demonstrated only a weak interaction between the antimycotics and IV midazolam. When bolus doses of midazolam are given for short- time sedation, the effect of midazolam is not increased to a clinically significant degree by itraconazole and fluconazole, and it can be used in normal doses. However, the use of large doses of IV midazolam increases the risk of clinically significant interactions also after IV midazolam. Use of oral midazolam with itraconazole and fluconazole should be avoided.
Abstract: We have examined the effect of fentanyl on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Thirty patients were allocated randomly to receive fentanyl 200 micrograms and midazolam 0.2 mg kg-1 (fentanyl group, n = 15) or placebo and midazolam 0.2 mg kg-1 (placebo group, n = 15) in a double-blind manner for induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and isoflurane. Systemic clearance of midazolam was decreased by 30% (P = 0.002) and elimination half-time was prolonged by 50% (P = 0.04) in the fentanyl group compared with the placebo group. There were no differences in the distribution half-time or volume of distribution at steady state between the two groups. These findings indicate that elimination of midazolam was inhibited by fentanyl during general anaesthesia.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor saquinavir on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral and intravenous midazolam. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, two-phase crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers (six men and six women; age range, 21 to 32 years) received oral doses of either 1200 mg saquinavir (Fortovase soft-gel capsule formulation) or placebo three times a day for 5 days. On day 3, six subjects were given 7.5 mg oral midazolam and the other six subjects received 0.05 mg/kg intravenous midazolam. On day 5, the subjects who had received oral midazolam on day 3 received intravenously midazolam and vice versa. Plasma concentrations of midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam, and saquinavir were determined for 18 hours after midazolam administration, and midazolam effects were measured up to 7 hours by six psychomotor tests. RESULTS: Saquinavir increased the bioavailability of oral midazolam from 41% to 90% (P < .005), the peak midazolam plasma concentration more than twofold, and the area under plasma concentration-time curve more than fivefold (P < .001). During saquinavir treatment, five of the six psychomotor tests revealed impaired skills and increased sedative effects after midazolam ingestion (P < .05). Saquinavir decreased the clearance of intravenous midazolam by 56% (P < .001) and increased its elimination half-life from 4.1 to 9.5 hours (P < .01). After intravenous midazolam, only the subjective feeling of drug effect was increased significantly (P < .05) by saquinavir. CONCLUSION: The dose of oral midazolam should be greatly reduced or avoided with saquinavir, but bolus doses of intravenous midazolam can probably be used quite safely. During a prolonged midazolam infusion, an initial dose reduction of 50% followed by careful titration is recommended to counteract the reduced clearance caused by saquinavir.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Understanding drug interactions between antiretrovirals and opiate therapies may decrease toxicities and enhance adherence, with improved HIV outcomes in injection drug users. We report results of a clinical pharmacology study designed to examine the interaction of the protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, with methadone and LAAM (N = 48). Nelfinavir decreased methadone exposure, but no withdrawal was observed over the five day study period. LAAM and dinorLAAM concentrations were decreased, while norLAAM concentrations were increased, with minimal overall change in LAAM/metabolite exposure. Methadone and LAAM did not affect nelfinavir concentrations, but methadone decreased M8 metabolite exposure. While no toxicities were observed, clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug interactions when patients require treatment with nelfinavir and these opiate medications.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: This investigation determined the ability of alfentanil miosis and single-point concentrations to detect various degrees of CYP3A inhibition. Results were compared with those for midazolam, an alternative CYP3A probe. Twelve volunteers were studied in a randomized 4-way crossover, targeting 12%, 25%, and 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A. They received 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg oral fluconazole, followed 1 hour later by 1 mg intravenous midazolam and then 15 microg/kg intravenous alfentanil 1 hour later. The next day, they received fluconazole, followed by 3 mg oral midazolam and 40 microg/kg oral alfentanil. Dark-adapted pupil diameters were measured coincident with blood sampling. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios (fluconazole/control) after 100, 200, and 400 mg fluconazole were (geometric mean) 1.3*, 1.4*, and 2.0* for intravenous midazolam and 1.2*, 1.6*, and 2.2* for intravenous alfentanil (*significantly different from control), indicating 16% to 21%, 31% to 36%, and 43% to 53% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A. Single-point concentration ratios were 1.5*, 1.8*, and 2.4* for intravenous midazolam (at 5 hours) and 1.2*, 1.6*, and 2.2* for intravenous alfentanil (at 4 hours). Pupil miosis AUC ratios were 0.9, 1.0, and 1.2*. After oral dosing, plasma AUC ratios were 2.3*, 3.6*, and 5.3* for midazolam and 1.8*, 2.9*, and 4.9* for alfentanil; plasma single-point ratios were 2.4*, 4.5*, and 6.9* for midazolam and 1.8*, 2.9*, and 4.9* for alfentanil, and alfentanil miosis ratios were 1.1, 1.9*, and 2.7*. Plasma concentration AUC ratios of alfentanil and midazolam were equivalent for detecting hepatic and first-pass CYP3A inhibition. Single-point concentrations were an acceptable surrogate for formal AUC determinations and as sensitive as AUCs for detecting CYP3A inhibition. Alfentanil miosis could detect 50% to 70% inhibition of CYP3A activity, but was less sensitive than plasma AUCs. Further refinements are needed to increase the sensitivity of alfentanil miosis for detecting small CYP3A changes.
