Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Surveillance de la fluconazole et de la diazépam recommandée.
Concentrations élevées de diazépam - sédation accrue / prolongéeMécanisme: Le diazépam est métabolisé hépatiquement par l'enzyme CYP3A4.
Effet: L'effet du diazépam peut être renforcé et prolongé en inhibant la dégradation. Dans une étude portant sur 12 volontaires sains, une augmentation d'environ 2,5 fois de l'ASC et de la demi-vie du diazépam a été observée avec l'association diazépam-fluconazole.
Mesures: Surveiller cliniquement la tolérance (par ex. Sédation accrue, étourdissements), sélectionner une dose de diazépam plus faible si nécessaire. Les benzodiazépines alternatives peuvent être le lorazépam ou l'oxazépam, qui ne sont pas métabolisés par les enzymes CYP.
|Ibuprofène||1.69 [1.69,2.4] 1||n.a.||1.69|
|Diazépam||2.08 [1.46,2.35] 2||1||2.08|
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. L'exposition à la diazépam augmente à 110 %, lorsqu'il est associé à la ibuprofène (100%) et à la fluconazole (208%). L'AUC est comprise entre 0 % et 100 % selon le
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La ibuprofène a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à peu changer au cours d'une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte (3 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont rapidement atteints. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très forte à 99% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est faible à 13 litres, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut entraîner une augmentation de l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP2C19, CYP2C8 et CYP2C9, entre autres et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via UGT1A9 et UGT2B7.
La diazépam a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez longue (jusqu'à 36 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] ne sont atteints qu'après plus de 144 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est 100 % forte et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 83 litres. Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut entraîner une augmentation de l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP2B6, CYP2C19 et CYP3A4, entre autres.
La fluconazole a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à peu changer au cours d'une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez longue (jusqu'à 30 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] ne sont atteints qu'après plus de 120 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très faible à 11.5% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est de 56 litres. Environ 20 % d'une dose administrée sont excrétés sous forme inchangée par les reins et cette proportion est rarement modifiée par les interactions. Le métabolisme ne se fait pas via les cytochromes communs.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Note: À notre connaissance, ni la ibuprofène, diazépam ni la fluconazole n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à de celles situées dans la marge thérapeutique supérieure.
Notation: La diazépam n'a qu'un effet modéré sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la dosage est respecté. À notre connaissance, ni la ibuprofène ni la fluconazole n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Allongement du temps QT
Note: La fluconazole peut potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires en torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la ibuprofène et la diazépam.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||ibu||dia||flu|
|La nausée||14.2 %||10.0||n.a.||4.7|
|Mal de crâne||8.4 %||+||n.a.||7.5|
|Démangeaison de la peau||1.0 %||n.a.||+||n.a.|
Crise d'épilepsie: diazépam, fluconazole
Méningite aseptique: ibuprofène
Accident vasculaire cérébral: ibuprofène
Vision floue: ibuprofène
Effet de hangover: diazépam
Effet de rebond: diazépam
La dépression: diazépam
Phosphatase alcaline élevée: fluconazole
ALT élevé: fluconazole
AST élevé: fluconazole
Insuffisance hépatique: fluconazole, ibuprofène
Ulcère gastro-intestinal: ibuprofène
Insuffisance cardiaque: ibuprofène
Infarctus du myocarde: ibuprofène
Dépression respiratoire: diazépam
Syndrome de Stevens-Johnson: fluconazole, ibuprofène
Nécrolyse épidermique toxique: fluconazole, ibuprofène
Agranulocytose: fluconazole, ibuprofène
Temps de saignement prolongé: ibuprofène
Syndrome de DRESS: fluconazole
Réactions cutanées allergiques: ibuprofène
Le syndrome néphrotique: ibuprofène
Néphrite tubulo-interstitielle: ibuprofène
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: The effects of steady state dosing with omeprazole and cimetidine on plasma diazepam levels have been studied in 12 healthy males. Single doses of diazepam (0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) were administered after one week of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cimetidine 400 mg b.d. or placebo, and the treatment was continued for a further 5 days. Blood was collected for 120 h after the dose of diazepam for the measurement of diazepam and its major metabolite desmethyl diazepam. The mean clearance of diazepam was decreased by 27% and 38% and its half-life was increased by 36% and 39% after omeprazole and cimetidine, respectively. Neither drug had any apparent effect on the volume of distribution of diazepam. Desmethyldiazepam appeared more slowly after both omeprazole and cimetidine. It is concluded that the decrease in diazepam clearance was associated with inhibition of hepatic metabolism both by omeprazole and cimetidine. However, since diazepam has a wide therapeutic range, it is unlikely that concomitant treatment with therapeutically recommended doses of either omeprazole or cimetidine will result in a clinically significant interaction with diazepam.
