Extension de temps QT
Effets indésirables des médicaments
Variantes ✨Pour l'évaluation intensive en calcul des variantes, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications pour les patients
L'administration de ciprofloxacine et de tizanidine est contre-indiquée.
Augmentation des concentrations de tizanidineMécanisme: la tizanidine est métabolisée par le CYP1A2. La ciprofloxacine inhibe fortement le CYP1A2 et donc également la dégradation de la tizanidine.
Effet: la ciprofloxacine augmente d'environ 10 fois l'ASC de la tizanidine. D'autres symptômes possibles d'une augmentation des concentrations de tizanidine sont la bradycardie, les étourdissements, les nausées, la sédation et l'allongement de l'intervalle QT.
Mesures: L'association de ciprofloxacine et de tizanidine est contre-indiquée.
|Mexilétine||1.14 [0.67,7.36] 1,2||1.14||1|
Les changements d'exposition mentionnés sont liés aux changements de la courbe concentration plasmatique en fonction du temps [ASC]. Nous n'avons détecté aucune modification de l'exposition à la ciprofloxacine, lorsqu'il est combiné avec la tizanidine (100%). Nous ne pouvons actuellement pas estimer l'influence de la mexilétine. L'exposition à la tizanidine augmente à 4009%, lorsqu'il est associé à la ciprofloxacine (751%) et à la mexilétine (361%). Cela peut entraîner une augmentation des effets secondaires. L'exposition à la mexilétine augmente à 114%, lorsqu'il est associé à la ciprofloxacine (114%) et à la tizanidine (100%). L'ASC est comprise entre 67% et 736% selon le
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La ciprofloxacine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 70%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 3.5 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très faible à 30%. Environ 55.0% d'une dose administrée est excrétée inchangée par les reins et cette proportion est rarement modifiée par les interactions. Le métabolisme s'effectue principalement via le CYP1A2 et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via BCRP, OATP1A2 et PGP.
La mexilétine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 76%, raison pour laquelle les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 6.3 heures et les taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 9 999 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est plutôt faible à 58% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 446 litres, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut augmenter l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via le CYP1A2, CYP2B6 et le CYP2D6, entre autres.
La tizanidine a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 15%, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer de manière significative avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte à 1.5 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints rapidement. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très faible à 30% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très important à 160 litres, cependant, comme la substance a un taux d'extraction hépatique élevé de 0,9, seules les modifications du débit sanguin hépatique [Q] sont pertinentes. Le métabolisme s'effectue principalement via le CYP1A2.
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||mex||tiz|
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Évaluation: Selon nos connaissances, ni la ciprofloxacine, mexilétine ni la tizanidine n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||mex||tiz|
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||Ø||Ø||+++|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à des doses dans l'intervalle thérapeutique supérieur.
Évaluation: La tizanidine augmente considérablement l'activité anticholinergique. Selon nos résultats, ni la ciprofloxacine ni la mexilétine n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Extension de temps QT
|Les scores||∑ Points||cip||mex||tiz|
Évaluation: En association, la ciprofloxacine et la tizanidine peuvent potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires de type torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la mexilétine.
