Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
|Infection respiratoire supérieure|
|Mal de crâne|
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Nous n'avons pas de mise en garde supplémentaire concernant l'association de diazépam, fluconazole et de natéglinide. Veuillez également consulter les informations pertinentes des spécialistes.
|Diazépam||2.08 [1.46,2.35] 1||2.08||1|
|Natéglinide||1.4 [1.4,4.58] 2,3||1||1.4|
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. L'exposition à la diazépam augmente à 110 %, lorsqu'il est associé à la fluconazole (208%) et à la natéglinide (100%). L'AUC est comprise entre 0 % et 100 % selon le
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La diazépam a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez longue (jusqu'à 36 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] ne sont atteints qu'après plus de 144 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est 100 % forte et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 83 litres. Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut entraîner une augmentation de l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP2B6, CYP2C19 et CYP3A4, entre autres.
La fluconazole a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à peu changer au cours d'une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez longue (jusqu'à 30 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] ne sont atteints qu'après plus de 120 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est très faible à 11.5% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est de 56 litres. Environ 20 % d'une dose administrée sont excrétés sous forme inchangée par les reins et cette proportion est rarement modifiée par les interactions. Le métabolisme ne se fait pas via les cytochromes communs.
La natéglinide a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte (1.5 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont rapidement atteints. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est 100 % forte et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est faible à 10 litres, Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut entraîner une augmentation de l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP2C9 et CYP3A4, entre autres et le transport actif s'effectue en partie via OATP1B1 et OATP1B3.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Note: À notre connaissance, ni la diazépam, fluconazole ni la natéglinide n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø||Ø|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à de celles situées dans la marge thérapeutique supérieure.
Notation: La diazépam n'a qu'un effet modéré sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la dosage est respecté. À notre connaissance, ni la fluconazole ni la natéglinide n'augmentent l'activité anticholinergique.
Allongement du temps QT
Note: La fluconazole peut potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires en torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la diazépam et la natéglinide.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||dia||flu||nat|
|Infection respiratoire supérieure||10.5 %||n.a.||n.a.||10.5|
|Mal de crâne||7.4 %||n.a.||7.5||n.a.|
|La nausée||4.7 %||n.a.||4.7||n.a.|
|Mal au dos||4.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||4.0|
|La diarrhée||3.2 %||n.a.||n.a.||3.2|
Vomissements (1.7%): fluconazole
Démangeaison de la peau: diazépam
Syndrome de Stevens-Johnson: fluconazole
Nécrolyse épidermique toxique: fluconazole
Crise d'épilepsie: diazépam, fluconazole
Effet de hangover: diazépam
Effet de rebond: diazépam
La dépression: diazépam
Phosphatase alcaline élevée: fluconazole
ALT élevé: fluconazole
AST élevé: fluconazole
Insuffisance hépatique: fluconazole
Dépression respiratoire: diazépam
Syndrome de DRESS: fluconazole
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: The effects of steady state dosing with omeprazole and cimetidine on plasma diazepam levels have been studied in 12 healthy males. Single doses of diazepam (0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) were administered after one week of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cimetidine 400 mg b.d. or placebo, and the treatment was continued for a further 5 days. Blood was collected for 120 h after the dose of diazepam for the measurement of diazepam and its major metabolite desmethyl diazepam. The mean clearance of diazepam was decreased by 27% and 38% and its half-life was increased by 36% and 39% after omeprazole and cimetidine, respectively. Neither drug had any apparent effect on the volume of distribution of diazepam. Desmethyldiazepam appeared more slowly after both omeprazole and cimetidine. It is concluded that the decrease in diazepam clearance was associated with inhibition of hepatic metabolism both by omeprazole and cimetidine. However, since diazepam has a wide therapeutic range, it is unlikely that concomitant treatment with therapeutically recommended doses of either omeprazole or cimetidine will result in a clinically significant interaction with diazepam.