Abstract: 1. The oral pharmacokinetics of fluconazole were studied in three groups of volunteers (n = 5) with various degrees of renal function (GFR greater than 70 ml min-1; 20-70 ml min-1; less than 20 ml min-1) and in a group of patients with chronic end-stage renal failure requiring regular haemodialysis. 2. The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole were markedly affected by impaired renal function with the elimination of half-life in Group III (GFR less than 20 ml min-1) being approximately three times that observed in normal volunteers (Group I). 3. Fluconazole renal clearance was positively correlated with GFR. 4. Non-renal clearance of fluconazole decreased with decreasing renal function. 5. Approximately 38% of the 50 mg dose of fluconazole was removed by haemodialysis extending over a 3 h period.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: 1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h.
Abstract: Metabolism of diazepam (DZP) was studied in vitro to clarify the involvement of different forms of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rats, and humans of Japanese and Caucasian origin. Microsomal 3-hydroxylation was the major pathway of DZP metabolism in rats and was inhibited by anti-CYP3A antibodies. Purified CYP3As and CYP2C11 catalysed 3-hydroxylation and N-demethylation, respectively, in the reconstituted systems. The rates of both reactions in human liver microsomes depended on the substrate concentration: the rate of 3-hydroxylation was 3-4 times higher than N-demethylation at 0.2 mM; the two activities were essentially the same at a lower substrate concentration (0.02 mM). Inhibitions of the N-demethylation by anti-CYP2C antibody and S-mephenytoin also depended on the substrate concentration and was detectable only at a low substrate concentration. Kinetic studies revealed the presence of two distinct catalytic activities for the N-demethylation; low Km and low Vmax, and high Km and high Vmax. The former activity seems to be mediated by a CYP2C P450 form. On the other hand, DZP 3-hydroxylation was rather selectively catalysed by a CYP3A P450 at the low and high substrate concentrations. These results were consistent with the observation in vivo that DZP N-demethylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation are closely correlated in humans. These results also suggest that the apparent discrepancy on the role of CYP forms in DZP metabolism in vitro and in vivo may reside in the difference in substrate concentration.
Abstract: The effects of pretreatment with a seven day course of ciprofloxacin on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an intravenous (5 mg) dose of diazepam were investigated in a group of 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Ciprofloxacin pretreatment significantly reduced diazepam CL (without ciprofloxacin: 19.5 ml.h-1 kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 12.3 ml.h-1 kg-1). Diazepam t1/2 was also prolonged (without ciprofloxacin: 36.7 h; with ciprofloxacin: 71.1 h), but volume of distribution was unaltered (without ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1). However, no significant changes were detected in psychometric tests of digit symbol substitution, tapping rate and short memory, as well as levels of concentration, vigilance and tension measured by visual analogue scales.
Abstract: The azole antimycotic itraconazole is a potent and relatively unspecific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes and has a potentially dangerous interaction with midazolam and triazolam. The possible interaction between itraconazole and diazepam was investigated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Ten healthy volunteers were given orally placebo or itraconazole 200 mg a day for 4 days. The challenge dose of 5 mg of diazepam was ingested on the fourth day, after which plasma samples were collected and psychomotor performance tests were carried out for 42 h. Despite a statistically significant small increase in the area under the plasma diazepam concentration-time curve and the elimination half-life of diazepam, there was no clinically significant interaction as determined by the psychomotor performance tests. The lack of significant first-pass metabolism and the different metabolic pathways of diazepam explain the smaller interaction potential of diazepam compared with midazolam and triazolam. Diazepam, unlike midazolam and triazolam, can be prescribed in usual doses for patients receiving itraconazole and probably other inhibitors of P4503A4, at least when diazepam is used as single doses.
Abstract: 1. We have examined the metabolism of diazepam by ten human cytochrome P450 forms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5) expressed in HepG2 cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. 2. Among the P450 forms tested, diazepam was significantly demethylated by CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4 and 3A5, with 2C19 exhibiting the highest rate at concentrations < 0.1 mM, and hydroxylated only by the latter three enzymes, with 3A5 being the most active. The N-demethylation activity of diazepam by 2C19 at a concentration of 20 microM was six times of that by 3A4. However, that by 2C9 was detected at only a trace level. 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam. CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation. 4. Diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes correlated with diazepam 3-hydroxylation, but not S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. 5. Our results suggest that in the human liver, the metabolism of diazepam to nordiazepam is mediated by CYP3A4, which has been reported as the most abundant P450 form in human liver as well as 2C19, which has been reported as a polymorphic enzyme.
