Extension de temps QT
Effets indésirables des médicaments
Variantes ✨Pour l'évaluation intensive en calcul des variantes, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications pour les patients
Nous n'avons aucun avertissement supplémentaire pour l'association de ciprofloxacine, crizotinib et de erlotinib. Veuillez également consulter les informations spécialisées pertinentes.
Les changements d'exposition mentionnés sont liés aux changements de la courbe concentration plasmatique en fonction du temps [ASC]. Nous n'avons détecté aucune modification de l'exposition à la ciprofloxacine. Nous ne pouvons actuellement pas estimer l'influence de la crizotinib et de la erlotinib. L'exposition à la erlotinib augmente à 169%, lorsqu'il est associé à la ciprofloxacine (140%) et à la crizotinib (145%). Cela peut entraîner une augmentation des effets secondaires. L'exposition à la crizotinib augmente à 126%, lorsqu'il est combiné avec la ciprofloxacine (126%). Nous ne pouvons actuellement pas estimer l'influence de la erlotinib.
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La ciprofloxacine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 70%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 3.5 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très faible à 30%. Environ 55.0% d'une dose administrée est excrétée inchangée par les reins et cette proportion est rarement modifiée par les interactions. Le métabolisme s'effectue principalement via le CYP1A2 et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via BCRP, OATP1A2 et PGP.
La crizotinib a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 43%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez longue à 39 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] ne sont atteints qu’après plus de 156 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 91% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 1772 litres, c'est pourquoi, à un taux d'extraction hépatique moyen de 0,9, le débit sanguin hépatique [Q] et une modification de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] sont pertinents. Le métabolisme s'effectue principalement via le CYP3A4 et le transport actif se fait notamment via PGP.
La erlotinib a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 68%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 13 heures et les taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 9 999 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 95% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est de 61 litres, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut augmenter l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP1A2 et le CYP3A4, entre autres et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via BCRP et PGP.
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||cri||erl|
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Évaluation: Selon nos connaissances, ni la ciprofloxacine, crizotinib ni la erlotinib n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||cri||erl|
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Évaluation: Selon nos résultats, ni la ciprofloxacine, crizotinib ni la erlotinib n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Extension de temps QT
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||cri||erl|
Évaluation: En association, la ciprofloxacine et la crizotinib peuvent potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires de type torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la erlotinib.
Effets secondaires généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ la fréquence||cip||cri||erl|
|La nausée||71.5 %||+||57.0||33.0|
|Vision floue||65.5 %||n.a.||65.5||n.a.|
|La diarrhée||65.3 %||+||61.0||10.0|
|Perte d'appétit||52.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||52.0|
|Œdème périphérique||49.0 %||n.a.||49.0||n.a.|
Stomatite (17%): erlotinib
Douleur abdominale (11%): erlotinib
Hémorragie gastro-intestinale (2%): erlotinib, ciprofloxacine
Diarrhée à Clostridium difficile: ciprofloxacine
Douleur musculo-squelettique (16%): crizotinib
Myasthénie grave: ciprofloxacine
Rupture du tendon: ciprofloxacine
Conjonctivite (15%): erlotinib
Perte visuelle: crizotinib
ALT élevé (15%): crizotinib
AST élevé (8%): crizotinib
Transaminases élevées: erlotinib
Insuffisance hépatique: erlotinib, ciprofloxacine
Hépatotoxicité: ciprofloxacine, crizotinib
Bradycardie (14%): crizotinib
Syncope (3.4%): ciprofloxacine, crizotinib
Infarctus du myocarde: ciprofloxacine
Démangeaison de la peau (11.1%): erlotinib, ciprofloxacine
Photosensibilité (10%): erlotinib, ciprofloxacine
Nécrolyse épidermique toxique: erlotinib, ciprofloxacine
Syndrome main-pied: erlotinib
Syndrome de Stevens-Johnson: erlotinib, ciprofloxacine
Neutropénie (11%): crizotinib
Lymphocytopénie (7%): crizotinib
Anémie aplastique: ciprofloxacine
L'anémie hémolytique: ciprofloxacine
Hypophosphatémie (10%): crizotinib
Irritabilité (5%): ciprofloxacine
La dépression: ciprofloxacine
Rhinopharyngite (5%): ciprofloxacine
Pneumonie (4.1%): crizotinib
Écoulement nasal (3%): ciprofloxacine
Maladie pulmonaire interstitielle (2.9%): erlotinib, crizotinib
Polycystosis rénale (4%): crizotinib
Insuffisance rénale: erlotinib, ciprofloxacine
Cystite hémorragique: ciprofloxacine
Néphrite tubulo-interstitielle: ciprofloxacine
Embolie pulmonaire (3.5%): crizotinib
Anévrisme aortique: ciprofloxacine
Mal de crâne (3%): ciprofloxacine
Crise d'épilepsie: ciprofloxacine
Trouble de l'attention: ciprofloxacine
Syndrome de Guillain-Barré: ciprofloxacine
Déficience de mémoire: ciprofloxacine
Neuropathie périphérique: ciprofloxacine