Abstract: 1. The oral pharmacokinetics of fluconazole were studied in three groups of volunteers (n = 5) with various degrees of renal function (GFR greater than 70 ml min-1; 20-70 ml min-1; less than 20 ml min-1) and in a group of patients with chronic end-stage renal failure requiring regular haemodialysis. 2. The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole were markedly affected by impaired renal function with the elimination of half-life in Group III (GFR less than 20 ml min-1) being approximately three times that observed in normal volunteers (Group I). 3. Fluconazole renal clearance was positively correlated with GFR. 4. Non-renal clearance of fluconazole decreased with decreasing renal function. 5. Approximately 38% of the 50 mg dose of fluconazole was removed by haemodialysis extending over a 3 h period.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: 1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h.
Abstract: The effects of pretreatment with a seven day course of ciprofloxacin on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an intravenous (5 mg) dose of diazepam were investigated in a group of 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Ciprofloxacin pretreatment significantly reduced diazepam CL (without ciprofloxacin: 19.5 ml.h-1 kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 12.3 ml.h-1 kg-1). Diazepam t1/2 was also prolonged (without ciprofloxacin: 36.7 h; with ciprofloxacin: 71.1 h), but volume of distribution was unaltered (without ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1). However, no significant changes were detected in psychometric tests of digit symbol substitution, tapping rate and short memory, as well as levels of concentration, vigilance and tension measured by visual analogue scales.
Abstract: 1. We have examined the metabolism of diazepam by ten human cytochrome P450 forms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5) expressed in HepG2 cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. 2. Among the P450 forms tested, diazepam was significantly demethylated by CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4 and 3A5, with 2C19 exhibiting the highest rate at concentrations < 0.1 mM, and hydroxylated only by the latter three enzymes, with 3A5 being the most active. The N-demethylation activity of diazepam by 2C19 at a concentration of 20 microM was six times of that by 3A4. However, that by 2C9 was detected at only a trace level. 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam. CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation. 4. Diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes correlated with diazepam 3-hydroxylation, but not S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. 5. Our results suggest that in the human liver, the metabolism of diazepam to nordiazepam is mediated by CYP3A4, which has been reported as the most abundant P450 form in human liver as well as 2C19, which has been reported as a polymorphic enzyme.
Abstract: This single-dose, open-label, parallel-group study compared the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of 120 mg doses of nateglinide, a physiologic mealtime glucose regulator for type 2 diabetes, in 8 subjects with cirrhosis and 8 matched healthy subjects. In both groups, plasma concentration peaked in a median of 0.5 hours, and mean terminal elimination half-lives were comparable. Mean +/- SD pharmacokinetic parameters in cirrhotic versus healthy subjects were slightly different (Cmax, 7.7 +/- 4.9 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.3 micrograms/ml; AUC(0-t), 18.5 +/- 7.5 vs. 14.2 +/- 2.1 micrograms.h/ml, respectively). Mean apparent total clearance and mean renal clearance in both groups were comparable. Mean protein-bound fractions were equivalent; binding appeared unaltered by metabolites. One cirrhotic and 2 healthy subjects each reported one adverse event. No statistically significant or clinically relevant alteration in pharmacokinetic parameters of nateglinide resulted from hepatic dysfunction, and it was well tolerated; therefore, adjustment of nateglinide dosage is not required in subjects with mild to moderate cirrhosis.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of nateglinide were studied in six healthy male subjects receiving a single oral (120 mg) and intravenous (60 mg) dose of [14C]nateglinide in randomized order. Serial blood and complete urine and feces were collected for 120 h post dose. Nateglinide was rapidly (approximately 90%) absorbed, with peak blood and plasma concentrations at approximately 1 h post dose. The maximal plasma concentrations of radioactivity (6360 ngEq/ml) and nateglinide (5690 ng/ml) were comparable, and plasma radioactivity concentrations were about twice those of blood at all times. Oral bioavailability was 72%, indicating only a modest first-pass effect. After either dose, plasma nateglinide concentrations declined rapidly with elimination half-lives of 1.5 to 1.7 h and plasma clearance of 7.4 l/h. Plasma radioactivity was eliminated more slowly with half-lives of 52 and 35 h in plasma and blood, respectively, after the oral dose. The contribution of this more slowly eliminated component to the AUC(0-infinity) was minor. Nateglinide was extensively metabolized, with excretion predominantly (84-87%) in urine. Only approximately 16% of the dose was excreted unchanged in urine after either dosing route. The major metabolites were the result of oxidative modifications of the isopropyl group. Three of these were monohydroxylated, two of which appeared to be diastereoisomers. Additionally, one metabolite with an unsaturation in the isopropyl group and two diol-containing isomers were identified. Glucuronic acid conjugates resulting from direct glucuronidation of the carboxylic acid were also present. The major metabolite in plasma and urine was the result of hydroxylation of the methine carbon of the isopropyl group.