Effets secondaires généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ la fréquence||cip||mex||tiz|
|La nausée||3.0 %||+||+||+|
Mal de crâne (3%): ciprofloxacine
Problème de coordination: mexilétine
Crise d'épilepsie: mexilétine, ciprofloxacine
Trouble de l'attention: ciprofloxacine
Syndrome de Guillain-Barré: ciprofloxacine
Déficience de mémoire: ciprofloxacine
Neuropathie périphérique: ciprofloxacine
Pseudotumeur cérébrale: ciprofloxacine
Augmentation de la pression intracrânienne: ciprofloxacine
Écoulement nasal (3%): ciprofloxacine
Vomissements (2.5%): mexilétine, ciprofloxacine
Diarrhée à Clostridium difficile: ciprofloxacine
La diarrhée: ciprofloxacine
Hémorragie gastro-intestinale: ciprofloxacine
Démangeaison de la peau (1.8%): ciprofloxacine
Nécrolyse épidermique toxique: ciprofloxacine
Syndrome de Stevens-Johnson: mexilétine, ciprofloxacine
Hépatotoxicité: mexilétine, ciprofloxacine
Insuffisance hépatique: ciprofloxacine, tizanidine
Transaminases élevées: tizanidine
Réaction d'hypersensibilité: mexilétine, ciprofloxacine
Lupus érythémateux: mexilétine
Vision floue: mexilétine
Infarctus du myocarde: ciprofloxacine
Bloc auriculo-ventriculaire: mexilétine
Insuffisance cardiaque: mexilétine
La dépression: ciprofloxacine
Cystite hémorragique: ciprofloxacine
Insuffisance rénale: ciprofloxacine
Néphrite tubulo-interstitielle: ciprofloxacine
Leucopénie: mexilétine, ciprofloxacine
Agranulocytose: mexilétine, ciprofloxacine
Thrombocytopénie: mexilétine, ciprofloxacine
Anémie aplastique: ciprofloxacine
L'anémie hémolytique: ciprofloxacine
Myasthénie grave: ciprofloxacine
Rupture du tendon: ciprofloxacine
Anévrisme aortique: ciprofloxacine
Sur la base de vos
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of tizanidine, a new centrally acting muscle relaxant, have been studied in 18 normal male volunteers who received orally a single 5 mg dose, a single 20 mg dose, or repeated administration of 4 mg every 8 hr for 13 doses of [14C]tizanidine. Serial blood and breath samples and complete urine and feces were collected and analyzed for total radioactivity as well as intact tizanidine. Tizanidine was rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, although the estimated bioavailability was only 21% due to extensive first-pass metabolism. The pharmacokinetics of tizanidine appeared to be linear in the 0-20 mg dose range, as indicated by the dose-proportional blood levels of total radioactivity as well as of parent drug. Absorbed tizanidine was almost completely metabolized before excretion, the major excretory route being via the kidneys. The terminal half-lives of tizanidine and radioactivity were ca 3 hr and 61 hr, respectively, and 76%-77% of the administered radioactivity was recovered within 120 hr. Repeated administration of [14C]tizanidine resulted in no apparent change in pharmacokinetic characteristics. During the 4 mg q 8 hr regimen, blood levels of tizanidine reached steady state after only 2 or 3 doses, whereas those of total radioactivity approached steady state after approximately 4 days. The degree of accumulation of radioactivity, unlike that of parent drug, was inconsistent with the terminal half-life, but instead implied a shorter effective half-life of ca. 16 hr. It appears that the terminal phase of the blood radioactivity profile represents a metabolite that is reversibly bound to and slowly released from a specific tissue depot, and that this binding involves a finite amount of drug regardless of the dose. The oral administration of [14C]tizanidine prescribed in the present study was safe and well tolerated.
Abstract: To study the effects of cirrhosis of the liver on the pharmacokinetics of mexiletine a single i.v. dose of 200 mg was administered to six cirrhotic patients and to six healthy controls. The distribution of mexiletine in both study groups was similar, as indicated by similar values of V1 and Vss, but it tended to occur more slowly in the cirrhotics. The plasma protein binding of mexiletine was unchanged in the patients with cirrhosis. The elimination of mexiletine was markedly retarded in the cirrhotics, as indicated by its lower total clearance (2.31 vs. 8.27 ml/kg/h,) lower total elimination rate constant (0.059 vs 0.353 h-1), and longer elimination half-life (28.7 vs 9.9 h). The antipyrine half-life was 38.3 h in the patients and 14.7 h in the controls. One healthy volunteer had a Morgagni-Stokes-Adams type of syncopal attack 5 min after administration of mexiletine due to disturbance of AV conduction induced by the drug. Thus, on a pharmacokinetic basis the loading dose of mexiletine need not be modified in cirrhotic patients, whereas the maintenance dosage should be reduced to one fourth - one third of the usual dose.