Abstract: This review presents the published clinical pharmacokinetic data for the antifungal agent voriconazole. Aspects regarding absorption, tissue distribution, elimination and kinetic interactions are also discussed.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effect of the antimycotic voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral and intravenous midazolam. METHODS: We used a randomized, crossover study design. Ten healthy male volunteers were given either no pretreatment (control phase) or voriconazole (voriconazole phase) orally, 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily on the second day. Midazolam was given, either 0.05 mg/kg intravenously or 7.5 mg orally, 1 hour after the last dose of voriconazole and during the control phase. Plasma concentrations of midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam, and voriconazole were determined for 24 hours and pharmacodynamic variables measured for 12 hours. RESULTS: Voriconazole reduced the clearance of intravenous midazolam by 72% (P < .001) and increased its elimination half-life from 2.8 to 8.3 hours (P < .001). Voriconazole increased the peak concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of oral midazolam by 3.8- and 10.3-fold, respectively (P < .001). The bioavailability of oral midazolam was increased from 31% to 84% (P < .001). Voriconazole profoundly increased the psychomotor effects of oral midazolam (P < .001) but only weakly increased the effects of intravenous midazolam. CONCLUSION: When midazolam is given as small intravenous bolus doses, its effect is not increased to a clinically significant degree by voriconazole. The use of large midazolam doses increases the risk of clinically significant interactions also after its intravenous administration. The use of oral midazolam with voriconazole should be avoided, or substantially lower doses should be used.
Abstract: Voriconazole is the first available second-generation triazole with potent activity against a broad spectrum of clinically significant fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus,Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, and some less common moulds. Voriconazole is rapidly absorbed within 2 hours after oral administration and the oral bioavailability is over 90%, thus allowing switching between oral and intravenous formulations when clinically appropriate. Voriconazole shows nonlinear pharmacokinetics due to its capacity-limited elimination, and its pharmacokinetics are therefore dependent upon the administered dose. With increasing dose, voriconazole shows a superproportional increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). In doses used in children (age < 12 years) voriconazole pharmacokinetics appear to be linear. Steady-state plasma concentrations are reached approximately 5 days after both intravenous and oral administration; however, steady state is reached within 24 hours with voriconazole administered as an intravenous loading dose. The volume of distribution of voriconazole is 2-4.6 L/kg, suggesting extensive distribution into extracellular and intracellular compartments. Voriconazole was measured in tissue samples of brain, liver, kidney, heart, lung as well as cerebrospinal fluid. The plasma protein binding is about 60% and independent of dose or plasma concentrations. Clearance is hepatic via N-oxidation by the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. The elimination half-life of voriconazole is approximately 6 hours, and approximately 80% of the total dose is recovered in the urine, almost completely as metabolites. As with other azole drugs, the potential for drug interactions is considerable. Voriconazole shows time-dependent fungistatic activity against Candida species and time-dependent slow fungicidal activity against Aspergillus species. A short post-antifungal effect of voriconazole is evident only for Aspergillus species. The predictive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter for voriconazole treatment efficacy in Candida infections is the free drug AUC from 0 to 24 hour : minimum inhibitory concentration ratio.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: We describe 2 patients who developed prolonged QTc interval on electrocardiogram while being treated with voriconazole. The first patient had undergone induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia, and her course had been complicated by invasive aspergillosis and an acute cardiomyopathy. She developed torsades de pointes 3 weeks after starting voriconazole therapy. She was re-challenged with voriconazole without recurrent QTc prolongation or cardiac dysfunction. The second patient had a significantly prolonged QTc interval while on voriconazole therapy. We recommend careful monitoring for QTc prolongation and arrhythmia in patients who are receiving voriconazole, particularly those who have significant electrolyte disturbances, are on concomitant QT prolonging medications, have heart failure such as from a dilated cardiomyopathy, or have recently received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The potential for synergistic cardiotoxicity must be carefully considered.