Extension de temps QT
Effets indésirables des médicaments
|Mal de crâne|
Variantes ✨Pour l'évaluation intensive en calcul des variantes, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications pour les patients
L'administration de indinavir et de sildénafil doit être évitée.
Augmentation des niveaux de sildénafilMécanisme: l' inhibiteur de protéase indinavir inhibe le métabolisme du sildénafil via le CYP3A4, ce qui peut entraîner une augmentation de la concentration de sildénafil.
Effet: Dans une étude non contrôlée chez 6 patients séropositifs pour le VIH traités par indinavir (800 mg / j), une augmentation de 4,4 fois de la concentration plasmatique (ASC) du sildénafil a été observée (informations techniques). Les 6 patients ont tous souffert d'effets secondaires (maux de tête, bouffées de chaleur, dyspepsie, chutes de tension artérielle en moyenne de 14/10 mmHg).
Mesures: La combinaison doit être évitée. Si cela s'avère néanmoins nécessaire, le traitement de la dysfonction érectile doit être instauré avec une faible dose initiale de 25 mg de sildénafil toutes les 48 heures. Chez les patients atteints d'HTAP, une réduction de la dose à 20 mg / jour est recommandée dans les informations sur le produit pour les inhibiteurs puissants du CYP3A4. Une bonne surveillance de la toxicité du sildénafil (y compris l'hypotension, les troubles visuels, le priapisme) est nécessaire.
|Indinavir||1.34 [0.64,2.74] 1||1.13||1.2|
Les changements d'exposition mentionnés sont liés aux changements de la courbe concentration plasmatique en fonction du temps [ASC]. Nous n'avons détecté aucune modification de l'exposition à la ciprofloxacine. Nous ne pouvons actuellement pas estimer l'influence de la indinavir et de la sildénafil. L'exposition à la sildénafil augmente à 366%, lorsqu'il est associé à la ciprofloxacine (202%) et à la indinavir (317%). Cela peut entraîner une augmentation des effets secondaires. L'exposition à la indinavir augmente à 134%, lorsqu'il est associé à la ciprofloxacine (113%) et à la sildénafil (120%). L'ASC est comprise entre 64% et 274% selon le
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La ciprofloxacine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 70%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 3.5 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très faible à 30%. Environ 55.0% d'une dose administrée est excrétée inchangée par les reins et cette proportion est rarement modifiée par les interactions. Le métabolisme s'effectue principalement via le CYP1A2 et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via BCRP, OATP1A2 et PGP.
La indinavir a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 60%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 2 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est plutôt faible à 60% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 78 litres, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut augmenter l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP2D6 et le CYP3A4, entre autres et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via MRP2 et PGP.
La sildénafil a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 36%, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer de manière significative avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 3.9 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est 96% forte et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 105 litres, Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP2C9 et le CYP3A4, entre autres et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via BCRP et PGP.
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||ind||sil|
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Évaluation: Selon nos connaissances, ni la ciprofloxacine, indinavir ni la sildénafil n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||ind||sil|
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Évaluation: Selon nos résultats, ni la ciprofloxacine, indinavir ni la sildénafil n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Extension de temps QT
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||ind||sil|
Évaluation: La ciprofloxacine peut déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires potentiellement de torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la indinavir et la sildénafil.