Abstract: Cimetidine, a commonly used H2-receptor antagonist, was found to interact adversely with many drugs, including class I antiarrhythmics such as lidocaine and quinidine. To test the effect of cimetidine on the kinetics of mexiletine, a class I antiarrhythmic similar to lidocaine, the absorption and disposition of mexiletine were followed in six healthy subjects before and after 1 week of cimetidine, 300 mg by mouth four times a day. Cimetidine did not alter the distribution and elimination of mexiletine, as shown by similar mean kinetics including total body clearance, AUC, and the elimination t1/2 before and after cimetidine treatment. Cimetidine did have a significant effect on mexiletine absorption, as demonstrated by a longer mean absorption t1/2 (from 0.20 +/- 0.14 to 0.61 +/- 0.35 hours), a longer mean time to peak mexiletine concentration (from 1.13 +/- 0.31 to 1.88 +/- 0.83 hours), and decreased mexiletine plasma concentration (from 0.74 +/- 0.19 to 0.59 +/- 0.15 mg/ml). We conclude that cimetidine does not alter the disposition of oral mexiletine in normal subjects.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: To study the effects of enzyme induction on its pharmacokinetics, a single oral dose of the new antiarrhythmic agent mexiletine hydrochloride 400 mg was administered to 8 healthy volunteers before and after treatment with rifampicin 300 mg b.i.d. for ten days. The absorption and distribution of mexiletine were not changed after rifampicin, but its elimination half-life fell from 8.5 +/- 0.8 h (mean +/- SE) to 5.0 +/- 0.4 h (p less than 0.01), and its nonrenal clearance increased from 435 +/- 68 ml/min to 711 +/- 101 ml/min (p less than 0.01). The mean renal clearance of mexiletine did not change, but it showed an exponential correlation with urinary pH. The amount of unchanged mexiletine excreted in urine over two days decreased from 32 +/- 7 to 18 +/- 3 mg (p less than 0.01). The half-life of antipyrine fell from 11.8 +/- 0.4 to 5.5 +/- 0.3 h and its clearance increased from 40 +/- 3 ml to 74 +/- 3 ml/min (p less than 0.01). There was a significant (p less than 0.05) positive linear correlation between both the half-lives and the clearances of antipyrine and mexiletine. The clearances were positively correlated with serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The results suggest that the dosage of mexiletine should be adjusted when enzyme inducing drugs are started or stopped during therapy with it.
Abstract: Single-dose kinetics of mexiletine (MEX) was studied in six healthy subjects after three different formulations. The respective doses were 200 mg (intravenous infusion), 400 mg (two conventional capsules), and 432 mg (sustained-release dosage forms). By a three-compartment open model with lag time the kinetic parameters of the drug were calculated from the experimental plasma level data. The mathematical analysis of the processes of distribution and elimination was restricted to the intravenous data only, and the resulting transfer constants were introduced into the evaluations of the oral experiments. With this procedure one common value for the plasma t 1/2 of elimination was obtained (t 1/2 gamma = 6.34 +/- 1.5 hr). Mean values for the total volume of distribution (Vdtot) and the total body clearance (Cltot) were 5.5 l/kg and 10.3 ml/min/kg. After capsules, peak plasma concentrations (Cmax = 0.77 microgram/ml) were reached after 2.2 hr. and the sustained-release form built up a flat maximum of concentration (Cmax = 0.34 microgram/ml) after 9.2 hr. Mexiletine is highly bioavailable, almost identical for the two oral formulations: 87.3% (capsule) and 78.7% (slow release). Under physiologic urinary pH1 7.5% to 9.2% of the dose was excreted unchanged by the kidneys.
Abstract: It was reported previously that mexiletine undergoes stereoselective disposition in humans and that formation of three of its major metabolites co-segregates with polymorphic debrisoquin 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) activity. In this study, the hypothesis was tested that the CYP2D6-mediated oxidation pathways of mexiletine are responsible for the stereoselective disposition of the racemate in humans. Fourteen healthy subjects (10 extensive metabolizers [EMs] and 4 poor metabolizers [PMs]) participated in this study. They received a single 200-mg oral dose of racemic mexiletine hydrochloride on two occasions: once alone and once during administration of low-dose quinidine (50 mg four times a day). Blood and urine samples were obtained over 48 hr after the administration of mexiletine and analyzed by a stereoselective high-performance liquid chromatography assay. As reported previously, RS-mexiletine disposition was altered by a genetically determined (PM) or drug-induced (quinidine) decrease in CYP2D6 activity. In contrast, R/S ratio of the apparent total and nonrenal clearances of mexiletine and the R/S ratio of the urinary recovery of both enantiomers were similar in EMs and PMs. Moreover, these ratios were unaltered by quinidine administration. Partial metabolic clearance of N-hydroxymexiletine glucuronide, a non-CYP2D6 dependent metabolite, was highly stereoselective; the R/S ratio was 11.3 +/- 3.4. This ratio was similar in subjects with either an EM or a PM phenotype and was not altered by quinidine administration. Thus, the results obtained in this study suggest that non-CYP2D6-dependent metabolic pathways are responsible for the stereoselective disposition of mexiletine in humans.
