Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Surveiller: diazépam et méthadone
Augmentation de l'effet opioïde et amplification des effets de la dépression du SNCMécanisme : En cas de prise concomitante, les effets dépressifs du SNC s'additionnent. De plus, des mécanismes pharmacocinétiques tels que l'inhibition de la dégradation des opioïdes et des effets pharmacodynamiques tels que la modulation du récepteur opioïde par les benzodiazépines sont rapportés.
Effet : L'utilisation concomitante de benzodiazépines et d'opioïdes peut entraîner une intensification des effets dépressifs respiratoires, sédatifs et dépressifs centraux. De plus, l'augmentation de l'euphorie peut conduire à plus de dépendance psychologique.
Mesures : En particulier chez les patients polymorbides plus âgés, l'association n'est pas recommandée en raison de l'effet dépressif additif du SNC. Si l'association est nécessaire (par exemple, prémédication, médecine palliative), une surveillance attentive du patient est nécessaire, notamment en ce qui concerne la sédation, la dépression respiratoire et les effets hypotenseurs. Les doses les plus faibles possibles doivent être utilisées ou une réduction de la dose d'un ou des deux médicaments doit être envisagée.
|Méthadone||1 [1,1.82] 1||1|
|Diazépam||1 [0.83,1.53] 2||1|
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la méthadone, lorsqu'il est associé à la diazépam (100%). L'AUC est comprise entre 0 % et 100 % selon le
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La méthadone a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez longue (jusqu'à 35 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] ne sont atteints qu'après plus de 140 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 87.5% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 330 litres. Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut entraîner une augmentation de l'exposition. Environ 20 % d'une dose administrée sont excrétés sous forme inchangée par les reins et cette proportion est rarement modifiée par les interactions. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 et CYP3A4, entre autres et le transport actif s'effectue notamment via PGP.
La diazépam a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez longue (jusqu'à 36 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] ne sont atteints qu'après plus de 144 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est 100 % forte et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 83 litres. Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut entraîner une augmentation de l'exposition. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP2B6, CYP2C19 et CYP3A4, entre autres.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||1||+||Ø|
Recommandations: Par mesure de précaution, les symptômes de surstimulation sérotoninergique doivent être pris en compte, en particulier après l'augmentation de la dose et à un niveau compris dans le spectre thérapeutique supérieure.
Note: La méthadone a un effet léger sur le système sérotoninergique. Le risque de syndrome sérotoninergique peut être classé comme faible avec ce médicament si la posologie est dans la fourchette habituelle. À notre connaissance, la diazépam n'augmente pas l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à de celles situées dans la marge thérapeutique supérieure.
Notation: La méthadone et la diazépam n'ont qu'un effet modéré sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la dosage est respecté.
Allongement du temps QT
Note: La méthadone peut potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires en torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la diazépam.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||mét||dia|
|La nausée||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Rétention urinaire||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Démangeaison de la peau||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
Crise d'épilepsie: diazépam, méthadone
Effet de hangover: diazépam
Effet de rebond: diazépam
Addiction: diazépam, méthadone
La dépression: diazépam
Dépression respiratoire: diazépam, méthadone
Arrêt respiratoire: méthadone
Insuffisance surrénalienne: méthadone
Réaction d'hypersensibilité: méthadone
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: The effects of steady state dosing with omeprazole and cimetidine on plasma diazepam levels have been studied in 12 healthy males. Single doses of diazepam (0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) were administered after one week of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cimetidine 400 mg b.d. or placebo, and the treatment was continued for a further 5 days. Blood was collected for 120 h after the dose of diazepam for the measurement of diazepam and its major metabolite desmethyl diazepam. The mean clearance of diazepam was decreased by 27% and 38% and its half-life was increased by 36% and 39% after omeprazole and cimetidine, respectively. Neither drug had any apparent effect on the volume of distribution of diazepam. Desmethyldiazepam appeared more slowly after both omeprazole and cimetidine. It is concluded that the decrease in diazepam clearance was associated with inhibition of hepatic metabolism both by omeprazole and cimetidine. However, since diazepam has a wide therapeutic range, it is unlikely that concomitant treatment with therapeutically recommended doses of either omeprazole or cimetidine will result in a clinically significant interaction with diazepam.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: Concentrations of methadone in plasma, estimates of pain relief, and pupillary size were determined after a single intravenous dose (10 to 30 mg) of methadone hydrochloride to eight patients with chronic pain, five of whom had cancer. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimates reveal rapid and extensive distribution (Varea) and a slow apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) (mean Varea = 3.59 L/kg and harmonic mean t1/2 = 23 hours). The harmonic mean blood clearance is 106 ml/min, the harmonic mean renal clearance is 3.9 ml/min, the mean hepatic extraction ratio is 0.089, and plasma protein binding is 86% to 89%. These results suggest that only the free (unbound) fraction of methadone present in blood is extracted by the liver and that methadone can be classified as a low (hepatic)-extraction drug. The data were fit to a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model to obtain estimates of the steady-state plasma methadone concentration required to produce 50% of the maximum pain relief. This value varied from 0.04 to 1.13 micrograms/ml (mean = 0.29 micrograms/ml). These results indicate substantial interindividual variation in the relationship between changes in plasma methadone concentration and analgesia in patients with chronic pain receiving opioids. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model may be useful for the individualization of analgesic dosage and therefore the optimization of pain management in patients with chronic pain.