Abstract: (R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms mediating R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation in human liver, with the long term objective of elucidating the molecular genetic basis for this drug metabolism polymorphism. All available recombinant UGT isoforms were screened for R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation activities. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in representative human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in UGTs that showed significant activity. Of 12 different UGTs evaluated, only UGT2B15 showed significant S-oxazepam glucuronidation. Furthermore, the apparent K(m) for UGT2B15 (29-35 microM) was similar to values determined for HLMs (43-60 microM). In contrast, R-oxazepam was glucuronidated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Although apparent K(m) values for HLMs (256-303 microM) were most similar to UGT2B7 (333 microM) rather than UGT1A9 (12 microM), intrinsic clearance values for UGT1A9 were 10 times higher than for UGT2B7. A common genetic variation results in aspartate (UGT2B15*1) or tyrosine (UGT2B15*2) at position 85 of the UGT2B15 protein. Microsomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells overexpressing UGT2B15*1 showed 5 times higher S-oxazepam glucuronidation activity than did UGT2B15*2 microsomes. Similar results were obtained for other substrates, including eugenol, naringenin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and androstane-3alpha-diol. In conclusion, S-oxazepam is stereoselectively glucuronidated by UGT2B15, whereas R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by multiple UGT isoforms. Allelic variation associated with the UGT2B15 gene may explain polymorphic S-oxazepam glucuronidation in humans.
Abstract: A 25-year-old woman who was hospitalized for worsening endocarditis had a prolonged QT interval at baseline and developed monomorphic ventricular arrhythmias, which were managed successfully with pacing and antiarrhythmic therapy. Several days later, the patient started receiving high-dose fluconazole for fungemia and subsequently experienced episodes of torsades de pointes, a polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia associated with a prolonged QT interval or prominent U wave on the electrocardiogram. The arrhythmia developed in the presence of known risk factors. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors and other relevant structural similarities with drugs that cause torsades de pointes so that they can recognize patients who may be at risk for fluconazole-associated arrhythmia.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the possible effects of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nateglinide, a new short-acting meglitinide analog antidiabetic drug. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study with 2 phases, 10 healthy volunteers took 200 mg fluconazole (400 mg on day 1) or placebo once daily for 4 days. On day 4, they ingested a single 30-mg dose of nateglinide. Plasma nateglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 7 hours. RESULTS: Fluconazole raised the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity of nateglinide by 48% (range, 20%-73%; P <.00001) and prolonged its half-life from 1.6 to 1.9 hours (P <.05), but the peak plasma nateglinide concentration remained unchanged. The peak plasma concentration of the M7 metabolite of nateglinide was reduced by 34% by fluconazole (P <.001), and its half-life was prolonged from 2.2 to 3.5 hours (P <.05). No significant differences were seen in the blood glucose response to nateglinide between the phases. CONCLUSIONS: Fluconazole raised the plasma concentrations and reduced the systemic elimination of nateglinide probably by inhibiting its cytochrome P4502C9-mediated biotransformation. Concomitant use of fluconazole with nateglinide may prolong its blood glucose-lowering effect.