Abstract: Marked interindividual variation has been observed in the pharmacokinetics of the antiarrhythmic agent mexiletine. The fact that its urinary excretion is dependent on urinary pH may account, in part, for such variation. The influence that genetic differences in hepatic metabolism of the debrisoquine-type may have on mexiletine pharmacokinetics was considered in this study. The pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of mexiletine (250 mg administered intravenously) were investigated in 5 rapid extensive metabolisers (EM), 5 slow EM and 5 poor metabolisers (PM) of debrisoquine, under conditions of controlled urinary pH. Mexiletine disposition kinetics was found to be altered in PM individuals. These subjects showed higher total area under the curve (AUC), (15.7 versus 8.16 micrograms.h.ml-1) prolonged elimination half-lives (in serum and urine) (serum: 18.5 versus 11.6 h, urine: 19.2 versus 11.7 h) and lower total clearance values compared with EM (216 versus 450 ml.min-1). In this respect, slow EM individuals generally presented intermediate values of those pharmacokinetic parameters. A higher incidence of adverse-effects was also observed among slow EM and PM subjects. It is concluded that genetic differences in mexiletine oxidation of the debrisoquine-type have an influence on its observed pharmacokinetic variability. The clinical consequences are discussed.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: AIMS: Mexiletine has been reported to be hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in humans. However, the involvement of CYP1A2 in the metabolism of mexiletine has been proposed based on the interaction with theophylline which is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of human CYP1A2 in mexiletine metabolism. METHODS: Human CYP isoforms involved in mexiletine metabolism were investigated using microsomes from human liver and B-lymphoblastoid cells expressing human CYPs. The contributions of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 to mexiletine metabolism were estimated by the relative activity factor (RAF). RESULTS: Mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities in human liver microsomes were inhibited by ethoxyresorufin and furafylline as well as quinidine. Mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities in microsomes from nine human livers correlated significantly with bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.907, P < 0.001 and r = 0.886, P < 0.01, respectively). Microsomes of B-lymphoblastoid cells expressing human CYP1A2 exhibited lower mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities than those expressing human CYP2D6. It was estimated by RAF that the major isoform involved in mexiletine metabolism was CYP2D6, and the contribution of CYPIA2 to both mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities was 7-30% in human liver microsomes. However, the Km values of the expressed CYP1A2 (approximately 15 microM) were almost identical with those of the expressed CYP2D6 (approximately 22 microM) and human liver microsomes. CONCLUSIONS: Mexiletine is a substrate of CYP1A2. The data obtained in this study suggest that the interaction of mexiletine with theophylline might be due to competitive inhibition of CYP1A2.
Abstract: Clinical trials with tizanidine when administered alone have shown that 5-chloro-4-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-2,1,3-benzothiodiazole (tizanidine) is safe and effective for spasticity control. However, given its mechanism of action and requirement for titration, clinical experience suggests that tizanidine is likely to be used in combination with other antispastic agents with different mechanisms of action, such as baclofen. The objective of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of both tizanidine and baclofen under steady-state conditions when administered alone or concomitantly. This was a randomized, three-period, multiple-dose, Latin Square design study consisting of tizanidine HCl, 4 mg t.i.d. for seven consecutive doses; baclofen, 10 mg t.i.d. for seven consecutive doses; and both regimens simultaneously for seven consecutive doses. Drug administration was performed every 8 h, three times daily. Fifteen normal men served as study subjects. A priori, a clinically significant difference was set as 30%. Concentrations of tizanidine and baclofen were nearly identical during the single and concomitant dosing periods. All of the calculated steady-state pharmacokinetic parameter changes for baclofen, tizanidine, and its major metabolites were within the 30% criterion. Small differences in renal clearance were observed when the two drugs were coadministered, but these changes are unlikely to be clinically important. Thus, it is unlikely that coadministration of tizanidine and baclofen during dose-titration of the former will result in a pharmacokinetic interaction.