Pseudotumeur cérébrale: ciprofloxacine
Augmentation de la pression intracrânienne: ciprofloxacine
Réaction d'hypersensibilité: ciprofloxacine
Sur la base de vos
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: A randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the bioequivalence of 6 tablets of erlotinib 25 mg and 1 tablet of erlotinib 150 mg (arm A, n = 42) and the oral bioavailability of the 150-mg tablet versus a 25-mg intravenous infusion (arm B, n = 20) in healthy subjects. The washout period was 2 weeks between treatments. Plasma concentrations of erlotinib and its active metabolite, OSI-420, were measured after each dose. The ratios of geometric means for AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax of erlotinib following 6 tablets of erlotinib 25 mg and 1 tablet of erlotinib 150 mg were (1 and 0.95) within the predefined bioequivalence range of 0.80 to 1.25. The mean absolute oral bioavailability, using compartmental analysis, was estimated as 59% (95% confidence interval, 55%-63%). Overall, 6 tablets of erlotinib 25 mg are bioequivalent to a single 150-mg tablet. Both intravenous and oral erlotinib were generally well tolerated with an estimated bioavailability of 59% following oral administration.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Erlotinib is an orally active antitumor agent. Analyses in vitro using human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes showed that erlotinib was metabolized primarily by CYP3A4, with a secondary contribution from CYP1A2. METHODS: A computer-based simulation model, SimCYP, predicted that CYP3A4 contributed to approximately 70% of the metabolic elimination of erlotinib, with CYP1A2 being responsible for the other approximately 30%. A drug-drug interaction study was therefore conducted for erlotinib and a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole, in healthy male volunteers to evaluate the impact of CYP3A4 inhibition on erlotinib exposure. RESULTS: Ketoconazole caused an almost two-fold increase in erlotinib plasma area under the concentration curve and in maximum plasma concentration. This is consistent with the SimCYP prediction of a two-fold increase in erlotinib AUC, further validating a primary (approximately 70%) role of CYP3A4 in erlotinib elimination. CONCLUSION: Prediction of clinically important drug-drug interaction with SimCYP using in vitro human metabolism data can be a powerful tool during early clinical development to ensure safe administration of anticancer drugs, which are often co-administered at maximum tolerated doses with other drugs as part of a palliative treatment regimen.
Abstract: In the recent years, eight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been approved for cancer treatment and numerous are under investigation. These drugs are rationally designed to target specific tyrosine kinases that are mutated and/or over-expressed in cancer tissues. Post marketing study commitments have been made upon (accelerated) approval such as additional pharmacokinetic studies in patients with renal- or hepatic impairment, in children, additional interactions studies and studies on the relative or absolute bioavailability. Therefore, much information will emerge on the pharmacokinetic behavior of these drugs after their approval. In the present manuscript, the pharmacokinetic characteristics; absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), of the available TKIs are reviewed. Results from additional studies on the effect of drug transporters and drug-drug interactions have been incorporated. Overall, the TKIs reach their maximum plasma levels relatively fast; have an unknown absolute bioavailability, are extensively distributed and highly protein bound. The drugs are primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 with other CYP-enzymes playing a secondary role. They are predominantly excreted with the feces and only a minor fraction is eliminated with the urine. All TKIs appear to be transported by the efflux ATP binding-cassette transports B1 and G2. Additionally these drugs can inhibit some of their own metabolizing enzymes and transporters making steady-state metabolism and drug-drug interactions both complex and unpredictable. By understanding the pharmacokinetic profile of these drugs and their similarities, factors that influence drug exposure will be better recognized and this knowledge may be used to limit sub- or supra-therapeutic drug exposure.
Abstract: PURPOSE: An intravenous (IV) erlotinib formulation has not been characterized in cancer patients but may be useful in those with gastrointestinal abnormalities that impact on the ability to take oral medication. This study sought to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of erlotinib administered as a single 30-min infusion in patients with advanced solid tumors and absolute bioavailability of erlotinib tablets at matched doses. METHODS: This was a two-center, open label, Phase I, dose-escalation and bioavailability study of single dose IV and oral erlotinib. RESULTS: The highest escalated IV erlotinib dose achieved was 100 mg, with only mild adverse events reported. The MTD for IV erlotinib was not reached as a predetermined erlotinib plasma concentration cap of 4 microg/mL was exceeded in 3/6 patients. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Median bioavailability of erlotinib tablets was 76%. CONCLUSIONS: A 100 mg single IV dose of erlotinib, given as a 30-min infusion, was well tolerated with only minor adverse events and the high level of bioavailability of oral erlotinib was confirmed.
