Extension de temps QT
Effets indésirables des médicaments
|Mal de crâne|
|Sensation de chaleur et de bouffées vasomotrices|
Variantes ✨Pour l'évaluation intensive en calcul des variantes, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications pour les patients
Surveillance de la cimétidine et de la nifedipine recommandée.
Augmentation des concentrations de nifédipineMécanisme: la cimétidine inhibe le métabolisme hépatique de la nifédipine.
Effet: L'ASC de la nifédipine est augmentée d'environ 80% en association avec la cimétidine. Conséquences possibles: maux de tête, œdème périphérique, hypotension, tachycardie.
Mesures: Vérifiez régulièrement la tension artérielle et la fréquence cardiaque. Si nécessaire, réduisez la dose de nifédipine.
Surveillance de la cimétidine et de la vérapamil recommandée.
Augmentation des concentrations de vérapamilMécanisme: la cimétidine inhibe le métabolisme hépatique du vérapamil.
Effet: La clairance du vérapamil est réduite de 21% en association avec la cimétidine. Les niveaux élevés peuvent entraîner un risque accru de cardiotoxicité.
Mesures: Surveiller cliniquement la fonction cardiaque. Vérifiez régulièrement la tension artérielle et la fréquence cardiaque.
Les changements d'exposition mentionnés sont liés aux changements de la courbe concentration plasmatique en fonction du temps [ASC]. L'exposition à la nifedipine augmente à 310%, lorsqu'il est associé à la vérapamil (139%) et à la cimétidine (182%). Cela peut entraîner une augmentation des effets secondaires. L'exposition à la vérapamil augmente à 130%, lorsqu'il est associé à la nifedipine (108%) et à la cimétidine (119%). Nous n'avons détecté aucune modification de l'exposition à la cimétidine. Nous ne pouvons actuellement pas estimer l'influence de la nifedipine et de la vérapamil.
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La nifedipine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 54%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 2 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 95% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est de 54 litres, c'est pourquoi, à un taux d'extraction hépatique moyen de 0,9, le débit sanguin hépatique [Q] et une modification de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] sont pertinents. Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP1A2 et le CYP3A4, entre autres et le transport actif se fait notamment via BCRP.
La vérapamil a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 26%, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer de manière significative avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 3.4 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 91% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 616 litres, cependant, comme la substance a un taux d'extraction hépatique élevé de 0,9, seules les modifications du débit sanguin hépatique [Q] sont pertinentes. Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 et le CYP3A4, entre autres et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via OATP1A2 et PGP.
La cimétidine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 65%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 1.6333333 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très faible à 19% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 91 litres. Le métabolisme ne se fait pas via les cytochromes communs et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via BCRP et PGP.
|Les scores||∑ Points||nif||vér||cim|
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Évaluation: Selon nos connaissances, ni la nifedipine, vérapamil ni la cimétidine n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Les scores||∑ Points||nif||vér||cim|
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||Ø||+|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à des doses dans l'intervalle thérapeutique supérieur.
Évaluation: La cimétidine n'a qu'un effet léger sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la posologie se situe dans la plage habituelle. Selon nos résultats, ni la nifedipine ni la vérapamil n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Extension de temps QT
|Les scores||∑ Points||nif||vér||cim|
Recommandation: Veuillez vous assurer que les facteurs de risque influençables sont minimisés. Les perturbations électrolytiques telles que de faibles niveaux de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium doivent être compensées. La dose efficace la plus faible de cimétidine doit être utilisée.
Évaluation: La cimétidine peut potentiellement prolonger le temps QT et s'il existe des facteurs de risque, les arythmies de type torsades de pointes peuvent être favorisées. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la nifedipine et la vérapamil.