Abstract: Mexiletine, a class Ib antiarrhythmic agent, is rapidly and completely absorbed following oral administration with a bioavailability of about 90%. Peak plasma concentrations following oral administration occur within 1 to 4 hours and a linear relationship between dose and plasma concentration is observed in the dose range of 100 to 600 mg. Mexiletine is weakly bound to plasma proteins (70%). Its volume of distribution is large and varies from 5 to 9 L/kg in healthy individuals. Mexiletine is eliminated slowly in humans (with an elimination half-life of 10 hours). It undergoes stereoselective disposition caused by extensive metabolism. Eleven metabolites of mexiletine are presently known, but none of these metabolites possesses any pharmacological activity. The major metabolites are hydroxymethyl-mexiletine, p-hydroxy-mexiletine, m-hydroxy-mexiletine and N-hydroxy-mexiletine. Formation of hydroxymethyl-mexiletine, p-hydroxy-mexiletine and m-hydroxy-mexiletine is genetically determined and cosegregates with polymorphic debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6] activity. On the other hand, CYP1A2 seems to be implicated in the N-oxidation of mexiletine. Various physiological, pathological, pharmacological and environmental factors influence the disposition of mexiletine. Myocardial infarction, opioid analgesics, atropine and antacids slow the rate of absorption, whereas metoclopramide enhances it. Rifampicin (rifampin), phenytoin and cigarette smoking significantly enhance the rate of elimination of mexiletine, whereas ciprofloxacin, propafenone and liver cirrhosis decrease it. Cimetidine, ranitidine, fluconazole and omeprazole do not modify the disposition of mexiletine. Conversely, mexiletine is known to alter the disposition of other drugs, such as caffeine and theophylline. Factors affecting the elimination of mexiletine may be clinically important and dosage adjustments are often necessary.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study the effect of fluvoxamine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tizanidine, a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took 100 mg fluvoxamine or placebo orally once daily for 4 days. On day 4, each ingested a single 4-mg dose of tizanidine. Plasma concentrations of tizanidine and fluvoxamine and pharmacodynamic variables were measured. A caffeine test was performed on day 3 to examine the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 in tizanidine pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: On average, fluvoxamine increased the total area under the concentration-time curve [AUC(0- infinity )] of tizanidine 33-fold (range, 14-fold to 103-fold; P =.000002) and the peak plasma concentration 12-fold (range, 5-fold to 32-fold; P =.000001). The mean elimination half-life of tizanidine was prolonged from 1.5 to 4.3 hours (P =.00004) by fluvoxamine. The AUC(0- infinity ) of tizanidine and its increase by fluvoxamine correlated with the caffeine/paraxanthine ratio and its increase, respectively (P <.03). All pharmacodynamic variables revealed a significant difference between the fluvoxamine and placebo phases, eg, in the maximal effects on systolic blood pressure (-35 mm Hg, P =.000009), diastolic blood pressure (-20 mm Hg, P =.00002), heart rate (-4 beats/min, P =.007), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (P =.0003), subjective drug effect (P =.0000001), and drowsiness (P =.0002). In particular, the decrease in systolic blood pressure, to the level of 80 mm Hg or even less, was an alarming finding. CONCLUSIONS: Fluvoxamine seriously affects the pharmacokinetics of tizanidine and increases the intensity and duration of its effects. Inhibition of tizanidine-metabolizing enzyme(s), mainly CYP1A2, by fluvoxamine seems to explain the observed interaction. Because of the potentially hazardous consequences, the concomitant use of tizanidine with fluvoxamine, or other potent inhibitors of CYP1A2, should be avoided.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tizanidine, a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant, is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and has a low oral bioavailability. The fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin is only a moderately potent inhibitor of CYP1A2. Our objective was to study the extent and mechanism of a possible interaction of ciprofloxacin with tizanidine. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 500 mg ciprofloxacin or placebo twice daily for 3 days. On day 3, a single dose of 4 mg tizanidine was ingested 1 hour after the morning dose of ciprofloxacin. Plasma concentrations of tizanidine and ciprofloxacin and pharmacodynamic variables were measured. A caffeine test was used as a marker for CYP1A2 activity. RESULTS: Ciprofloxacin increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] of tizanidine by 10-fold (range, 6-fold to 24-fold; P < .001) and its peak concentration by 7-fold (range, 4-fold to 21-fold; P < .001), whereas its elimination half-life was only prolonged from 1.5 to 1.8 hours (P = .007). The pharmacodynamic effects of tizanidine were much stronger during the ciprofloxacin phase than during the placebo phase with regard to changes in systolic blood pressure (-35 mm Hg versus -15 mm Hg, P = .001), diastolic blood pressure (-24 mm Hg versus -11 mm Hg, P < .001), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (P = .02), subjective drug effect (P = .002), and subjective drowsiness (P = .009). The AUC(0-infinity) of tizanidine and its change correlated (P < .01) with the caffeine/paraxanthine ratio and its change. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin greatly elevates plasma concentrations of tizanidine and dangerously potentiates its hypotensive and sedative effects, mainly by inhibiting its CYP1A2-mediated metabolism, at least when administered 1 hour before tizanidine. Tizanidine seems to be a useful probe drug for measuring presystemic metabolism by CYP1A2. Care should be exercised when tizanidine is used concomitantly with ciprofloxacin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oral contraceptives (OCs) can inhibit drug metabolism, but their effect on various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and drugs can be different. Our objective was to study the effect of combined OCs, containing ethinyl estradiol (INN, ethinylestradiol) and gestodene, on CYP1A2 activity, as well as their interaction potential with tizanidine. METHODS: In a parallel-group study, 15 healthy women using OCs and 15 healthy women without OCs (control subjects) ingested a single dose of 4 mg tizanidine. Plasma and urine concentrations of tizanidine, as well as several of its metabolites (M-3, M-4, M-5, M-9, and M-10), and pharmacodynamic variables were measured until 24 hours after dosing. As a marker of CYP1A2 activity, an oral caffeine test was performed in both groups. RESULTS: The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity [AUC0-infinity] of tizanidine was 3.9 times greater (P<.001) and the mean peak plasma tizanidine concentration (Cmax) was 3.0 times higher (P<.001) in the OC users than in the control subjects. In 1 OC user the AUC0-infinity of tizanidine exceeded the mean AUC0-infinity of the control subjects by nearly 20 times. There were no significant differences in the elimination half-life or time to peak concentration in plasma of tizanidine between the groups. Tizanidine/metabolite ratios in plasma (M-3 and M-4) and urine (M-3, M-4, M-5, M-9, and M-10) were 2 to 10 times higher in the users of OCs than in the control subjects. In the OC group the excretion of unchanged tizanidine into urine was, on average, 3.8 times greater (P=.008) than in the control subjects. The plasma caffeine/paraxanthine ratio was 2.8 times higher (P<.001) in the OC users than in the control subjects. The caffeine/paraxanthine ratio correlated significantly with the AUC0-infinity and peak concentration of tizanidine in plasma, with its excretion into urine, and with, for example, the tizanidine/M-3 and tizanidine/M-4 area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios. Both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were lowered by tizanidine more in the OC users (-29+/- 10 mm Hg and -21+/- 8 mm Hg, respectively) than in the control subjects (-17+/- 9 mm Hg and -13+/- 5 mm Hg, respectively) (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: OCs containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene increase, to a clinically significant extent, the plasma concentrations and effects of tizanidine, probably mainly by inhibiting its CYP1A2-mediated presystemic metabolism. Care should be exercised when tizanidine is prescribed to OC users.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Rifampicin greatly reduces the plasma concentrations of many drugs. Our aim was to characterise the inducibility of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 by rifampicin, using tizanidine and caffeine as probe drugs for presystemic and systemic CYP1A2-mediated metabolism. METHODS: In a randomised, 2-phase crossover study, ten healthy volunteers were given a 5-day pretreatment with 600 mg rifampicin or placebo once daily. On day 6, a single 4-mg dose of tizanidine was administered orally. Plasma and urine concentrations of parent tizanidine and several of its metabolites (M-3, M-4, M-5, M-9, M-10) and pharmacodynamic variables were measured up to 24 h. A caffeine test was performed in both phases. RESULTS: Rifampicin moderately reduced the peak plasma concentration (by 51%; P = 0.002) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC(0-infinity)] (by 54%; P = 0.009) of parent tizanidine, and had no effect on its half-life. The tizanidine/M-3 and tizanidine/M-4 AUC(0-infinity) ratios were slightly (by 30%; P = 0.014; and by 38%; P = 0.007) decreased by rifampicin. Also, the excretion of metabolites M-3, M-4 and M-5 into urine was reduced (P < 0.005), but that of M-10 was increased (P = 0.008) by rifampicin. Rifampicin reduced the tizanidine/M-10 ratio (by 55%; P = 0.047) but had no significant effect on the other tizanidine/metabolite ratios in urine. The caffeine/paraxanthine ratio was reduced by 23% (P = 0.081) by rifampicin. The effect of rifampicin on the caffeine/paraxanthine ratio correlated significantly with the effect of rifampicin on, for example, the AUC(0-infinity) of tizanidine and the tizanidine/M-3 AUC(0-infinity) ratio. The pharmacodynamic effects of tizanidine were reduced by rifampicin. CONCLUSIONS: Rifampicin moderately decreases the plasma concentrations of tizanidine. The strong inducing effects of rifampicin on other CYP enzymes, e.g. CYP3A4, may have contributed to the findings, and the inducibility of CYP1A2-mediated presystemic (tizanidine) and systemic (tizanidine, caffeine) metabolism by rifampicin is weak at the most. Compared to CYP3A4 substrate drugs, substrates of CYP1A2 are much less susceptible to drug interactions caused by enzyme inducers of the rifampicin type.