Abstract: AIMS: Our aim was to investigate the effects of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nateglinide, a novel short-acting antidiabetic drug. METHODS: In a randomized crossover study with two phases, 10 healthy volunteers took 600 mg rifampicin or placebo orally once daily for 5 days. On day 6 of both phases, they ingested a single 60 mg dose of nateglinide. Plasma nateglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 7 h postdose. RESULTS: Rifampicin decreased the mean AUC(0,7 h) of nateglinide by 24% (range 5-53%; P = 0.0009) and shortened its half-life (t(1/2)) from 1.6 to 1.3 h (P = 0.001). However, the peak plasma nateglinide concentration (Cmax) remained unchanged. The AUC(0,7 h) of the M7 metabolite of nateglinide was decreased by 19% (P = 0.002) and its t(1/2) was shortened from 2.1 to 1.6 h by rifampicin (P = 0.008). Rifampicin had no significant effect on the blood glucose-lowering effect of nateglinide. CONCLUSIONS: Rifampicin modestly decreased the plasma concentrations of nateglinide probably by inducing its oxidative biotransformation. In some patients, rifampicin may reduce the blood glucose-lowering effect of nateglinide.
Abstract: The prevalence and medical and economic impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing in Western societies. New agents have been developed that act primarily to reduce postprandial glucose excursions, which may be of particular significance now that postprandial glucose excursions are known to be correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Nateglinide is a phenylalanine derivative that blocks K+ channels in pancreatic beta-cells, facilitating insulin secretion. Nateglinide sensitises beta-cells to ambient glucose, reducing the glucose concentration needed to stimulate insulin secretion. The pharmacokinetics of nateglinide are characterised by rapid absorption and elimination, with good (73%) bioavailability. Nateglinide is more rapidly absorbed when given 0-30 minutes prior to meal ingestion than if given during the meal. Nateglinide is extensively metabolised, primarily by cytochrome P450 2C9, and eliminated primarily by the kidney. Nateglinide pharmacokinetics are linear over the dose range 60-240 mg. No significant pharmacokinetic alterations occur in renally impaired patients, in the elderly, or in mildly hepatically impaired patients. Nateglinide administered prior to meals stimulates rapid, short-lived insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner, thus decreasing mealtime plasma glucose excursions. Its effects on insulin secretion are synergistic with those of a meal. With increasing nateglinide doses, the risk of hypoglycaemia also increases, but its incidence is low. Even if a meal is missed, and the patient skips the dose of nateglinide (as recommended in the event of a missed meal), the incidence of subsequent hypoglycaemia remains low compared with long-acting agents. The postprandial insulinotropic effects of nateglinide are more rapid than those of repaglinide and more rapid and greater than those of glibenclamide (glyburide), while producing less prolonged insulin exposure and less risk of delayed hypoglycaemia. Further investigation is required to determine if nateglinide inhibition of postprandial glucose excursions will help to prevent diabetic complications or preserve pancreatic beta-cell function.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The oral hypoglycaemic drug nateglinide is eliminated from the human body via hepatic biotransformation and renal tubular secretion. According to in vitro data, about 70% of nateglinide intrinsic clearance may be mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and a smaller fraction by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of CYP2C9 polymorphisms and of the CYP2D6 poor metaboliser genotype on the pharmacokinetics of nateglinide and its effects on insulin, glucose and glucagon in plasma. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective clinical study in 26 healthy volunteers chosen for their CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 genotype was conducted with individuals carrying wild-type genotype as reference group. METHODS: Serial plasma nateglinide, glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations were measured over 34 hours after a 180 mg dose of nateglinide under challenge with 75 g of oral glucose at 0, 4 and 8 hours after nateglinide intake. Kinetics were evaluated by nonparametric methods and by population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling. RESULTS: Significantly reduced oral nateglinide clearance was found in carriers of CYP2C9*3 alleles, (p < 0.01), whereas carriers of CYP2C9*2 alleles had kinetic parameters similar to those of carriers of the wild-type allele (p = nonsignificant). Median total clearances were 7.9, 8.4, 6.5, 6.9, 5.8 and 4.1 L/h in carriers of the CYP2C9 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*2, *2/*2, *1/*3, *2/*3 and *3/*3. Median clearance in three carriers of two deficient CYP2D6 alleles was 9.4 L/h. These differences in nateglinide kinetics due to CYP2C9 genotypes did not result in statistically significant differences in plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling revealed a minor effect of CYP2C9 genotype on insulin and glucose, and extrapolations indicated that carriers of the CYP2C9*3/*3 genotype may be at a slightly higher risk of hypoglycaemia compared with carriers of CYP2C9*1, particularly when taking nateglinide doses above 120 mg. CONCLUSION: The effect of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on nateglinide kinetics may cause a slightly increased risk for hypoglycaemia, which may become relevant in diabetic patients.
Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is important to consider when concentrations in whole blood (eg, in forensic toxicology) are compared with therapeutic and toxic concentrations based on the analysis of plasma or serum. The plasma to whole blood distribution of diazepam (D) and its major metabolite nordiazepam (ND) was investigated under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Studies in vitro were done by spiking whole blood with D and ND to give concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g. Venous blood was also obtained from hospital blood donors (n = 66) after informed consent. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and water content of blood specimens were determined by routine procedures before D and ND were added to produce target concentrations of approximately 0.5 microg/g for each substance. The ex vivo work was done with blood specimens from hospital outpatients who were being medicated with D. Concentrations of D and ND were determined in body fluids by capillary column gas chromatography after adding prazepam as internal standard and solvent extraction with butyl acetate. The method limit of quantitation was 0.03 microg/g for both D and ND. The concentrations of D and ND were highest in plasma and lowest in erythrocytes. The plasma/blood (P/B) distribution ratios did not depend on drug concentration between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/g. The mean P/B ratios were 1.79:1 for D and 1.69:1 for ND when hematocrit was 45%. Furthermore, the P/B ratio for D (y) was positively correlated with blood hematocrit (x) and the regression equation was y = 0.636 + 0.025x (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). A similar strong association was found between the P/B ratio and hematocrit for ND (r = 0.79). P/B ratios of D and ND, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the water content differed between sexes (P < 0.001). The overall mean P/B ratios for D and ND were 1.69 +/- 0.097 (+/- SD) and 1.62 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.001, n = 66) respectively when the mean hematocrit was 42.9 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD). For forensic purposes, it would be better to forgo making any conversion of a drug concentration measured in whole blood to that expected in plasma or serum; instead, therapeutic and toxic concentrations should be established for the actual specimens received.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gemfibrozil, and particularly its combination with itraconazole, greatly increases the area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC(0, infinity)] and response to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and 3A4 substrate repaglinide. In vitro, gemfibrozil is a more potent inhibitor of CYP2C9 than of CYP2C8. Our aim was to investigate the effects of the gemfibrozil-itraconazole combination on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of another meglitinide analogue, nateglinide, which is metabolized by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. METHODS: In a randomized crossover study with two phases, nine healthy subjects took 600 mg gemfibrozil and 100 mg itraconazole (first dose 200 mg) twice daily or placebo for 3 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 30-mg dose of nateglinide. Plasma nateglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 12 h. RESULTS: During the gemfibrozil-itraconazole phase, the AUC(0, infinity) and C(max) of nateglinide were 47% (range 23-74%; P < 0.0001) and 30% (range - 8% to 104%; P = 0.0146) higher than during the placebo phase, respectively, but the t(max) and t1/2 of nateglinide remained unchanged. The combination of gemfibrozil and itraconazole had no effect on the formation of the M7 metabolite of nateglinide but impaired its elimination. The blood glucose response to nateglinide was not significantly changed by coadministration of gemfibrozil and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of gemfibrozil and itraconazole has only a limited influence on the pharmacokinetics of nateglinide. This is in marked contrast to the substantial effect of this combination on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide. The findings suggest that in vivo gemfibrozil, probably due to its metabolites, is a much more potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 than of CYP2C9.