Effets secondaires généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ la fréquence||nif||vér||cim|
|Mal de crâne||26.6 %||21.0↑||7.2||n.a.|
|Sensation de chaleur et de bouffées vasomotrices||15.4 %||14.5↑||+||n.a.|
|Œdème périphérique||13.3 %||10.0↑||3.7||n.a.|
|Hypotension orthostatique||2.3 %||n.a.||2.3||n.a.|
|La nausée||2.0 %||+||+||n.a.|
Nervosité: nifedipine, vérapamil
Infarctus du myocarde: nifedipine
Bloc auriculo-ventriculaire: vérapamil
Nécrolyse épidermique toxique: nifedipine
Sur la base de vos
Abstract: A compilation of drug interactions between H2 antagonists and cardiovascular drugs is found in Table I. Cimetidine's potency, lipophilicity, and affinity for binding to the P-450 cytochrome system can probably be attributed to the drug interactions that have been identified with the H2 antagonists. The mechanism for most cimetidine drug interactions is inhibition of hepatic metabolism. There is conflicting evidence regarding significance of altered liver blood flow for both cimetidine and ranitidine and their influence on other agents. Cimetidine may increase propranolol's blood concentrations and potentiate beta blocking effects through inhibition of hepatic microsomal enzymes and possibly through reduction of hepatic blood flow. Ranitidine has no effect on propranolol. Cimetidine, when administered concurrently with metoprolol, could possibly cause an increase in plasma metoprolol concentrations or bioavailability through inhibition of hepatic P-450 metabolizing enzymes. No effect of cimetidine on metoprolol pharmacodynamics was evident. Ranitidine has no effect on metoprolol pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Neither H2 antagonist altered the kinetics or physiologic effects of atenolol. Atenolol is the drug of choice in patients receiving H2 antagonists, since no interaction has been observed. Metoprolol could probably be used safely in most patients, as no change in pharmacodynamics has been evident. Concurrent administration of cimetidine and nifedipine may result in alterations in heart rate and blood pressure. The mechanism is inhibition of oxidative liver metabolism. Ranitidine has no effect on nifedipine. Studies are needed to investigate the interaction between the H2 antagonists and diltiazem or verapamil. Cimetidine, given concomitantly with lidocaine, may increase lidocaine concentrations and clinical symptoms of lidocaine toxicity. The mechanism involved is probably a reduction in oxidative drug metabolism or liver blood flow. Ranitidine has no significant effects on lidocaine pharmacokinetics. Cimetidine may increase quinidine levels and symptoms of quinidine toxicity. Additionally, enhanced arrhythmic effects may be observed. The interaction probably caused by an inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism of quinidine by cimetidine would be most significant in patients with liver disease and in the elderly. Ranitidine may enhance quinidine's arrhythmic effect. Cimetidine can possibly increase procainamide and NAPA serum concentrations, especially in the elderly and in patients with renal dysfunction, predisposing them to adverse side effects. The interaction is mediated by a reduction of tubular secretion of procainamide and NAPA.
Abstract: 1. The effects of age on the pharmacology of nifedipine were investigated in 11 young and six elderly normotensive volunteers. 2. Following 2.5 mg of nifedipine i.v. the plasma clearance of nifedipine was 348 +/- 83 (s.d.) ml min-1 in the elderly compared with 519 +/- 125 ml min-1 in the young (P less than 0.05) and the AUC in the elderly was significantly greater at 125 +/- 28 ng ml-1 h compared with 83.9 +/- 19 ng ml-1 h (P less than 0.05). The Vss was similar in both age groups. 3. Following 10 mg oral sustained release nifedipine the AUC was 281 +/- 64 ng ml-1 h in the elderly compared with 136 +/- 56 ng ml-1 h in the young (P less than 0.002) and Cmax in the elderly was significantly greater at 36.8 +/- 11.8 ng ml-1 compared with 22.3 +/- 5.8 ng ml-1 (P less than 0.05). The trend towards an increased bioavailability in elderly subjects (36%) was supported by a significantly lower nitropyridine metabolite/nifedipine ratio in the elderly. 4. Absorption rate limited kinetics of the sustained release formulation were indicated by the prolonged t1/2 compared with i.v. administration. In the elderly t1/2 (oral) was significantly greater than in the young (elderly 6.7 +/- 2.2 h, young 3.8 +/- 1.4 h, P less than 0.05). 5. Haemodynamic changes in the young were confined to a tachycardia following i.v. administration. In the elderly, supine BP fell significantly following both oral and i.v. nifedipine while the heart rate remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: Two studies of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous nifedipine infusion were performed: the first, a randomised double-blind crossover study of nifedipine and its vehicle in eight subjects, the second a dose ranging study in nine subjects. Nifedipine pharmacokinetics did not vary with dose or duration of infusion up to 8 h, and are similar to those reported for other nifedipine preparations. Nifedipine increased heart rate and forearm blood flow and decreased blood pressure after bolus injection but not during prolonged infusion. The vehicle decreased blood pressure and increased forearm blood flow after bolus injection but not during prolonged infusion. It did not affect heart rate. The vehicle's haemodynamic activity has not been previously recognised and is of potential importance in the study of this and similar preparations of calcium antagonists.