Abstract: Survey study data and high rates of diazepam use/abuse in methadone maintenance suggest that acute administration of diazepam with daily methadone doses may enhance methadone effects. Acute subjective and physiologic effects of single oral doses of placebo, diazepam (20 and 40 mg), methadone (100%, 150%, and 200% of the maintenance dose), and four diazepam-methadone dose combinations (20 and 40 mg diazepam in combination with 100% and 150% of the maintenance dose) were assessed under double-blind conditions. The subjects were five adult male patients on methadone maintenance with histories of diazepam abuse who were receiving 50 to 60 mg methadone a day. Physiologic measures were continuously monitored for 30 min before and for 2 hr after dosing. Pupil diameter and subjective responses were measured 15 min before dosing and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after dosing. Methadone induced dose-dependent increases in pupil constriction and scores on a subjective opioid effects rating scale, but diazepam had no significant effect on either. The combination of methadone at 150% of the maintenance dose with 40 mg diazepam induced increases in these measures greater than those induced by either drug dose alone. Drug combinations, however, were more frequently identified as being benzodiazepine/barbiturate-like than as methadone-like. Thus although the subjective effects of the drug combination are distinguishable from those of methadone alone, diazepam with methadone in methadone maintenance appears to increase some physiologic and subjective opioid effects that may be related to the relatively great use/abuse of diazepam in this population.
Abstract: 1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h.
Abstract: The effects of pretreatment with a seven day course of ciprofloxacin on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an intravenous (5 mg) dose of diazepam were investigated in a group of 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Ciprofloxacin pretreatment significantly reduced diazepam CL (without ciprofloxacin: 19.5 ml.h-1 kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 12.3 ml.h-1 kg-1). Diazepam t1/2 was also prolonged (without ciprofloxacin: 36.7 h; with ciprofloxacin: 71.1 h), but volume of distribution was unaltered (without ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1). However, no significant changes were detected in psychometric tests of digit symbol substitution, tapping rate and short memory, as well as levels of concentration, vigilance and tension measured by visual analogue scales.
Abstract: 1. We have examined the metabolism of diazepam by ten human cytochrome P450 forms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5) expressed in HepG2 cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. 2. Among the P450 forms tested, diazepam was significantly demethylated by CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4 and 3A5, with 2C19 exhibiting the highest rate at concentrations < 0.1 mM, and hydroxylated only by the latter three enzymes, with 3A5 being the most active. The N-demethylation activity of diazepam by 2C19 at a concentration of 20 microM was six times of that by 3A4. However, that by 2C9 was detected at only a trace level. 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam. CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation. 4. Diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes correlated with diazepam 3-hydroxylation, but not S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. 5. Our results suggest that in the human liver, the metabolism of diazepam to nordiazepam is mediated by CYP3A4, which has been reported as the most abundant P450 form in human liver as well as 2C19, which has been reported as a polymorphic enzyme.