Abstract: Ibuprofen is a chiral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the 2 arylpropionic acid (2-APA) class. A common structural feature of 2-APANSAIDs is a sp3-hybridised tetrahedral chiral carbon atom within the propionic acid side chain moiety with the S-(+)-enantiomer possessing most of the beneficial anti-inflammatory activity. Ibuprofen demonstrates marked stereoselectivity in its pharmacokinetics. Substantial unidirectional inversion of the R-(-) to the S-(+) enantiomer occurs and thus, data generated using nonstereospecific assays may not be extrapolated to explain the disposition of the individual enantiomers. The absorption of ibuprofen is rapid and complete when given orally. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of ibuprofen is dose-dependent. Ibuprofen binds extensively, in a concentration-dependent manner, to plasma albumin. At doses greater than 600mg there is an increase in the unbound fraction of the drug, leading to an increased clearance of ibuprofen and a reduced AUC of the total drug. Substantial concentrations of ibuprofen are attained in synovial fluid, which is a proposed site of action for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ibuprofen is eliminated following biotransformation to glucuronide conjugate metabolites that are excreted in urine, with little of the drug being eliminated unchanged. The excretion of conjugates may be tied to renal function and the accumulation of conjugates occurs in end-stage renal disease. Hepatic disease and cystic fibrosis can alter the disposition kinetics of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen is not excreted in substantial concentrations into breast milk. Significant drug interactions have been demonstrated for aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), cholestyramine and methotrexate. A relationship between ibuprofen plasma concentrations and analgesic and antipyretic effects has been elucidated.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: According to in vitro data, the polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) may be the major S-ibuprofen hydroxylase. In humans, there are 2 variants of CYP2C9 with a high population frequency. We studied their impact on ibuprofen pharmacokinetics and on the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. METHODS: Kinetics of an oral dose of 600 mg racemic ibuprofen were studied in 21 healthy volunteers with all combinations of the CYP2C9 variants *2 (arginine144cysteine) and *3 (isoleucine359leucine). Blood concentrations of racemic ibuprofen and of S-(+)-ibuprofen and R-(-)-ibuprofen were measured by HPLC, and thromboxane B(2) and prostaglandin E(2) were measured with use of an enzyme immunoassay. Data were evaluated with a population pharmacokinetic model that integrated pharmacogenetic information. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics of racemic and of S-ibuprofen depended on the CYP2C9 isoleucine359leucine amino acid polymorphism: population mean S-ibuprofen clearances were 3.25 L/h (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.84 to 3.73), 2.38 L/h (95% CI, 2.09 to 2.73), and 1.52 L/h (95% CI, 1.33 to 1.74) in carriers of the CYP2C9 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*3, and *3/*3, respectively. The CYP2C9 variant *2 exhibited no significant effect. Ex vivo formation of thromboxane B(2), reflecting cyclooxygenase type 1 inhibition, depended significantly on the CYP2C9 polymorphism. The maximal inhibition of thromboxane B(2) formation and the area under the effect-time curve were larger in carriers of the slow CYP2C9 genotypes *1/*3, *2/*3, and *3/*3 than in *1/*1 carriers; the same trend was observed for prostaglandin E(2), reflecting cyclooxygenase type 2 inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced S-ibuprofen total clearance accompanied by increased pharmacodynamic activity may have medical impact in patients receiving ibuprofen.
Abstract: (R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms mediating R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation in human liver, with the long term objective of elucidating the molecular genetic basis for this drug metabolism polymorphism. All available recombinant UGT isoforms were screened for R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation activities. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in representative human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in UGTs that showed significant activity. Of 12 different UGTs evaluated, only UGT2B15 showed significant S-oxazepam glucuronidation. Furthermore, the apparent K(m) for UGT2B15 (29-35 microM) was similar to values determined for HLMs (43-60 microM). In contrast, R-oxazepam was glucuronidated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Although apparent K(m) values for HLMs (256-303 microM) were most similar to UGT2B7 (333 microM) rather than UGT1A9 (12 microM), intrinsic clearance values for UGT1A9 were 10 times higher than for UGT2B7. A common genetic variation results in aspartate (UGT2B15*1) or tyrosine (UGT2B15*2) at position 85 of the UGT2B15 protein. Microsomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells overexpressing UGT2B15*1 showed 5 times higher S-oxazepam glucuronidation activity than did UGT2B15*2 microsomes. Similar results were obtained for other substrates, including eugenol, naringenin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and androstane-3alpha-diol. In conclusion, S-oxazepam is stereoselectively glucuronidated by UGT2B15, whereas R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by multiple UGT isoforms. Allelic variation associated with the UGT2B15 gene may explain polymorphic S-oxazepam glucuronidation in humans.