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Armodafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent, is the pure R-enantiomer of racemic modafinil. The objective of this article is to summarize the results of three clinical drug-interaction studies assessing the potential for drug interactions of armodafinil with agents metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes 1A2, 3A4 and 2C19. Study 1 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to induce the activity of CYP1A2 using oral caffeine as the probe substrate. Study 2 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to induce gastrointestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 activity using intravenous and oral midazolam as the probe substrate. Study 3 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to inhibit the activity of CYP2C19 using oral omeprazole as the probe substrate. METHODS: Healthy men and nonpregnant women aged 18-45 years with a body mass index of </=30 kg/m(2) each participated in one of three open-label studies. Studies 1 and 2 were sequential design studies in which caffeine (oral 200 mg) or midazolam (2 mg intravenously followed by 5 mg orally) was administered before initiation of oral armodafinil administration and again after at least 22 days of oral armodafinil administration at 250 mg/day. Study 3 was a two-way crossover study in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers to whom omeprazole (oral 40 mg) was administered alone or with oral administration of armodafinil 400 mg 2 hours before the omeprazole dose. Pharmacokinetic samples were obtained for caffeine, midazolam and omeprazole for up to 48 hours postdose. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters included the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(infinity)) and the maximum observed drug plasma concentration (C(max)). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 77 healthy subjects participated in the three studies (study 1, n = 29; study 2, n = 24; study 3, n = 24). Prolonged armodafinil administration had no effect on the C(max) or the AUC of oral caffeine compared with administration of caffeine alone. However, prolonged administration of armodafinil reduced the AUC of midazolam after intravenous and oral doses by approximately 17% and 32%, respectively, and decreased the C(max) of oral midazolam by approximately 19% compared with administration of midazolam alone. Armodafinil coadministration increased the AUC of oral omeprazole by approximately 38% compared with administration of omeprazole alone. Armodafinil alone or in combination with each of the three probe substrates was well tolerated, with headache and dizziness being the most commonly reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Armodafinil did not induce CYP1A2 but was a moderate inducer of CYP3A4 and a moderate inhibitor of CYP2C19 in healthy subjects. Armodafinil was generally well tolerated when administered with caffeine, midazolam or omeprazole. Dosage adjustments may be required for drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 (e.g. ciclosporin, triazolam) and CYP2C19 enzymes (e.g. diazepam, phenytoin) when administered with armodafinil.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: AIMS: To compare midazolam kinetics between plasma and saliva and to find out whether saliva is suitable for CYP3A phenotyping. METHODS: This was a two way cross-over study in eight subjects treated with 2 mg midazolam IV or 7.5 mg orally under basal conditions and after CYP3A induction with rifampicin. RESULTS: Under basal conditions and IV administration, midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam (plasma, saliva), 4-hydroxymidazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam-glucuronide (plasma) were detectable. After rifampicin, the AUC of midazolam [mean differences plasma 53.7 (95% CI 4.6, 102.9) and saliva 0.83 (95% CI 0.52, 1.14) ng ml(-1) h] and 1'-hydroxymidazolam [mean difference plasma 11.8 (95% CI 7.9 , 15.7) ng ml(-1) h] had decreased significantly. There was a significant correlation between the midazolam concentrations in plasma and saliva (basal conditions: r = 0.864, P < 0.0001; after rifampicin: r = 0.842, P < 0.0001). After oral administration and basal conditions, midazolam, 1'-hydroxymidazolam and 4-hydroxymidazolam were detectable in plasma and saliva. After treatment with rifampicin, the AUC of midazolam [mean difference plasma 104.5 (95% CI 74.1, 134.9) ng ml(-1) h] and 1'-hydroxymidazolam [mean differences plasma 51.9 (95% CI 34.8, 69.1) and saliva 2.3 (95% CI 1.9, 2.7) ng ml(-1) h] had decreased significantly. The parameters separating best between basal conditions and post-rifampicin were: (1'-hydroxymidazolam + 1'-hydroxymidazolam-glucuronide)/midazolam at 20-30 min (plasma) and the AUC of midazolam (saliva) after IV, and the AUC of midazolam (plasma) and of 1'-hydroxymidazolam (plasma and saliva) after oral administration. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva appears to be a suitable matrix for non-invasive CYP3A phenotyping using midazolam as a probe drug, but sensitive analytical methods are required.