Abstract: (R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms mediating R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation in human liver, with the long term objective of elucidating the molecular genetic basis for this drug metabolism polymorphism. All available recombinant UGT isoforms were screened for R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation activities. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in representative human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in UGTs that showed significant activity. Of 12 different UGTs evaluated, only UGT2B15 showed significant S-oxazepam glucuronidation. Furthermore, the apparent K(m) for UGT2B15 (29-35 microM) was similar to values determined for HLMs (43-60 microM). In contrast, R-oxazepam was glucuronidated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Although apparent K(m) values for HLMs (256-303 microM) were most similar to UGT2B7 (333 microM) rather than UGT1A9 (12 microM), intrinsic clearance values for UGT1A9 were 10 times higher than for UGT2B7. A common genetic variation results in aspartate (UGT2B15*1) or tyrosine (UGT2B15*2) at position 85 of the UGT2B15 protein. Microsomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells overexpressing UGT2B15*1 showed 5 times higher S-oxazepam glucuronidation activity than did UGT2B15*2 microsomes. Similar results were obtained for other substrates, including eugenol, naringenin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and androstane-3alpha-diol. In conclusion, S-oxazepam is stereoselectively glucuronidated by UGT2B15, whereas R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by multiple UGT isoforms. Allelic variation associated with the UGT2B15 gene may explain polymorphic S-oxazepam glucuronidation in humans.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the daily dose of the synthetic opioid methadone and the corrected QT (QTc) interval in a series of methadone-treated patients who developed torsade de pointes. DESIGN: Retrospective case series analysis. SETTING: Outpatient pain management center and methadone maintenance treatment programs. PATIENTS: Seventeen patients who developed torsade de pointes while receiving very high daily doses of methadone. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The QTc intervals were calculated for each patient. The relationship between daily methadone dose and QTc interval was assessed and adjusted for clinical characteristics that may have independently prolonged cardiac repolarization. The mean QTc interval was 615 +/- 77 msec. Multiple linear regression indicated that only the daily methadone dose was predictive of the QTc interval (r = +0.51, p = 0.03). All other variables examined, such as age, sex, presence of hypokalemia or structural heart disease, and presence of QT-prolonging drugs, were not predictive of the QTc interval (minimum p = 0.28). CONCLUSION: In this series, the daily methadone dose correlated positively with the QTc interval. This finding supports the possibility that methadone contributed to the development of arrhythmia.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Understanding drug interactions between antiretrovirals and opiate therapies may decrease toxicities and enhance adherence, with improved HIV outcomes in injection drug users. We report results of a clinical pharmacology study designed to examine the interaction of the protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, with methadone and LAAM (N = 48). Nelfinavir decreased methadone exposure, but no withdrawal was observed over the five day study period. LAAM and dinorLAAM concentrations were decreased, while norLAAM concentrations were increased, with minimal overall change in LAAM/metabolite exposure. Methadone and LAAM did not affect nelfinavir concentrations, but methadone decreased M8 metabolite exposure. While no toxicities were observed, clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug interactions when patients require treatment with nelfinavir and these opiate medications.
Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is important to consider when concentrations in whole blood (eg, in forensic toxicology) are compared with therapeutic and toxic concentrations based on the analysis of plasma or serum. The plasma to whole blood distribution of diazepam (D) and its major metabolite nordiazepam (ND) was investigated under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Studies in vitro were done by spiking whole blood with D and ND to give concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g. Venous blood was also obtained from hospital blood donors (n = 66) after informed consent. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and water content of blood specimens were determined by routine procedures before D and ND were added to produce target concentrations of approximately 0.5 microg/g for each substance. The ex vivo work was done with blood specimens from hospital outpatients who were being medicated with D. Concentrations of D and ND were determined in body fluids by capillary column gas chromatography after adding prazepam as internal standard and solvent extraction with butyl acetate. The method limit of quantitation was 0.03 microg/g for both D and ND. The concentrations of D and ND were highest in plasma and lowest in erythrocytes. The plasma/blood (P/B) distribution ratios did not depend on drug concentration between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/g. The mean P/B ratios were 1.79:1 for D and 1.69:1 for ND when hematocrit was 45%. Furthermore, the P/B ratio for D (y) was positively correlated with blood hematocrit (x) and the regression equation was y = 0.636 + 0.025x (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). A similar strong association was found between the P/B ratio and hematocrit for ND (r = 0.79). P/B ratios of D and ND, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the water content differed between sexes (P < 0.001). The overall mean P/B ratios for D and ND were 1.69 +/- 0.097 (+/- SD) and 1.62 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.001, n = 66) respectively when the mean hematocrit was 42.9 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD). For forensic purposes, it would be better to forgo making any conversion of a drug concentration measured in whole blood to that expected in plasma or serum; instead, therapeutic and toxic concentrations should be established for the actual specimens received.