Abstract: A 25-year-old woman who was hospitalized for worsening endocarditis had a prolonged QT interval at baseline and developed monomorphic ventricular arrhythmias, which were managed successfully with pacing and antiarrhythmic therapy. Several days later, the patient started receiving high-dose fluconazole for fungemia and subsequently experienced episodes of torsades de pointes, a polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia associated with a prolonged QT interval or prominent U wave on the electrocardiogram. The arrhythmia developed in the presence of known risk factors. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors and other relevant structural similarities with drugs that cause torsades de pointes so that they can recognize patients who may be at risk for fluconazole-associated arrhythmia.
Abstract: Glucuronide conjugation of xenobiotics containing a carboxylic acid moiety represents an important metabolic pathway for these compounds in humans. Several human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) have been shown to catalyze the formation of acyl-glucuronides, including UGT2B7, UGT1A3, and UGT1A9. In this study, recombinant expressed UGT isoforms were investigated with many structurally related carboxylic acid analogues, and the UGT rank order for catalyzing the glucuronidation of carboxylic acids was UGT2B7?UGT1A3 approximately UGT1A9. Despite being a poor substrate with UGT1A3, coumarin-3-carboxylic acid was not a substrate for any other UGT isoform tested in this study, suggesting that it could be a specific substrate for UGT1A3. Interestingly, UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 also react with several carboxylic acid aglycones. Kinetic analysis showed that UGT2B7 exhibits much higher glucuronidation efficiency (Vmax/Km) with ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and others, compared to UGT1A3. These data indicate that UGT2B7 could be the major isoform involved in the glucuronidation of carboxylic acid compounds in humans.
Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is important to consider when concentrations in whole blood (eg, in forensic toxicology) are compared with therapeutic and toxic concentrations based on the analysis of plasma or serum. The plasma to whole blood distribution of diazepam (D) and its major metabolite nordiazepam (ND) was investigated under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Studies in vitro were done by spiking whole blood with D and ND to give concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g. Venous blood was also obtained from hospital blood donors (n = 66) after informed consent. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and water content of blood specimens were determined by routine procedures before D and ND were added to produce target concentrations of approximately 0.5 microg/g for each substance. The ex vivo work was done with blood specimens from hospital outpatients who were being medicated with D. Concentrations of D and ND were determined in body fluids by capillary column gas chromatography after adding prazepam as internal standard and solvent extraction with butyl acetate. The method limit of quantitation was 0.03 microg/g for both D and ND. The concentrations of D and ND were highest in plasma and lowest in erythrocytes. The plasma/blood (P/B) distribution ratios did not depend on drug concentration between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/g. The mean P/B ratios were 1.79:1 for D and 1.69:1 for ND when hematocrit was 45%. Furthermore, the P/B ratio for D (y) was positively correlated with blood hematocrit (x) and the regression equation was y = 0.636 + 0.025x (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). A similar strong association was found between the P/B ratio and hematocrit for ND (r = 0.79). P/B ratios of D and ND, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the water content differed between sexes (P < 0.001). The overall mean P/B ratios for D and ND were 1.69 +/- 0.097 (+/- SD) and 1.62 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.001, n = 66) respectively when the mean hematocrit was 42.9 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD). For forensic purposes, it would be better to forgo making any conversion of a drug concentration measured in whole blood to that expected in plasma or serum; instead, therapeutic and toxic concentrations should be established for the actual specimens received.
Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), used for the treatment of pain and inflammation, are eliminated primarily through conjugation with polar sugar moieties to form glucuronides. Glucuronidation is catalyzed by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) superfamily. An inverse relationship may exist between glucuronidation activity and NSAID efficacy; however, specific UGTs catalyzing conjugation of the structurally diverse NSAIDs have yet to be identified systematically. Therefore, NSAID glucuronidation activity by 12 individually expressed UGTs was investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The relative rates of NSAID glucuronidation varied among UGT enzymes examined, demonstrating specificity of the individual UGTs toward selected NSAIDs. Kinetic parameters were determined for expressed UGT Supersomes and compared with parameters determined in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). Comparison of K(m) values suggested roles for UGTs 1A3 and 2B7 in indene glucuronidation and UGTs 1A9, 2B4, and 2B7 in profen glucuronidation. Inhibitory studies in pooled HLMs support the role of UGTs 1A1, 1A3, 1A9, 2B4, and 2B7 in the glucuronidation of ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and ketoprofen. Bilirubin did not inhibit indomethacin or diclofenac glucuronidation, suggesting that UGT1A1 was not involved in catalysis. Imipramine did not inhibit glucuronidation of sulindac, sulindac sulfone, indomethacin, or naproxen in pooled HLMs, suggesting that UGT1A3 was not a principal hepatic catalyst. Nevertheless, multiple UGT enzymes, most notably UGTs 1A1, 1A9, 2B4, and 2B7, seem to be involved in the hepatic catalysis of NSAID glucuronidation.
Abstract: The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, is metabolised in vitro by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and 2C9. We studied the possible effect of gemfibrozil, an in vivo inhibitor of CYP2C8, on the pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in healthy volunteers. METHODS: In a randomised two-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took 600 mg gemfibrozil or placebo orally twice daily for 3 days. On day 3, each subject ingested 400 mg of racemic ibuprofen. Plasma concentrations of ibuprofen enantiomers and gemfibrozil were measured. RESULTS: Gemfibrozil raised the mean total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of R-ibuprofen by 34% (range -10 to 67%; P < 0.001). The elimination half-lives (t (1/2)) of R- and S-ibuprofen were increased by 54 and 34% (range 11-162% and 16-85%; P < 0.001) respectively. The other pharmacokinetic variables of R- and S-ibuprofen were not changed significantly. The AUC(0-infinity) ratio of R-ibuprofen to S-ibuprofen was increased by gemfibrozil (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Gemfibrozil moderately increases the AUC(0-infinity) of R-ibuprofen and prolongs its t (1/2), indicating that R-ibuprofen is partially metabolised by CYP2C8. The interconversion of R- to S-ibuprofen can explain the small effect of gemfibrozil on the t (1/2) of S-ibuprofen. The gemfibrozil-ibuprofen interaction is of limited clinical significance.
Abstract: Organic anion transporters (OATs, SLC22) interact with a remarkably diverse array of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. However, little is known about the structural features that determine their substrate selectivity. We examined the substrate binding preferences and transport function of olfactory organic anion transporter, Oat6, in comparison with the more broadly expressed transporter, Oat1 (first identified as NKT). In analyzing interactions of both transporters with over 40 structurally diverse organic anions, we find a correlation between organic anion potency (pKi) and hydrophobicity (logP) suggesting a hydrophobicity-driven association with transporter-binding sites, which appears particularly prominent for Oat6. On the other hand, organic anion binding selectivity between Oat6 and Oat1 is influenced by the anion mass and net charge. Smaller mono-anions manifest greater potency for Oat6 and di-anions for Oat1. Comparative molecular field analysis confirms these mechanistic insights and provides a model for predicting new OAT substrates. By comparative molecular field analysis, both hydrophobic and charged interactions contribute to Oat1 binding, although it is predominantly the former that contributes to Oat6 binding. Together, the data suggest that, although the three-dimensional structures of these two transporters may be very similar, the binding pockets exhibit crucial differences. Furthermore, for six radiolabeled substrates, we assessed transport efficacy (Vmax) for Oat6 and Oat1. Binding potency and transport efficacy had little correlation, suggesting that different molecular interactions are involved in substrate binding to the transporter and translocation across the membrane. Substrate specificity for a particular transporter may enable design of drugs for targeting to specific tissues (e.g. olfactory mucosa). We also discuss how these data suggest a possible mechanism for remote sensing between OATs in different tissue compartments (e.g. kidney, olfactory mucosa) via organic anions.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of voriconazole and fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diazepam. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers took 5 mg of oral diazepam in a randomised order on three study sessions: without pretreatment, after oral voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily on the second day, or after oral fluconazole 400 mg on the first day and 200 mg on the second day. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam were determined for up to 48 h. Pharmacodynamic variables were measured for 12 h. RESULTS: In the voriconazole phase, the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC 0-infinity) of diazepam was increased (geometric mean ratio) 2.2-fold (p < 0.05; 90% confidence interval [CI] 1.56 to 2.82). This was associated with the prolongation of the mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from 31 h to 61 h (p < 0.01) after voriconazole. In the fluconazole phase, the AUC 0-infinity of diazepam was increased 2.5-fold (p < 0.01; 90% CI 1.94 to 3.40), and the t(1/2) was prolonged from 31 h to 73 h (p < 0.001). The peak plasma concentration of diazepam was practically unchanged by voriconazole and fluconazole. The pharmacodynamics of diazepam were changed only modestly. CONCLUSION: Both voriconazole and fluconazole considerably increase the exposure to diazepam. Recurrent administration of diazepam increases the risk of clinically significant interactions during voriconazole or fluconazole treatment, because the elimination of diazepam is impaired significantly.