Abstract: The 4-anilinoquinazolines (gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib) are members of a class of potent and selective inhibitors of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of tyrosine kinases that have been developed to treat patients with tumours with defined genetic alterations of the HER tyrosine kinase domain. They are characterized by a moderate rate of absorption after oral administration with peak plasma concentrations at several hours post-dose. Absolute bioavailability of gefitinib and erlotinib is about 60%. Low bioavailability is assumed for lapatinib. The drugs are extensively distributed in human tissues, including tumour tissues, have a large volume of distribution at least 3-fold exceeding the volume of body water and are extensively (about 95%) protein bound to α(1)-acid glycoprotein and albumin. Existing human data for gefitinib and erlotinib indicate that these substances penetrate into the central nervous system and accumulate in brain tumours, possibly due to leaks in the blood-brain barrier. Gefitinib, erlotinib and the absorbed fraction of lapatinib undergo extensive metabolism - mainly via hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and also via CYP2D6 (gefitinib) and CYP1A2 (erlotinib) - and are primarily eliminated by biotransformation. The excretion of unchanged gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib and their metabolites occurs predominantly in the faeces and only a minor fraction is excreted in the urine. No relevant effects of age, sex, bodyweight or race on their pharmacokinetics have been reported to date. Limited available data indicate that genetic polymorphisms in enzymes and transporters involved in the pharmacokinetics of gefitinib (CYP2D6) and erlotinib (CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and ABCG2 [breast cancer resistance protein]) alter the exposure to these drugs. Modification of drug dose should be considered in patients with severe hepatic impairment receiving these tyrosine kinase inhibitors and in current smokers receiving erlotinib. Existing recommendations for dose adjustment (i.e. a dose decrement or increment for gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib in the presence of CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers, respectively; a dose increase for erlotinib in smoking patients) need to be validated in clinical studies. Further investigations are required to explain the large interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and to assess the clinical relevance of interaction potential and inhibitory effects on the metabolizing enzymes and transporters.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Erlotinib, N-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy) quinazolin-4-amine is approved for the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. Because erlotinib is metabolized predominately by CYP3A4, co-administration of compounds that increase CYP3A4 activity may alter the efficacy and safety of erlotinib therapy. Two phase I studies were conducted in healthy male subjects to evaluate the effect of pre- or co-administered rifampicin, a CYP3A4 inducer, on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib. METHODS: Study 1 included Groups A (erlotinib 150 mg days 1 and 15, rifampicin 600 mg days 8-14) and B (erlotinib 150 mg days 1 and 15) in a parallel group study design. Study 2 subjects received erlotinib 150 mg day 1, erlotinib 450 mg day 15, and rifampicin 600 mg days 8-18. The primary endpoint in each study was the ratio of exposure (AUC0-∞ and C max) between days 1 and 15. Urinary cortisol metabolic induction ratios were determined in Study 1 for Group A subjects only. RESULTS: In Study 1, the geometric mean ratios of AUC0-∞ and C max were 33 and 71 %, respectively, and the mean cortisol metabolic index increased from 7.4 to 27.0, suggesting cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction. In Study 2, the geometric mean ratios for AUC0-∞ and C max were 19 and 34 % (when dose adjusted from 450 to 150 mg erlotinib), respectively, a greater relative decrease than observed in Study 1. CONCLUSIONS: Erlotinib exposure (AUC0-∞ and C max) was reduced after pre- or concomitant dosing with rifampicin. Doses of ≥450 mg erlotinib may be necessary to compensate for concomitant medications with strong CYP3A4 enzyme induction effect.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Crizotinib (Xalkori®) is an orally administered, selective, small-molecule, ATP-competitive inhibitor of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and mesenchymal epithelial transition factor/hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, and has recently been approved for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. The absolute bioavailability of crizotinib, effect of a high-fat meal on crizotinib pharmacokinetics (PK), and bioequivalence of several oral formulations (powder in capsule [PIC], immediate-release tablet [IRT], and commercial formulated capsule [FC]) were evaluated in two phase I clinical studies involving healthy volunteers who received single doses of crizotinib. PK parameters for crizotinib and its metabolite, PF-06260182, were determined using non-compartmental methods. The absolute oral bioavailability of crizotinib was approximately 43%, with a slight decrease in crizotinib exposures (area under the plasma concentration-time profile and maximum plasma concentration) following a high-fat meal that was not considered clinically meaningful. The FC was bioequivalent to the clinical development IRT and PIC formulations. No serious adverse events were observed during either study and the majority of adverse events were mild, the most common being diarrhea. Single-dose crizotinib could be safely administered to healthy subjects.