Abstract: The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: This review describes the current knowledge on drug-drug and food-drug interactions with repaglinide and nateglinide. These two meglitinide derivatives, commonly called glinides, have been developed for improving insulin secretion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are increasingly used either in monotherapy or in combination with other oral antihyperglycaemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Compared with sulfonylureas, glinides have been shown to (i) provide a better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia, (ii) overcome some adverse effects, such as hypoglycaemia, and (iii) have a more favourable safety profile, especially in patients with renal failure. The meal-related timing of administration of glinides and the potential influence of food and meal composition on their bioavailability may be important. In addition, some food components (e.g. grapefruit juice) may cause pharmacokinetic interactions. Because glinides are metabolised via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme, they are indeed exposed to pharmacokinetic interactions. In addition to CYP3A4, repaglinide is metabolised via CYP2C8, while nateglinide metabolism also involves CYP2C9. Furthermore, both compounds and their metabolites may undergo specialised transport/uptake in the intestine, another source of pharmacokinetic interactions. Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions are those that occur when glinides are administered together with other glucose-lowering agents or compounds widely coadministered to diabetic patients (e.g. lipid-lowering agents), with drugs that are known to induce (risk of lower glinide plasma levels and thus of deterioration of glucose control) or inhibit (risk of higher glinide plasma levels leading to hypoglycaemia) CYP isoenzymes concerned in their metabolism, or with drugs that have a narrow efficacy : toxicity ratio. Pharmacokinetic interactions reported in the literature appear to be more frequent and more important with repaglinide than with nateglinide. Rifampicin (rifampin) reduced repaglinide area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) by 32-85% while it reduced nateglinide AUC by almost 25%. Reported increases in AUCs with coadministration of drugs inhibiting CYP isoenzymes never exceeded 80% for repaglinide (except with ciclosporin and with gemfibrozil) and 50% for nateglinide. Ciclosporin more than doubled repaglinide AUC (+144%), a finding that should raise caution when using these two drugs in combination. The most impressive pharmacokinetic interaction was reported with combined administration of gemfibrozil (a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor) and repaglinide (8-fold increase in repaglinide AUC). Although no studies have been performed in patients with type 2 diabetes, the latter combination should be avoided in clinical practice.
Abstract: Fluconazole is an antifungal medication that has been reported to cause prolongation of the QT interval and Torsades de Pointes (TdP) ventricular tachycardia in adults. We describe the case of an 11-year-old child treated with fluconazole who developed ventricular arrhythmia culminating in TdP. We discuss the possible roles played by genetic and environmental factors in this child's rhythm disturbances. After briefly summarizing similar cases from the adult literature, we outline the putative mechanism by which fluconazole may cause arrhythmia. This case should alert pediatricians to the possible risks of fluconazole use, especially in the presence of electrolyte abnormalities, diuretic use, therapy with other pro-arrhythmic agents, or suspicion of congenital Long-QT Syndrome.
Abstract: PURPOSE: A case of torsades de pointes associated with fluconazole use is described. SUMMARY: A 68-year-old woman with a history of hypertension treated with 2.5 mg of indapamide for 16 months sought medical treatment after having two falls 1 month apart. A computed tomography scan and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a lesion in the left pons and middle cerebellar peduncle. Biopsy of the pontine lesion revealed large yeast forms and subsequently revealed Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. The patient was initially treated with conventional amphotericin B and flucytosine for six weeks. The first week of therapy was complicated by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and an episode of atrial fibrillation that was managed with electrolyte replacement, commencement of metoprolol, and switching from conventional amphotericin B to amphotericin B lipid complex. After six weeks, liposomal amphotericin was discontinued and high-dose oral fluconazole was initiated. Six days after beginning fluconazole therapy, the patient had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. Postresuscitation, an electrocardiogram demonstrated a corrected Q-T interval of 556 msec. Recurrent episodes of torsades de pointes were also recorded postarrest. Fluconazole was discontinued at this time, and liposomal amphotericin B was resumed. Neurologic and electroencephalographic assessment conducted 48 hours postarrest revealed that significant neurologic damage had been sustained. Supportive care was withdrawn, and the patient died two days later. A postmortem examination revealed no coronary artery disease or hemorrhagic transformation of the pontine cryptococcoma. CONCLUSION: Treatment with high-dose fluconazole was the probable cause of torsades de pointes in a patient with risk factors for this condition. The benefits and risks of using fluconazole should be carefully weighed for patients with risk factors for Q-T interval prolongation.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The resulting conjugates from the coupling reactions with glucuronic acid are epimeric pairs of glucuronides. Due to the importance of stereochemical factors in drug disposition it is necessary to separate the diastereomeric forms after synthesis. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was developed and optimized by using microsomal UGT from fresh swine liver to receive multimilligram amounts of the benzodiazepine glucuronides, which were not accessible by standard synthetic procedures, like the Koenigs-Knorr- and Williamson-ether-synthesis. Swine liver microsomes were prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation of liver tissue. In the presence of liver microsomes the benzodiazepines and cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 24h. After incubation the microsomes were removed by protein precipitation and the residual benzodiazepines by liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane). The epimeric pairs of benzodiazepine glucuronides were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) to obtain the pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers. The synthesis products were characterized by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We have investigated the contributions of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 to the hepatic uptake of nateglinide, and the possibility of drug-drug interactions via these transporters. METHODS: Uptake studies using transporter-expressing HEK293 cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes were performed to examine the contributions of each transporter. Inhibition studies using cryopreserved human hepatocytes were performed to examine the possibility of drug-drug interactions. KEY FINDINGS: The rate of saturable hepatic uptake of nateglinide using human hepatocytes was 47.6%. A certain increase in uptake was observed in the examination using transporter-expressing HEK293 cells, indicating contributions of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 to hepatic nateglinide uptake. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of nateglinide using cryopreserved human hepatocytes for uptake of estrone 3-sulfate (substrate of OATP1B1), and cholecystokinin octapeptide (substrate of OATP1B3) were 168 and 17.4 µmol/l, respectively. Moreover, ciclosporin inhibited saturable hepatic uptake of nateglinide with an IC50 value of 6.05 µmol/l. The calculated 1 + I(in,max,u) /IC50 values for inhibition of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 by nateglinide, and the inhibition of saturable uptake of nateglinide by ciclosporin, were all close to 1, indicating a low clinical risk of drug-drug interaction with nateglinide taken up via OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. CONCLUSIONS: OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 may have contributed to the hepatic uptake of nateglinide, but the possibility of drug-drug interactions appeared to be low.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: All pharmaceutical companies are required to assess pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and mathematical prediction helps to select the best NCE candidate with regard to adverse effects resulting from a DDI before any costly clinical studies. Most current models assume that the liver is a homogeneous organ where the majority of the metabolism occurs. However, the circulatory system of the liver has a complex hierarchical geometry which distributes xenobiotics throughout the organ. Nevertheless, the lobule (liver unit), located at the end of each branch, is composed of many sinusoids where the blood flow can vary and therefore creates heterogeneity (e.g. drug concentration, enzyme level). A liver model was constructed by describing the geometry of a lobule, where the blood velocity increases toward the central vein, and by modeling the exchange mechanisms between the blood and hepatocytes. Moreover, the three major DDI mechanisms of metabolic enzymes; competitive inhibition, mechanism based inhibition and induction, were accounted for with an undefined number of drugs and/or enzymes. The liver model was incorporated into a physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and simulations produced, that in turn were compared to ten clinical results. The liver model generated a hierarchy of 5 sinusoidal levels and estimated a blood volume of 283 mL and a cell density of 193 × 106 cells/g in the liver. The overall PBPK model predicted the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and the magnitude of the clinical DDI with perpetrator drug(s) including spatial and temporal enzyme levels changes. The model presented herein may reduce costs and the use of laboratory animals and give the opportunity to explore different clinical scenarios, which reduce the risk of adverse events, prior to costly human clinical studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A biowaiver is accepted by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) for immediate-release solid oral products containing Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class I drugs showing rapid drug dissolution. This study aimed to simulate plasma concentrations of fluconazole capsules with different dissolution profiles and run population simulation to evaluate their bioequivalence. The dissolution profiles of two batches of the reference product Zoltec150 mg capsules, A1 and A2, and two batches of other products (B1 and B2; C1 and C2), as well as plasma concentration-time data of the reference product from the literature, were used for the simulations. Although products C1 and C2 had drug dissolutions < 85% in 30 min at 0.1 M HCl, simulation results demonstrated that these products would show the same in vivo performance as products A1, A2, B1, and B2. Population simulation results of the ln-transformed 90% confidence interval for the ratio ofand AUCvalues for all products were within the 80-125% interval, showing to be bioequivalent. Thus, even though the in vitro dissolution behavior of products C1 and C2 was not equivalent to a rapid dissolution profile, the computer simulations proved to be an important tool to show the possibility of bioequivalence for these products.