Abstract: Fluconazole is an antifungal medication that has been reported to cause prolongation of the QT interval and Torsades de Pointes (TdP) ventricular tachycardia in adults. We describe the case of an 11-year-old child treated with fluconazole who developed ventricular arrhythmia culminating in TdP. We discuss the possible roles played by genetic and environmental factors in this child's rhythm disturbances. After briefly summarizing similar cases from the adult literature, we outline the putative mechanism by which fluconazole may cause arrhythmia. This case should alert pediatricians to the possible risks of fluconazole use, especially in the presence of electrolyte abnormalities, diuretic use, therapy with other pro-arrhythmic agents, or suspicion of congenital Long-QT Syndrome.
Abstract: PURPOSE: A case of torsades de pointes associated with fluconazole use is described. SUMMARY: A 68-year-old woman with a history of hypertension treated with 2.5 mg of indapamide for 16 months sought medical treatment after having two falls 1 month apart. A computed tomography scan and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a lesion in the left pons and middle cerebellar peduncle. Biopsy of the pontine lesion revealed large yeast forms and subsequently revealed Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. The patient was initially treated with conventional amphotericin B and flucytosine for six weeks. The first week of therapy was complicated by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and an episode of atrial fibrillation that was managed with electrolyte replacement, commencement of metoprolol, and switching from conventional amphotericin B to amphotericin B lipid complex. After six weeks, liposomal amphotericin was discontinued and high-dose oral fluconazole was initiated. Six days after beginning fluconazole therapy, the patient had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. Postresuscitation, an electrocardiogram demonstrated a corrected Q-T interval of 556 msec. Recurrent episodes of torsades de pointes were also recorded postarrest. Fluconazole was discontinued at this time, and liposomal amphotericin B was resumed. Neurologic and electroencephalographic assessment conducted 48 hours postarrest revealed that significant neurologic damage had been sustained. Supportive care was withdrawn, and the patient died two days later. A postmortem examination revealed no coronary artery disease or hemorrhagic transformation of the pontine cryptococcoma. CONCLUSION: Treatment with high-dose fluconazole was the probable cause of torsades de pointes in a patient with risk factors for this condition. The benefits and risks of using fluconazole should be carefully weighed for patients with risk factors for Q-T interval prolongation.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This review attempts to bring together information from a large number of recent studies on the clinical uses, safety and pharmacological properties of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen is widely used in many countries for the relief of symptoms of pain, inflammation and fever. The evidence for modes of action of ibuprofen are considered in relation to its actions in controlling inflammation, pain and fever, as well as the adverse effects of the drug. SUMMARY OF OUTCOMES: At low doses (800-1,200 mg day(-1)) which in many countries are approved for non-prescription (over-the-counter) sale ibuprofen has a good safety profile comparable with paracetamol. Its analgesic activity is linked to its anti-inflammatory effects and is related to reduction in the ex vivo production in blood of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 derived prostanoids. Higher prescription doses (circa 1,800-2,400 mg day(-1)) are employed long-term for the treatment of rheumatic and other more severe musculo-skeletal conditions. Recent evidence from large-scale clinical trials with the newer coxibs, where ibuprofen was as a comparator, have confirmed earlier studies which have shown that ibuprofen has comparable therapeutic benefits with coxibs and other NSAIDs. For long-term usage (6+ months) there are greater numbers of drop-outs due to reduced effectiveness of therapy, a feature which is common with NSAIDs. Spontaneous reports of adverse events and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in clinical trails from long-term coxib comparator studies, as well as in epidemiological studies, shows that ibuprofen has relatively low risks for gastro-intestinal (GI), hepato-renal and other, rarer, ADRs compared with other NSAIDs and coxibs. A slightly higher risk of cardiovascular (CV) events has been reported in some, but not all studies, but the risks are in general lower than with some coxibs and diclofenac. The possibility that ibuprofen may interfere with the anti-platelet effects of aspirin, though arguably of low grade or significance, has given rise to caution on its use in patients that are at risk for CV conditions that take aspirin for preventing these conditions. Paediatric use of ibuprofen is reviewed and the main results are that the drug is relatively safe and effective as a treatment of acute pain and fever. It is probably more effective than paracetamol as an antipyretic. CONCLUSIONS: This assessment of the safety and benefits of ibuprofen can be summarized thus: (1) Ibuprofen at OTC doses has low possibilities of serious GI events, and little prospect of developing renal and associated CV events. Ibuprofen OTC does not represent a risk for developing liver injury especially the irreversible liver damage observed with paracetamol and the occasional liver reactions from aspirin. (2) The pharmacokinetic properties of ibuprofen, especially the short plasma half-life of elimination, lack of development of pathologically related metabolites (e.g. covalent modification of liver proteins by the quinine-imine metabolite of paracetamol or irreversible acetylation of biomolecules by aspirin) are support for the view that these pharmacokinetic and notably metabolic effects of ibuprofen favour its low toxic potential. (3) The multiple actions of ibuprofen in controlling inflammation combine with moderate inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 and low residence time of the drug in the body may account for the low GI, CV and renal risks from ibuprofen, especially at OTC doses.