Abstract: AIMS: Case reports suggest an interaction between rofecoxib and the CYP1A2 substrate tizanidine. Our objectives were to explore the extent and mechanism of this possible interaction and to determine the CYP1A2 inhibitory potency of rofecoxib. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, two-phase cross-over study, nine healthy subjects took 25 mg rofecoxib or placebo daily for 4 days and, on day 4, each ingested 4 mg tizanidine. Plasma concentrations and the urinary excretion of tizanidine, its metabolites (M) and rofecoxib, and pharmacodynamic variables were measured up to 24 h. On day 3, a caffeine test was performed to estimate CYP1A2 activity. RESULTS: Rofecoxib increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of tizanidine by 13.6-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.0, 15.6; P < 0.001), peak plasma concentration (C(max)) by 6.1-fold (4.8, 7.3; P < 0.001) and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from 1.6 to 3.0 h (P < 0.001). Consequently, rofecoxib markedly increased the blood pressure-lowering and sedative effects of tizanidine (P < 0.05). Rofecoxib increased several fold the tizanidine/M-3 and tizanidine/M-4 ratios in plasma and urine and the tizanidine/M-5, tizanidine/M-9 and tizanidine/M-10 ratios in urine (P < 0.05). In addition, it increased the plasma caffeine/paraxanthine ratio by 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.4, 3.4; P = 0.008) and this ratio correlated with the tizanidine/metabolite ratios. Finally, the AUC(0-25) of rofecoxib correlated with the placebo phase caffeine/paraxanthine ratio (r = 0.80, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Rofecoxib is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2 and it greatly increases the plasma concentrations and adverse effects of tizanidine. The findings suggest that rofecoxib itself is also metabolized by CYP1A2, raising concerns about interactions between rofecoxib and other CYP1A2 substrate and inhibitor drugs.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: AIMS: Tizanidine, one of the few oral antispastic therapies approved for use in the USA, has a narrow therapeutic index that can often make optimal patient dosing difficult. We surveyed the published literature for data on potential tizanidine dose relationships to pharmacokinetics, drug safety and effectiveness, as well as to provide practical drug dosing advice. RESULTS: The number of primary studies that describe tizanidine dose proportionality relationships was somewhat limited, even when including studies that used doses above those currently recommended or data from drug-drug interaction studies that resulted in supra-therapeutic tizanidine concentrations. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial evidence to show that plasma tizanidine concentrations are linearly related to dose in healthy subjects and patients, although there is a high degree of intersubject variability. The most common adverse events and pharmacodynamic effects are related to plasma concentrations. The clinical implications of the large interpatient variability in plasma tizanidine concentrations and its narrow therapeutic index make it necessary to individualise patient therapy. Practical advice on tizanidine dosing and/or switching between formulations is provided.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine whether mexiletine, a CYP1A2 inhibitor, altered the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tizanidine. The pharmacokinetics of tizanidine were examined in an open-label study in 12 healthy participants after a single dose of tizanidine (2 mg) with and without mexiletine coadministration (50 mg, 3 times as a pretreatment for a day and 2 times on the study day). Compared with tizanidine alone, mexiletine coadministration increased the peak plasma concentration (1.8 +/- 0.8 vs 5.3 +/- 1.8 ng/mL), area under the curve (4.5 +/- 2.2 vs 15.4 +/- 6.5 ng x h/mL), and the half-life (1.3 +/- 0.2 vs 1.8 +/- 0.7 h) of tizanidine, respectively (P < .05). Reduction in systolic blood pressure (-10 +/- 8 vs -24 +/- 7 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (-10 +/- 7 vs -18 +/- 8 mm Hg) after tizanidine administration was also significantly enhanced by coadministration of mexiletine (P < .01). Of the 15 patients treated with tizanidine and mexiletine, 4 suffered tizanidine-induced adverse effects such as drowsiness and dry mouth in the retrospective survey. Present results suggested that coadministration of mexiletine increased blood tizanidine concentrations and enhanced tizanidine pharmacodynamics in terms of reduction in blood pressure and adverse symptoms.