Effets secondaires généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ la fréquence||cip||ind||sil|
|La nausée||19.0 %||+||17.4||+|
|Mal de crâne||17.9 %||3.0||6.0||10.0↑|
|Sensation de chaleur et de bouffées vasomotrices||10.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||10.0↑|
|Douleur abdominale||9.3 %||n.a.||9.3||n.a.|
|Sens du goût altéré||4.3 %||n.a.||4.3||n.a.|
Dyspepsie (3.9%): sildénafil, indinavir
Perte d'appétit (3%): indinavir
Diarrhée à Clostridium difficile: ciprofloxacine
La diarrhée: ciprofloxacine
Hémorragie gastro-intestinale: ciprofloxacine
Écoulement nasal (3%): ciprofloxacine
Congestion nasale: sildénafil
Démangeaison de la peau (1.8%): ciprofloxacine
Nécrolyse épidermique toxique: ciprofloxacine
Érythème polymorphe: indinavir
Syndrome de Stevens-Johnson: indinavir, ciprofloxacine
Syncope: sildénafil, ciprofloxacine
Arythmie ventriculaire: sildénafil
Infarctus du myocarde: ciprofloxacine
Crise d'épilepsie: ciprofloxacine
Trouble de l'attention: ciprofloxacine
Syndrome de Guillain-Barré: ciprofloxacine
Déficience de mémoire: ciprofloxacine
Neuropathie périphérique: ciprofloxacine
Pseudotumeur cérébrale: ciprofloxacine
Augmentation de la pression intracrânienne: ciprofloxacine
Vision floue: sildénafil
Néphrite tubulo-interstitielle: indinavir, ciprofloxacine
Cystite hémorragique: ciprofloxacine
Insuffisance rénale: ciprofloxacine
Insuffisance hépatique: ciprofloxacine
Réaction d'hypersensibilité: ciprofloxacine
Acidocétose diabétique: indinavir
La dépression: ciprofloxacine
L'anémie hémolytique: indinavir, ciprofloxacine
Anémie aplastique: ciprofloxacine
Diabète sucré: indinavir
Myasthénie grave: ciprofloxacine
Rupture du tendon: ciprofloxacine
Anévrisme aortique: ciprofloxacine
Sur la base de vos
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetic interaction between indinavir and ritonavir was evaluated in five groups of healthy adult volunteers to explore the potential for twice-daily (b.i.d.) dosing of this combination. All subjects received 800 mg of indinavir every 8 h (q8h) on day 2. In addition, subjects in group I received one dose of 800 mg of indinavir on day 1 and 800 mg of indinavir q8h on day 17. Subjects in Groups II and IV each received one dose of 600 mg of indinavir on days 1 and 17, and subjects in groups III and V each received one dose of 400 mg of indinavir on days 1 and 17. During days 3 to 17, ritonavir placebo or ritonavir at 200, 300, 300, or 400 mg q12h was given to groups I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively. Ritonavir at steady state probably inhibited the cytochrome P-450 3A metabolism of indinavir and substantially increased plasma indinavir concentrations, with the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increasing up to 475% and the peak concentration in serum (Cmax) increasing up to 110%. The Cmax/trough concentration ratio decreased from 50 in standard q8h regimens to less than 14 when indinavir was administered with ritonavir. For a constant indinavir dose, an increase in the ritonavir dose yielded similar indinavir AUCs, Cmaxs, and concentrations at 12 h (C12s). For a constant ritonavir dose, an increase in the indinavir dose resulted in approximately proportional increases in the indinavir AUC, less than proportional increases in Cmax, and slightly more than proportional increases in C12. Ritonavir reduced between-subject variability in the indinavir AUC and trough concentrations and did not affect indinavir renal clearance. With the altered pharmacokinetic profile, indinavir likely could be given as a b.i.d. combination regimen with ritonavir. This could potentially improve patient compliance and thereby reduce treatment failures.
Abstract: AIMS: To investigate the effect of the antiretroviral protease inhibitors saquinavir (soft gelatin capsule) and ritonavir on the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of sildenafil and to investigate the effect of sildenafil on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of saquinavir and ritonavir. METHODS: Two independent, 8 day, open, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies (containing a double-blind crossover phase) were conducted at Pfizer Clinical research units (Canterbury, UK. and Brussels, Belgium). Twenty-eight healthy male volunteers entered each study. In each study, volunteers were randomized (n = 14 per group) to receive sildenafil on day 1 followed by a 7-day treatment period (days 2-8) with saquinavir or placebo (Study I) or ritonavir or placebo (Study II). Sildenafil or placebo (Study I and Study II) was administered alternately on day 7 or day 8, depending on initial randomization. The effect of saquinavir and ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and its primary circulating metabolite (UK-103, 320) and the effect of single-dose sildenafil on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of saquinavir (1200 mg three times daily) and ritonavir (500 mg twice daily) were determined. The safety and tolerability of sildenafil coadministered with saquinavir or ritonavir were also assessed. RESULTS: Both protease inhibitors significantly increased Cmax, AUC, tmax and t(1/2) values for both sildenafil and UK-103, 320. Ritonavir showed a significantly greater effect than saquinavir with increases in sildenafil AUC and Cmax of 11-fold (95% CI: 9.0, 12.0) and 3.9-fold (95% CI: 3.2, 4.9), respectively. This compared with increases of 3.1-fold (95% CI: 2.5, 4.0) and 2.4-fold (95% CI: 1.8, 3.3) for coadministration with saquinavir. In contrast, the steady-state pharmacokinetics of saquinavir and ritonavir were unaffected by sildenafil. The increases in systemic exposure to sildenafil and UK-103, 320 were not associated with an increased incidence of adverse events or clinically significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate or ECG parameters. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that both saquinavir and ritonavir modify the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil presumably through inhibition of CYP3A4. The more pronounced effect of ritonavir may be attributed to its additional potent inhibition of CYP2C9. No change in safety or tolerability was observed when sildenafil was coadministered with either protease inhibitor. However, given the extent of the interactions, a lower sildenafil starting dose (25 mg) should be considered for patients receiving saquinavir and it is recommended not to exceed a maximum single dose of 25 mg in a 48 h period for patients receiving ritonavir.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Because of extensive first-pass metabolism, oral bioavailability of sildenafil reaches only 40%. Formation of the primary metabolite, N -desmethylsildenafil, is mainly mediated by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4. In this study we investigated the influence of grapefruit juice, containing inhibitors of intestinal CYP3A4, on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and N -desmethylsildenafil. METHODS: In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy white male volunteers received single 50-mg doses of sildenafil. Two doses each of 250 ml grapefruit juice or water, respectively, were administered 1 hour before and together with the drug. Plasma concentrations of sildenafil and N -desmethylsildenafil were determined up to 24 hours post dose by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (limit of quantification, 1 ng/ml). RESULTS: Grapefruit juice changed the area under the sildenafil plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity [AUC(0-infinity) from 620 [1.53] ng/ml x h to 761 [1.58] ng/ml x h (geometric mean with geometric standard deviation), corresponding to a 23% increase (90% confidence interval, 13%-33%). N-Desmethyl sildenafil AUC(0-infinity) increased by 24% (90% confidence interval, 17%-32%). Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of sildenafil and N -desmethylsildenafil were essentially unchanged. There was a trend toward a prolonged time to reach C(max) during the grapefruit juice period (from a median of 0.75 hour to a median of 1.13 hours), corresponding to an increase by 0.25 hour (90% confidence interval, 0-0.63 hour). Interindividual variability was pronounced in both periods. CONCLUSIONS: Grapefruit juice increases sildenafil bioavailability and tends to delay sildenafil absorption. Sildenafil pharmacokinetics may become less predictable with grapefruit juice. Although patients usually will not be endangered by concomitant use of grapefruit juice, it seems advisable to avoid this combination.
Abstract: AIMS: To determine the absolute bioavailability, dose proportionality and the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of sildenafil citrate. METHODS: Three open-label, randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy male subjects. Absolute bioavailability was determined by comparing pharmacokinetic data after administration of single oral and intravenous 50-mg doses of sildenafil (n=12 subjects). Food effects were examined by comparing pharmacokinetic data for sildenafil and its primary circulating metabolite, UK-103,320, after administration of a single oral 100-mg dose in the fasted and fed states (n=34 subjects). Dose proportionality was assessed from pharmacokinetic data obtained after administration of four single oral doses of sildenafil (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) to 32 subjects. The safety and tolerability of sildenafil were also assessed in all of these studies. RESULTS: The calculated absolute oral bioavailability of sildenafil was 41% (90% CI: 36--47). Food slowed the rate of absorption, delaying mean tmax by approximately 1 h and reducing Cmax by 29% (90% CI: 19--38). Systemic exposure, as assessed by the mean area under the plasma concentration--time curve (AUC), was reduced by 11% (90% CI: 6--16). These food effects were not considered to be of clinical significance. There was statistical evidence of nonproportionality in Cmax and AUC over the dose range 25--200 mg. However the degree of nonproportionality was small, with predicted increases in Cmax and AUC of 2.2- and 2.1-fold, respectively, for a doubling in dose, and was thought to be clinically nonsignificant. Sildenafil was well tolerated in the three studies; the majority of adverse events were mild and transient. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil had a mean absolute bioavailability of 41%. Food caused small reductions in the rate and extent of systemic exposure; these reductions are unlikely to be of clinical significance. Across the dose range of 25--200 mg, systemic exposure increased in a slightly greater than dose-proportional manner.