Abstract: AIMS: Midazolam (MDZ) is a benzodiazepine used as a CYP3A4 probe in clinical and in vitro studies. A glucuronide metabolite of MDZ has been identified in vitro in human liver microsome (HLM) incubations. The primary aim of this study was to understand the in vivo relevance of this pathway. METHODS: An authentic standard of N-glucuronide was generated from microsomal incubations and isolated using solid-phase extraction. The structure was confirmed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (1)H-(13)C long range correlation experiments. The metabolite was quantified in vivo in human urine samples. Enzyme kinetic behaviour of the pathway was investigated in HLM and recombinant UGT (rUGT) enzymes. Additionally, preliminary experiments were performed with 1'-OH midazolam (1'-OH MDZ) and 4-OH-midazolam (4-OH MDZ) to investigate N-glucuronidation. RESULTS: NMR data confirmed conjugation of midazolam N-glucuronide (MDZG) standard to be on the alpha-nitrogen of the imidazole ring. In vivo, MDZG in the urine accounted for 1-2% of the administered dose. In vitro incubations confirmed UGT1A4 as the enzyme of interest. The pathway exhibited atypical kinetics and a substrate inhibitory cooperative binding model was applied to determine K(m) (46 microM, 64 microM), V(max) (445 pmol min(-1) mg(-1), 427 pmol min(-1) mg(-1)) and K(i) (58 microM, 79 microM) in HLM and rUGT1A4, respectively. From incubations with HLM and rUGT enzymes, N-glucuronidation of 1'-OH MDZ and 4-OH MDZ is also inferred. CONCLUSIONS: A more complete picture of MDZ metabolism and the enzymes involved has been elucidated. Direct N-glucuronidation of MDZ occurs in vivo. Pharmacokinetic modelling using Simcyp illustrates an increased role for UGT1A4 under CYP3A inhibited conditions.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole and the potential correlations between pharmacokinetic parameters and patient variables in liver transplant patients on a fixed-dose prophylactic regimen. Multiple blood samples were collected within one dosing interval from 15 patients who were initiated on a prophylactic regimen of voriconazole at 200 mg enterally (tablets) twice daily starting immediately posttransplant. Voriconazole plasma concentrations were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. The mean apparent systemic clearance over bioavailability (CL/F), apparent steady-state volume of distribution over bioavailability (Vss/F), and half-life (t1/2) were 5.8+/-5.5 liters/h, 94.5+/-54.9 liters, and 15.7+/-7.0 h, respectively. There was a good correlation between the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) and trough voriconazole plasma concentrations. t1/2, maximum drug concentration in plasma (Cmax), trough level, AUC0-infinity, area under the first moment of the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUMC0-infinity), and mean residence time from 0 h to infinity (MRT0-infinity) were significantly correlated with postoperative time. t1/2, lambda, AUC0-infinity, and CL/F were significantly correlated with indices of liver function (aspartate transaminase [AST], total bilirubin, and international normalized ratio [INR]). The Cmax, last concentration in plasma at 12 h (Clast), AUMC0-infinity, and MRT0-infinity were significantly lower in the presence of deficient CYP2C19*2 alleles. Donor characteristics had no significant correlation with any of the pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. A fixed dosing regimen of voriconazole results in a highly variable exposure of voriconazole in liver transplant patients. Given that trough voriconazole concentration is a good measure of drug exposure (AUC), the voriconazole dose can be individualized based on trough concentration measurements in liver transplant patients.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: The accurate estimation of "in vivo" inhibition constants () of inhibitors and fraction metabolized () of substrates is highly important for drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. We hypothesized that analysis of the pharmacokinetic alterations of substrate metabolites in addition to the parent drug would enable accurate estimation of in vivoandTwenty-four pharmacokinetic DDIs caused by P450 inhibition were analyzed with PBPK models using an emerging parameter estimation method, the cluster Newton method, which enables efficient estimation of a large number of parameters to describe the pharmacokinetics of parent and metabolized drugs. For each DDI, two analyses were conducted (with or without substrate metabolite data), and the parameter estimates were compared with each other. In 17 out of 24 cases, inclusion of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis improved the reliability of bothandImportantly, the estimatedfor the same inhibitor from different DDI studies was generally consistent, suggesting that the estimatedfrom one study can be reliably used for the prediction of untested DDI cases with different victim drugs. Furthermore, a large discrepancy was observed between the reported in vitroand the in vitro estimates for some inhibitors, and the current in vivoestimates might be used as reference values when optimizing in vitro-in vivo extrapolation strategies. These results demonstrated that better use of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis of clinical DDI data can improve reliability of top-down parameter estimation and prediction of untested DDIs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.