Abstract: The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The resulting conjugates from the coupling reactions with glucuronic acid are epimeric pairs of glucuronides. Due to the importance of stereochemical factors in drug disposition it is necessary to separate the diastereomeric forms after synthesis. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was developed and optimized by using microsomal UGT from fresh swine liver to receive multimilligram amounts of the benzodiazepine glucuronides, which were not accessible by standard synthetic procedures, like the Koenigs-Knorr- and Williamson-ether-synthesis. Swine liver microsomes were prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation of liver tissue. In the presence of liver microsomes the benzodiazepines and cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 24h. After incubation the microsomes were removed by protein precipitation and the residual benzodiazepines by liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane). The epimeric pairs of benzodiazepine glucuronides were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) to obtain the pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers. The synthesis products were characterized by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: Ibuprofen was the first member of Propionic acid derivatives introduced in 1969. It is a popular domestic and over the counter analgesic and antipyretic for adults and children. Ibuprofen has been rated as the safest conventional NSAID by spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting systems in the UK. This article summarizes the main pharmacological effects, therapeutical applications and adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions and food drug interactions of ibuprofen that have been reported especially during the last 10 years.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: The discovery of ibuprofen's anti-inflammatory activity by Dr (now Professor) Stewart Adams and colleagues (Boots Pure Chemical Company Ltd, Nottingham, UK) 50 years ago represented a milestone in the development of anti-inflammatory analgesics. Subsequent clinical studies were the basis for ibuprofen being widely accepted for treating painful conditions at high anti-rheumatic doses (≤ 2400 mg/d), with lower doses (≤ 1200 mg/d for ≤ 10 days) for mild-moderate acute pain (e.g. dental pain, headache, dysmenorrhoea, respiratory symptoms and acute injury). The early observations have since been verified in studies comparing ibuprofen with newer cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors ('coxibs'), paracetamol and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The use of the low-dose, non-prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) drug was based on marketing approval in 1983 (UK) and 1984 (USA); and it is now available in over 80 countries. The relative safety of OTC ibuprofen has been supported by large-scale controlled studies. It has the same low gastro-intestinal (GI) effects as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and fewer GI effects than aspirin. Ibuprofen is a racemate. Its physicochemical properties and the short plasma-elimination half-life of the R(-) isomer, together with its limited ability to inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) and thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, compared with that of S(+)-ibuprofen, are responsible for the relatively low GI toxicity. The R(-) isomer is then converted in the body to the S(+) isomer after absorption in the GI tract. Ex vivo inhibition of COX-1 (thromboxane A(2)) and COX-2 (PGE(2)) at the plasma concentrations of S(+)-ibuprofen corresponding to those found in the plasma following ingestion of 400 mg ibuprofen in dental and other inflammatory pain models provides evidence of the anti-inflammatory mechanism at OTC dosages. R(-)-ibuprofen has effects on leucocytes, suggesting that ibuprofen has anti-leucocyte effects, which underlie its anti-inflammatory actions. Future developments include novel gastro-tolerant forms for 'at risk' patients, and uses in the prevention of neuro-inflammatory states and cancers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models coupled with pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models can be useful to identify whether current bioequivalence criteria is overly conservative or venturesome for different drugs. A PBPK model constructed with Simcyp Simulator(®) using reported biopharmaceutics parameters for ibuprofen was coupled with two published PD models: one for antipyresis and one for dental pain relief. Using products with doses of 400 mg and 10 mg/kg as "reference (R)" drug products, virtual products with doses of 280 mg and 7 mg/kg, respectively, could be interpreted as representing bioinequivalent test (T) drug products, as the point estimate for the ratios T/R are well below the bioequivalence limits. Despite being bioinequivalent in terms of PK, these lower doses were shown to be therapeutically equivalent to the higher doses because of the flat dose-response relationship of ibuprofen. Sensitivity analysis of the PBPK/PD models demonstrated that gastric emptying time, dissolution rate and small intestine pH are variables that influence ibuprofen PK, but do not seem to significantly affect its PD. It was concluded that current bioequivalent guidance might be unnecessarily restrictive for ibuprofen products.