Abstract: AIMS: To examine the effect of concomitant cimetidine or antacid administration on the pharmacokinetic profile of sildenafil citrate in healthy male volunteers in two open-label, randomized studies. METHODS: The first study was a parallel-group design in which 22 healthy male volunteers received sildenafil (50 mg) on days 1 and 5 and cimetidine (800 mg) or placebo on days 3, 4, 5, and 6. Blood samples were collected predose and at specified times up to 48 h postdose on days 1 and 5 to determine plasma levels of sildenafil and its metabolite, UK-103,320. The second study was a two-way crossover design in which 12 volunteers received sildenafil with or without a 30-ml dose of a magnesium hydroxide/aluminium hydroxide antacid. Blood samples were collected and analysed as in the first study. The two study periods were separated by at least 14 days. RESULTS: Coadministration of cimetidine had no statistically significant effect on the tmax or kel of sildenafil but caused a statistically significant increase in sildenafil AUCt and Cmax of 56% and 54%, respectively (P<0.01). Differences between the two treatment groups were smaller for the metabolite than for sildenafil, although cimetidine treatment did significantly (P<0.05) increase the AUCt for UK-103,320 by 30%. Antacid coadministration had no statistically significant effect on any pharmacokinetic parameter of sildenafil or UK-103,320. Whether taken alone, with cimetidine, or with an antacid, sildenafil was well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild in nature, and no subject withdrew from either study for any reason related to the drug. CONCLUSIONS: Cimetidine co-administration produced an increase in sildenafil plasma levels; however, this increase is not sufficient to warrant dosage adjustment of either drug. Antacid coadministration had no effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of sildenafil.
Abstract: AIMS: Sildenafil, an effective oral treatment for erectile dysfunction, is predominantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A4, which is inhibited by a number of the macrolide antibiotics. Therefore, two placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of multiple doses of erythromycin and azithromycin on the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of a single oral 100-mg dose of sildenafil. METHODS: In the erythromycin interaction study, 26 male volunteers (18--45 years of age) received open-label sildenafil 100 mg on day 1. Half received blinded erythromycin (500 mg) twice daily on days 2--6, and the other half received placebo. On day 6, all subjects received a second 100-mg dose of sildenafil. In the azithromycin interaction study, 24 male volunteers (19--33 years of age) received open-label 100 mg sildenafil on day 1. Half then received blinded azithromycin (500 mg) once daily on days 2--4, and the other half received placebo. On day 4, all subjects received another 100-mg dose of sildenafil. In both studies, blood samples were collected on the first and last study day for the analysis of plasma concentrations of sildenafil and its primary metabolite, UK-103,320. RESULTS: Repeated dosing with erythromycin caused statistically significant increases in the AUC and Cmax of sildenafil (2.8-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively) but had no effect on Tmax, kel or t1/2. A statistically significant 1.4-fold increase in the AUC of UK-103,320 was also observed, as well as a significant decrease in kel, resulting in an increase of about 1 h in t1/2. In contrast, repeated dosing with azithromycin caused no significant change in any pharmacokinetic parameter of either sildenafil or UK-103,320. Erythromycin, azithromycin and sildenafil were well tolerated; adverse events were mild and transient. No subject withdrew from either trial for any reason related to study drug. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that erythromycin modifies the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil by inhibiting its CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism. Given these data, a lower starting dose of sildenafil (25 mg) may be considered for patients receiving erythromycin or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors. Azithromycin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil; therefore, no adjustment in dosage is necessary for patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: AIMS: To determine whether bosentan decreases the plasma concentration of sildenafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: Ten patients (aged 39-77 years) with pulmonary arterial hypertension in WHO functional class III received bosentan 62.5 mg twice daily for 1 month, then 125 mg twice daily for a second month. Sildenafil 100 mg was given as a single dose before starting