Abstract: Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to a potentially fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia called torsades de pointes (TdP). Although usually self-limited, TdP may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death. Some medications that cause QT prolongation and possible TdP are commonly used in general practice. This paper presents a case of sudden death that is likely from drug-induced TdP. It reviews the mechanisms, risk factors, offending agents, and management of drug-induced torsades de pointes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tizanidine (Zanaflex) is a centrally acting imidazoline muscle relaxant that is structurally similar to clonidine (α(2)-adrenergic agonist) but not to other myorelaxants such as baclofen or benzodiazepines. Interestingly, cardiac arrhythmias and QT interval prolongation have been reported with tizanidine. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of tizanidine on cardiac ventricular repolarization. METHODS: (1) Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments: HERG- or KCNQ1+KCNE1-transfected cells were exposed to tizanidine 0.1-100 µmol/L (n = 29 cells, total) to assess drug effect on the rapid (I(Kr)) and slow (I(Ks)) components of the delayed rectifier potassium current. (2) Langendorff retroperfusion experiments: isolated hearts from male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 6) were exposed to tizanidine 1 µmol/L to assess drug-induced prolongation of monophasic action potential duration measured at 90% repolarization (MAPD(90)). (3) In vivo wireless cardiac telemetry experiments: guinea pigs (n = 6) implanted with radio transmitters were injected a single intraperitoneal (ip) dose of tizanidine 0.25 mg/kg and 24 hours electrocardiography (ECG) recordings were made. RESULTS: (1) Patch-clamp experiments revealed an estimated IC(50) for tizanidine on I(Kr) above 100 µmol/L. Moreover, tizanidine 1 µmol/L had hardly any effect on I(Ks) (5.23% ± 4.54% inhibition, n = 5 cells). (2) While pacing the hearts at stimulation cycle lengths of 200 or 250 ms, tizanidine 1 µmol/L prolonged MAPD(90) by 8.22 ± 2.03 (6.7%) and 11.70 ± 3.08 ms (8.5%), respectively (both P < .05 vs baseline). (3) Tizanidine 0.25 mg/kg ip caused a maximal 11.93 ± 1.49 ms prolongation of corrected QT interval (QTc), 90 minutes after injection. CONCLUSION: Tizanidine prolongs the QT interval by blocking I(Kr). Patients could be at risk of cardiac proarrhythmia during impaired drug elimination, such as in case of CYP1A2 inhibition during drug interactions.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Some macrolide and quinolone antibiotics (MQABs) are associated with QT prolongation and life-threatening torsade de pointes (TdP) arrhythmia. MQAB may also inhibit cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and thereby cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions (DDIs). There is limited data on the frequency and management of such risks in clinical practice. We aimed to quantify co-administration of MQAB with interacting drugs and associated adverse drug reactions. METHODS: We conducted an observational study within our pharmacoepidemiological database derived from electronic medical records of a tertiary care hospital. Among all users of MQAB associated with TdP, we determined the prevalence of additional QT-prolonging drugs and risk factors and identified contraindicated co-administrations of simvastatin, atorvastatin, or tizanidine. Electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring and associated adverse events were validated in medical records. RESULTS: Among 3444 administered courses of clarithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or moxifloxacin, there were 1332 (38.7 %) with concomitant use of additional QT-prolonging drugs. Among those, we identified seven cases of drug-related QT prolongation, but 49.1 % had no ECG monitoring. Of all MQAB users, 547 (15.9 %) had hypokalemia. Forty-four MQAB users had contraindicated co-administrations of simvastatin, atorvastatin, or tizanidine and three of those related adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSION: In the studied real-life setting, we found a considerable number of MQAB users with additional risk factors for TdP but no ECG monitoring. However, adverse drug reactions were rarely found, and costs vs. benefits of ECG monitoring have to be weighted. In contrast, avoidable risk factors and selected contraindicated pharmacokinetic interactions are clear targets for implementation as automated alerts in electronic prescribing systems.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.