Abstract: The plasma pharmacokinetics of nifedipine and the formation of its metabolites have been studied in volunteers under conditions which would affect the activity of the cytochrome P-450 system. The pharmacokinetics of a 10-mg capsule of nifedipine were not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers of similar age. After pretreatment with cimetidine, which inhibits the activity of cytochrome P-450, the peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma-time concentration curve for nifedipine were increased by a mean 84%. In contrast, pre-treatment with ranitidine which has little effect on cytochrome P-450, did not significantly alter nifedipine pharmacokinetics. Smoking does not contribute significantly to the variability in nifedipine pharmacokinetics. However, the interaction between nifedipine and cimetidine, but not ranitidine, may be of clinical importance.
Abstract: The effects of multiple doses of cimetidine on single-dose verapamil kinetics were studied in nine healthy men. Baseline hepatic blood flow was estimated by indocyanine green elimination on day 1. On day 2, the subjects received verapamil, 10 mg iv, after which the plasma concentration-time profile was determined. After a 2-day washout, cimetidine, 300 mg, was taken by mouth four times a day for 5 days. The indocyanine green study was repeated on day 9 and verapamil was taken on day 10. Cimetidine reduced verapamil clearance by 21% and increased the elimination t1/2 by 50%. The volume of distribution at steady state did not change. Cimetidine increased hepatic blood flow in some subjects, while decreasing it in others. There was no correlation between individual changes in verapamil clearance and hepatic blood flow. These data indicate that cimetidine reduces verapamil clearance by mechanism(s) other than a change in hepatic blood flow or volume of distribution.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of verapamil was studied in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure and in normal subjects after i.v. injection of 3 mg and a single oral dose of 80 mg. Plasma levels of verapamil and its active metabolite norverapamil were measured by HPLC. After i.v. injection, the terminal phase half-life and total plasma clearance of verapamil in both groups were similar. Haemodialysis did not change the time course of plasma verapamil levels after i.v. administration. After a single oral dose, the plasma levels of verapamil and norverapamil in both groups of subjects were similar. Subsequently, normal volunteers and patients with renal failure were treated for 5 days with oral verapamil 80 mg t.d.s. There was no difference between the 2 groups of subjects in the trough and peak levels of verapamil or of norverapamil. Intravenous and oral administration of the calcium channel blocking agent had similar effects on blood pressure, heart rate and the PR-interval in the electrocardiogram in both groups. The study demonstrated that the disposition of verapamil was similar in normal subjects and in patients with renal failure.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of (+)-, (-)-, and (+/-)-verapamil were studied in five healthy volunteers following i.v. administration of the drugs. Pronounced differences of the various pharmacokinetic parameters were observed between the (-)- and (+)-isomers. The values for CL, V, Vz, and Vss of the (-)-isomer were substantially higher as compared to the (+)-isomer, whereas terminal t 1/ 2Z was nearly identical for both isomers. No dose dependency of the pharmacokinetics could be observed in two subjects who received 5, 7.5 and 10 mg of (-)- and 5, 25 and 50 mg of (+)-verapamil. Protein binding for the two isomers was also different. The fu of (-)- (0.11) was almost twice as much as that of (+)-verapamil (0.064). Pharmacokinetic parameters of (+/-)-verapamil, which was administered to three subjects who had received (+)- and (-)-verapamil, were very similar to the averaged values of the isomers given separately. Due to the higher CL of (-)-verapamil the extraction ratio of the (-)-isomer is substantially higher. Thus, it can be anticipated that following oral administration of racemic verapamil bioavailability of (-)-verapamil will be substantially less. Since the (-)-isomer is more potent than the (+)-isomer, the present findings could explain the reported differences in the concentration-effect relationship after i.v. and oral administration of racemic verapamil.