bosentan (visit 1) and at the end of each month of bosentan treatment (visits 2 and 3). Sildenafil and its primary metabolite, desmethylsildenafil, were measured in plasma at 0 h and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 and 24 h using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was by repeated measures anova, using log transformed data where appropriate. RESULTS: Treatment with bosentan 62.5 mg twice daily for 4 weeks was associated with a two-fold increase in sildenafil clearance/F and a 50% decrease in the AUC (P < 0.001). Increasing the dose of bosentan to 125 mg twice daily led to a further increase in sildenafil oral clearance and decrease in the AUC (P < 0.001 vs. 62.5 mg bosentan). The ratio of AUC on bosentan treatment relative to that of visit 1 was 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36, 0.61] for visit 2 and 0.31 (95% CI 0.23, 0.41) for visit 3 (P < 0.001). Sildenafil C(max) fell from 759 ng ml(-1) on visit 1 to 333 ng ml(-1) on visit 3 (P < 0.01) and there was a significant decrease in the plasma half-life of sildenafil on the higher bosentan dose (P < 0.05). The AUC and plasma half-life of desmethylsildenafil was also decreased by bosentan in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Bosentan significantly decreases the plasma concentration of sildenafil when coadministered to patients with pulmonary hypertension.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of the study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of indinavir, define the relationship between the pharmacokinetics of indinavir and ritonavir, and to identify the factors influencing the pharmacokinetics of indinavir alone or when given with ritonavir. METHODS: HIV-1-infected patients being treated with an indinavir-containing regimen were included. During regular visits, 102 blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma indinavir and ritonavir concentrations. Full pharmacokinetic curves were available from 45 patients. Concentrations of indinavir and ritonavir were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effect modelling (NONMEM). RESULTS: The disposition of indinavir was best described by a single compartment model with first order absorption and elimination. Values for the clearance, volume of distribution and the absorption rate constant were 46.8 l h(-1) (24.2% IIV), 82.3 l (24.6% IIV) and 02.62 h(-1), respectively. An absorption lag-time of 0.485 h was detected in patients also taking ritonavir. Furthermore this drug, independent of dose (100-400 mg) or plasma concentration, decreased the clearance of indinavir by 64.6%. In contrast, co-administration of efavirenz or nevirapine increased the clearance of indinavir by 41%, irrespective of the presence or absence of ritonavir. Female patients had a 48% higher apparent bioavailability of indinavir than males. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetic parameters of indinavir were adequately described by our population model. Female gender and concomitant use of ritonavir and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors strongly influenced the pharmacokinetics of this drug. The results support the concept of ritonavir boosting, maximum inhibition of indinavir metabolized being observed at 100 mg.
Abstract: Sildenafil used as oral drug treatment for erectile dysfunction is predominantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A4. The antidepressant fluvoxamine is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of fluvoxamine dosed to steady state on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sildenafil. Twelve healthy men received oral fluvoxamine or placebo for 10 days (50 mg every day on days 1-3; 100 mg every day on days 4-10). On day 11, all participants received a single, oral, open-label dose of 50 mg sildenafil, and blood samples were collected for analysis of sildenafil plasma concentrations by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concurrently, the effect of sildenafil on venodilation induced by a constant dose of sodium nitroprusside was assessed using the dorsal hand vein compliance technique. Sildenafil was well tolerated in the presence of fluvoxamine. During fluvoxamine, sildenafil exposure (area under the curve) significantly increased by 40% (P < 0.001), and its half-life increased by 19% (P = 0.034). Concurrently, sodium nitroprusside-induced venodilation was significantly augmented by 59% during fluvoxamine compared to placebo (P = 0.012). In conclusion, sildenafil kinetics are mildly affected by fluvoxamine which translates into an increase in vascular sildenafil effects. Whereas the pharmacokinetic changes do not suggest a large clinically relevant interaction, it may be prudent to consider a starting dose of 25 mg in patients concurrently treated with fluvoxamine.