Abstract: Crizotinib (Xalkori®) and nilotinib (Tasigna®) are tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia, respectively. Both have been shown to result in electrocardiogram rate-corrected Q-wave T-wave interval (QTc) prolongation in humans and animals. Liposomes have been shown to ameliorate drug-induced effects on the cardiac-delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr, KV11.1), coded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). This study was undertaken to determine if liposomes would also decrease the effect of crizotinib and nilotinib on the IKr channel. Crizotinib and nilotinib were tested in an in vitro IKr assay using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the hERG. Dose-responses were determined and the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were calculated. When the HEK 293 cells were treated with crizotinib or nilotinib that were mixed with liposomes, there was a significant decrease in the IKr channel inhibitory effects of these two drugs. When isolated, rabbit hearts were exposed to crizotinib or nilotinib, there were significant increases in QTc prolongation. Mixing either of the drugs with liposomes ameliorated the effects of the drugs. Rabbits dosed intravenously (IV) with crizotinib or nilotinib showed QTc prolongation. When liposomes were injected prior to crizotinib or nilotinib, the liposomes decreased the effects on the QTc interval. The use of liposomal encapsulated QT-prolongation agents, or giving liposomes in combination with drugs, may decrease their cardiac liability.
Abstract: Background: Co-administration of antineoplastics with ART is challenging due to potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, trials specifically assessing such DDIs are lacking. Our objective was to simulate DDIs between the antineoplastics erlotinib and gefitinib with key antiretroviral drugs and to predict dose adjustments using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Methods: In vitro data describing chemical properties and pharmacokinetic processes of each drug and their effect on cytochrome P450 isoforms were obtained from the literature. Plasma drug-concentration profiles were simulated in a virtual population of 50 individuals receiving erlotinib or gefitinib alone or with darunavir/ritonavir, efavirenz or etravirine. Simulated pharmacokinetic parameters and the magnitude of DDIs with probe drugs (midazolam, maraviroc) were compared with literature values. Erlotinib and gefitinib pharmacokinetics with and without antiretrovirals were compared and dose-adjustment strategies were evaluated. Results: Simulated parameters of each drug and the magnitude of DDIs with probe drugs were in agreement with reference values. Darunavir/ritonavir increased erlotinib and gefitinib exposure, while efavirenz and etravirine decreased erlotinib and gefitinib concentrations. Based on our predictions, dose-adjustment strategies may consist of once-daily dosing erlotinib at 25 mg and gefitinib at 125 mg with darunavir/ritonavir; or erlotinib at 200 mg and gefitinib at 375 mg with etravirine. The interaction with efavirenz was not overcome even after doubling erlotinib or gefitinib doses. Conclusions: PBPK models predicted the in vivo pharmacokinetics of erlotinib, gefitinib and the antiretrovirals darunavir/ritonavir, efavirenz and etravirine, and the DDIs between them. The simulated dose-adjustments may represent valuable strategies to optimize antineoplastic therapy in HIV-infected patients.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: An increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are available for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). QT prolongation is one of the known, but relatively rare, adverse events of several TKIs (e.g. osimertinib, crizotinib, ceritinib). Screening for QT prolongation in (high risk) patients is advised for these TKIs. When a QT prolongation develops, the physician is challenged with the question whether to (permanently) discontinue the TKI. In this perspective, we report on a patient who developed a grade III QT prolongation during osimertinib (a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-TKI) treatment. On discontinuation of osimertinib, she developed a symptomatic disease flare, not responding to subsequent systemic treatment. The main aim of this perspective is to describe the management of QT prolongation in stage IV EGFR driver mutation NSCLC patients. We also discuss the ethical question of how to weigh the risk of a disease flare due to therapy cessation against the risk of sudden cardiac death. A family history of sudden death and a prolonged QT interval might indicate a familiar long QT syndrome. We have summarised the current monitoring advice for TKIs used in the treatment of lung cancer and the most common drug-TKI interactions to consider and to optimise TKI treatment in lung cancer patients.
Abstract: The development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has revolutionized the management of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because these drugs are commonly used in combination with other types of medication, the risk of clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is an important consideration, especially for patients using multiple drugs for coexisting medical conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential for clinically important DDIs when considering therapeutic options for individual patients. In this article, we describe the main mechanisms underlying DDIs with the EGFR-TKIs that are currently approved for the treatment of NSCLC, and, specifically, the potential for interactions mediated via effects on gastrointestinal pH, cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism, uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase, and transporter proteins. We review evidence of such DDIs with the currently approved EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, osimertinib, and icotinib) and discuss several information sources that are available online to aid clinical decision-making. We conclude by summarizing the most clinically relevant DDIs with these EFGR-TKIs and provide recommendations for managing, minimizing, or avoiding DDIs with the different agents.