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: Nifedipine, the prototype for the dihydropyridine class of calcium antagonists, has been available for 20 years and its efficacy as a vasodilator and an antihypertensive agent is well recognised. The development of the so-called nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS), which allows once-daily administration, has modified and improved the overall therapeutic profile of nifedipine to such a significant extent that it might almost be considered a new drug entity. The nifedipine GITS is associated with distinct improvements in terms of patient compliance and convenience, and a reduced incidence of adverse effects. With regard to the care of the elderly, this 'new' drug offers the prospect of a well tolerated and effective treatment without major cost implications.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: Twenty-nine drugs of disparate structures and physicochemical properties were used in an examination of the capability of human liver microsomal lability data ("in vitro T(1/2)" approach) to be useful in the prediction of human clearance. Additionally, the potential importance of nonspecific binding to microsomes in the in vitro incubation milieu for the accurate prediction of human clearance was investigated. The compounds examined demonstrated a wide range of microsomal metabolic labilities with scaled intrinsic clearance values ranging from less than 0.5 ml/min/kg to 189 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding was determined at microsomal protein concentrations used in the lability incubations. For the 29 compounds studied, unbound fractions in microsomes ranged from 0.11 to 1.0. Generally, basic compounds demonstrated the greatest extent of binding and neutral and acidic compounds the least extent of binding. In the projection of human clearance values, basic and neutral compounds were well predicted when all binding considerations (blood and microsome) were disregarded, however, including both binding considerations also yielded reasonable predictions. Including only blood binding yielded very poor projections of human clearance for these two types of compounds. However, for acidic compounds, disregarding all binding considerations yielded poor predictions of human clearance. It was generally most difficult to accurately predict clearance for this class of compounds; however the accuracy was best when all binding considerations were included. Overall, inclusion of both blood and microsome binding values gave the best agreement between in vivo clearance values and clearance values projected from in vitro intrinsic clearance data.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To date, the uptake of drugs into the human heart by transport proteins is poorly understood. A candidate protein is the organic cation transporter novel type 2 (OCTN2) (SLC22A5), physiologically acting as a sodium-dependent transport protein for carnitine. We investigated expression and localization of OCTN2 in the human heart, uptake of drugs by OCTN2, and functional coupling of OCTN2 with the eliminating ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). METHODS AND RESULTS: Messenger RNA levels of OCTN2 and ABCB1 were analyzed in heart samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. OCTN2 was expressed in all auricular samples that showed a pronounced interindividual variability (35 to 1352 copies per 20 ng of RNA). Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism in OCTN2 (G/C at position -207 of the promoter) had no influence on expression, administration of beta-blockers resulted in significantly increased expression. Localization of OCTN2 by in situ hybridization, laser microdissection, and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed expression of OCTN2 mainly in endothelial cells. For functional studies, OCTN2 was expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells. Using this system, verapamil, spironolactone, and mildronate were characterized both as inhibitors (EC50=25, 26, and 21 micromol/L, respectively) and as substrates. Like OCTN2, ABCB1 was expressed preferentially in endothelial cells. A significant correlation of OCTN2 and ABCB1 expression in the human heart was observed, which suggests functional coupling. Therefore, the interaction of OCTN2 with ABCB1 was tested with double transfectants. This approach resulted in a significantly higher transcellular transport of verapamil, a substrate for both OCTN2 and ABCB1. CONCLUSIONS: OCTN2 is expressed in the human heart and can be modulated by drug administration. Moreover, OCTN2 can contribute to the cardiac uptake of cardiovascular drugs.