Abstract: Sildenafil is the first oral therapeutic agent for the management of male erectile dysfunction. Its oral bioavailability is only 40% due to extensive presystemic elimination, mainly by CYP3A4. This study examined the effect of coadministration of ciprofloxacin or clarithromycin, which inhibit CYP3A4, on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Twelve healthy male volunteers received sildenafil alone or after pretreatment with the inhibitors in a balanced three-way crossover design. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that ciprofloxacin coadministration with sildenafil significantly increased the AUC from 1407 +/- 380 to 2986 +/- 917 microg h/l (90% confidence interval 119%-159%) and the Cmax from 287 +/- 67 to 623 +/- 192 microg/l (90% confidence interval 127%-152%). Similarly, clarithromycin coadministration increased sildenafil AUC from 1407 +/- 380 to 3209 +/- 762 microg h/l (90% confidence interval 127%-161%) and Cmax from 287 +/- 67 to 694 +/- 259 microg/l (90% confidence interval 132%-157%). Ciprofloxacin coadministration and clarithromycin coadministration with sildenafil did not affect the rate of sildenafil absorption significantly. These results indicate that coadministration of ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin significantly increased sildenafil bioavailability which can be attributed to the inhibitory effect of ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin on CYP3A4. Dose adjustment of sildenafil is thus necessary when administered with such drugs.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare the effect of CYP3A5*3 genotype on the disposition of three phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), vardenafil, sildenafil, and udenafil, because our previous in-vitro microsomal incubation study showed that the relative contribution of CYP3A5 enzyme to their metabolism was different among these PDE5Is. METHODS: An open-label three-way crossover study was performed with a single oral dose of PDE5Is (20 mg vardenafil, 100 mg sildenafil, or 200 mg udenafil) in 21 healthy men carrying CYP3A5*1/*1, *1/*3, or *3/*3. After each dose, plasma concentrations of the parents and their major metabolites were measured up to 24 or 48 h. RESULTS: The AUC(∞) and C(max) of vardenafil were 2.9-fold and 3.1-fold higher in CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers than in individuals with CYP3A5*1/*1 (P=0.003 and 0.002, respectively). The AUC(∞) and C(max) of sildenafil were 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold higher in CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers compared with individuals with CYP3A5*1/*1, but the statistical difference of both parameters among genotype groups was not observed. The disposition of udenafil differed little among groups in relation to the CYP3A5*3 allelic variant. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the disposition of these PDE5Is are differently influenced by the CYP3A5*3 genotype of individual participants. The CYP3A5*3 genotype affects the oral disposition of vardenafil significantly. The pharmacokinetic diversity of PDE5Is in relation to CYP3A5 genotype may lead to the clinical response variation and remains to be evaluated.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the efflux transport properties of vardenafil and sildenafil, and to compare the kinetics of these compounds via efflux transporters such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP2. METHODS: We measured the basal-to-apical and apical-to-basal transport of vardenafil and sildenafil within the concentration range of 1-100 µm using MDCKII cells overexpressing P-gp, BCRP and MRP2, and Caco-2 cells. KEY FINDINGS: Vardenafil had a much greater basal-to-apical than apical-to-basal transport rate in MDCKII cells overexpressing P-gp, BCRP and MRP2. Sildenafil showed P-gp- and BCRP-mediated efflux transport, but did not seem to be pumped out via MRP2 transporters. Consequently, the absorptive transport of vardenafil and sildenafil in Caco-2 cells increased linearly over the concentration range of 1-100 µm, whereas the secretory transport of these drugs was saturable and inhibited by the presence of specific inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP. MK571, a representative MRP2 inhibitor, inhibited the basal-to-apical transport of vardenafil, but not of sildenafil. CONCLUSION: The involvement of P-gp, BCRP and MRP2 for vardenafil and the involvement of P-gp and BCRP for sildenafil in the secretory transport with linear absorptive transport may contribute to the limited intestinal absorption of these drugs.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: Besides logistical and ethical concerns, evaluation of safety and efficacy of medications in pregnant women is complicated by marked changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs. For example, CYP3A activity is induced during the third trimester (T3). We explored whether a previously published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could quantitatively predict PK profiles of CYP3A-metabolized drugs during T3, and discern the site of CYP3A induction (i.e., liver, intestine, or both). The model accounted for gestational age-dependent changes in maternal physiological function and hepatic CYP3A activity. For model verification, mean plasma area under the curve (AUC), peak plasma concentration (Cmax), and trough plasma concentration (Cmin) of midazolam (MDZ), nifedipine (NIF), and indinavir (IDV) were predicted and compared with published studies. The PBPK model successfully predicted MDZ, NIF, and IDV disposition during T3. A sensitivity analysis suggested that CYP3A induction in T3 is most likely hepatic and not intestinal. Our PBPK model is a useful tool to evaluate different dosing regimens during T3 for drugs cleared primarily via CYP3A metabolism.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2012) 1, e3; doi:10.1038/psp.2012.2; advance online publication 26 September 2012.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.