Abstract: This article reviews in vitro metabolic and in vivo pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions of nine antifungal agents: six azoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin). In in vitro interaction studies, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole were found to have higher inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 activities than the other azoles or echinocandins did. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were relatively less potent inhibitors of CYP3A5 than of CYP3A4. The inhibitory effects of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole against CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 seemed to be correlated with their dissociation constants for CYP51 (lanosterol 14α-demethylase) from Candida albicans. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, itraconazole was found to be a potent clinically important inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 substrates, and fluconazole and voriconazole increased the blood/plasma concentrations of not only CYP3A4/5 substrates but also CYP2C9 substrates. Miconazole was a potent inhibitor of all P450s investigated in vitro, although there are few detailed studies on the clinical significance of this except for CYP2C9. For the echinocandins, no marked inhibition of P450 activities, except for some inhibition of CYP3A4/5 activity, was observed in vitro. The blood/plasma concentrations of concomitant drugs were not markedly affected by coadministration of echinocandins in vivo, suggesting that echinocandins do not cause clinically significant interactions with drugs that are metabolized by P450s via the inhibition of metabolism. The differential effects of these antifungal agents on P450 activities must be considered when clinicians select antifungal agents for patients also receiving other drugs.
Abstract: All pharmaceutical companies are required to assess pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and mathematical prediction helps to select the best NCE candidate with regard to adverse effects resulting from a DDI before any costly clinical studies. Most current models assume that the liver is a homogeneous organ where the majority of the metabolism occurs. However, the circulatory system of the liver has a complex hierarchical geometry which distributes xenobiotics throughout the organ. Nevertheless, the lobule (liver unit), located at the end of each branch, is composed of many sinusoids where the blood flow can vary and therefore creates heterogeneity (e.g. drug concentration, enzyme level). A liver model was constructed by describing the geometry of a lobule, where the blood velocity increases toward the central vein, and by modeling the exchange mechanisms between the blood and hepatocytes. Moreover, the three major DDI mechanisms of metabolic enzymes; competitive inhibition, mechanism based inhibition and induction, were accounted for with an undefined number of drugs and/or enzymes. The liver model was incorporated into a physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and simulations produced, that in turn were compared to ten clinical results. The liver model generated a hierarchy of 5 sinusoidal levels and estimated a blood volume of 283 mL and a cell density of 193 × 106 cells/g in the liver. The overall PBPK model predicted the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and the magnitude of the clinical DDI with perpetrator drug(s) including spatial and temporal enzyme levels changes. The model presented herein may reduce costs and the use of laboratory animals and give the opportunity to explore different clinical scenarios, which reduce the risk of adverse events, prior to costly human clinical studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A biowaiver is accepted by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) for immediate-release solid oral products containing Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class I drugs showing rapid drug dissolution. This study aimed to simulate plasma concentrations of fluconazole capsules with different dissolution profiles and run population simulation to evaluate their bioequivalence. The dissolution profiles of two batches of the reference product Zoltec150 mg capsules, A1 and A2, and two batches of other products (B1 and B2; C1 and C2), as well as plasma concentration-time data of the reference product from the literature, were used for the simulations. Although products C1 and C2 had drug dissolutions < 85% in 30 min at 0.1 M HCl, simulation results demonstrated that these products would show the same in vivo performance as products A1, A2, B1, and B2. Population simulation results of the ln-transformed 90% confidence interval for the ratio ofand AUCvalues for all products were within the 80-125% interval, showing to be bioequivalent. Thus, even though the in vitro dissolution behavior of products C1 and C2 was not equivalent to a rapid dissolution profile, the computer simulations proved to be an important tool to show the possibility of bioequivalence for these products.