Abstract: The human ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCG2, confers resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents and also affects the bioavailability of different drugs. [(125)I]Iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) and [(3)H]azidopine were used for photoaffinity labeling of ABCG2 in this study. We show here for the first time that both of these photoaffinity analogues are transport substrates for ABCG2 and that [(3)H]azidopine can also be used to photolabel both wild-type R482-ABCG2 and mutant T482-ABCG2. We further used these assays to screen for potential substrates or modulators of ABCG2 and observed that 1,4-dihydropyridines such as nicardipine and nifedipine, which are clinically used as antihypertensive agents, inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with [(125)I]IAAP and [(3)H]azidopine as well as the transport of these photoaffinity analogues by ABCG2. Furthermore, [(3)H]nitrendipine and bodipy-Fl-dihydropyridine accumulation assays showed that these compounds are transported by ABCG2. These dihydropyridines also inhibited the efflux of the known ABCG2 substrates, mitoxantrone and pheophorbide-a, from ABCG2-overexpressing cells, and nicardipine was more potent in inhibiting this transport. Both nicardipine and nifedipine stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2, and the nifedipine-stimulated activity was inhibited by fumitremorgin C, suggesting that these agents might interact at the same site on the transporter. In addition, nontoxic concentrations of dihydropyridines increased the sensitivity of ABCG2-expressing cells to mitoxantrone by 3-5-fold. In aggregate, results from the photoaffinity labeling and efflux assays using [(125)I]IAAP and [(3)H]azidopine demonstrate that 1,4-dihydropyridines are substrates of ABCG2 and that these photolabels can be used to screen new substrates and/or inhibitors of this transporter.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: We hypothesized that CYP3A5 genotype contributes to the interindividual variability in verapamil response. Healthy subjects (n=26) with predetermined CYP3A5 genotypes were categorized as expressers (at least one CYP3A5(*)1 allele) and nonexpressers (subjects without a CYP3A5(*)1 allele). Verapamil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were determined after 7 days of dosing with 240 mg daily. There was a significantly higher oral clearance of R-verapamil (165.1+/-86.4 versus 91.2+/-36.5 l/h; P=0.009) and S-verapamil (919.4+/-517.4 versus 460.2+/-239.7 l/h; P=0.01) in CYP3A5 expressers compared to nonexpressers. Consequently, CYP3A5 expressers had significantly less PR-interval prolongation (19.5+/-12.3 versus 44.0+/-19.4 ms; P=0.0004), and had higher diastolic blood pressure (69.2+/-7.5 versus 61.6+/-5.1 mm Hg; P=0.036) than CYP3A5 nonexpressers after 7 days dosing with verapamil. CYP3A5 expressers display a greater steady-state oral clearance of verapamil and may therefore experience diminished pharmacological effect of verapamil due to a greater steady state oral clearance.
Abstract: AIM: It has been reported that verapamil and atorvastatin are inhibitors of both P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, and verapamil is a substrate of both P-gp and CYP3A4. Thus, it could be expected that atorvastatin would alter the absorption and metabolism of verapamil. METHODS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil and one of its metabolites, norverapamil, were compared after oral administration of verapamil (60 mg) in the presence or absence of oral atorvastatin (40 mg) in 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetics of verapamil were significantly altered by the coadministration of atorvastatin compared with those of without atorvastatin. For example, the total area under the plasma-concentration time curve to the last measured time, 24 h, in plasma (AUC(0-24) (h)) of verapamil increased significantly by 42.8%. Thus, the relative bioavailability increased by the same magnitude with atorvastatin. Although the AUC(0-24) (h) of norverapamil was not significantly different between two groups of humans, the AUC(0-24) (h, norverapamil)/ AUC(0-24) (h, verapamil) ratio was significantly reduced (27.5% decrease) with atorvastatin. CONCLUSION: The above data suggest that atorvastatin could inhibit the absorption of verapamil via inhibition of P-gp and/or the metabolism of verapamil by CYP3A4 in humans.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lovastatin is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme. Verapamil is a substrate of both P-gp and CYP3A4. It is therefore likely that lovastatin can alter the absorption and metabolism of verapamil. METHODS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil and one of its metabolites, norverapamil, were compared in 14 healthy male Korean volunteers (age range 22-28 years) who had been administered verapamil (60 mg) orally in the presence or absence of oral lovastatin (20 mg). The design of the experiment was a standard 2 x 2 crossover model in random order. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil were significantly altered by the co-administration of lovastatin compared to the control. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC (0-infinity)) and the peak plasma concentration of verapamil were significantly increased by 62.8 and 32.1%, respectively. Consequently, the relative bioavailability of verapamil was also significantly increased (by 76.5%). The (AUC (0-infinity)) of norverapamil and the terminal half-life of verapamil did not significantly changed with lovastatin coadministration. The metabolite-parent ratio was significantly reduced (29.2%) in the presence of lovastatin. CONCLUSION: Lovastatin increased the absorption of verapamil by inhibiting P-gp and inhibited the first-pass metabolism of verapamil by inhibiting CYP3A4 in the intestine and/or liver in humans.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.