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The disposition of the long-acting opioid methadone, used to prevent opiate withdrawal and treat short- and long-lasting pain, is highly variable. Methadone undergoes N -demethylation to the primary metabolite 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolinium (EDDP), catalyzed in vitro by intestinal, hepatic, and expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. However, the role of CYP3A4 in human methadone disposition in vivo is unclear. This investigation tested the hypothesis that CYP3A induction (or inhibition) would increase (or decrease) methadone metabolism and clearance in humans. METHODS: Healthy volunteers were studied in a randomized, balanced, 4-way crossover study. They received intravenous (IV) midazolam (to assess CYP3A4 activity) and then simultaneous oral deuterium-labeled and IV unlabeled methadone after pretreatment with rifampin (INN, rifampicin) (hepatic/intestinal CYP3A induction), troleandomycin (hepatic/intestinal CYP3A inhibition), grapefruit juice (selective intestinal CYP3A inhibition), or nothing. Methadone effects were measured by dark-adapted pupil diameter. CYP isoforms catalyzing methadone metabolism by human liver microsomes and expressed CYPs in vitro were also evaluated. RESULTS: Methadone had high oral bioavailability (70%) and low intestinal (22%) and hepatic (9%) extraction, and there was a significant correlation ( r = 0.94, P <.001) between oral bioavailability and intestinal (but not hepatic) availability. Rifampin decreased bioavailability and oral and IV methadone plasma concentrations and increased IV clearance (4.42 +/- 1.00 mL. kg -1. min -1 versus 1.61 +/- 0.67 mL. kg -1. min -1, P <.05) and oral clearance (8.50 +/- 3.68 mL. kg -1. min -1 versus 2.05 +/- 0.92 mL. kg -1. min -1, P <.05), EDDP/methadone area under the curve (AUC) ratios, EDDP formation clearances, and hepatic extraction (0.27 +/- 0.06 versus 0.09 +/- 0.04, P <.05). Troleandomycin and grapefruit juice decreased the EDDP/methadone AUC ratio after oral methadone (0.17 +/- 0.10 and 0.14 +/- 0.06 versus 0.27 +/- 0.20, P <.05) but not IV methadone and had no effect on methadone plasma concentrations, IV clearance (1.29 +/- 0.41 mL. kg -1. min -1 and 1.48 +/- 0.55 mL. kg -1. min -1 ) or oral clearance (2.05 +/- 1.52 mL. kg -1. min -1 and 1.89 +/- 1.07 mL. kg -1. min -1 ), or other kinetic parameters. There was no correlation between methadone clearance and hepatic CYP3A4 activity. Pupil diameter changes reflected plasma methadone concentrations. In vitro experiments showed a predominant role for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in liver microsomal methadone N -demethylation. CONCLUSION: First-pass intestinal metabolism is a determinant of methadone bioavailability. Intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity only slightly affects human methadone N -demethylation but has no significant effect on methadone concentrations, clearance, or clinical effects. Greater rifampin effects, compared with troleandomycin and grapefruit juice, on methadone disposition suggest a major role for intestinal transporters and for other CYPs, such as CYP2B6. Interindividual variability and drug interactions affecting intestinal transporter and hepatic CYP3A and CYP2B6 activity may alter methadone disposition.
Abstract: This article reviews the unique pharmacological properties of methadone and outlines its appropriate clinical application, with focus upon its use in the treatment of chronic pain. Although methadone is most widely known for its use in the treatment of opioid dependence, methadone also provides effective analgesia. Patients who experience inadequate pain relief or intolerable side effects with other opioids or who suffer from neuropathic pain may benefit from a transition to methadone as their analgesic agent. Adverse effects, particularly respiratory depression and death, make a fundamental knowledge of methadone's pharmacological properties essential to the provider considering methadone as analgesic therapy for a patient with chronic pain.
Abstract: Methadone is a synthetic opioid with potent analgesic effects. Although it is associated commonly with the treatment of opioid addiction, it may be prescribed by licensed family physicians for analgesia. Methadone's unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics make it a valuable option in the management of cancer pain and other chronic pain, including neuropathic pain states. It may be an appropriate replacement for opioids when side effects have limited further dosage escalation. Metabolism of and response to methadone varies with each patient. Transition to methadone and dosage titration should be completed slowly and with frequent monitoring. Conversion should be based on the current daily oral morphine equivalent dosage. After starting methadone therapy or increasing the dosage, systemic toxicity may not become apparent for several days. Some medications alter the absorption or metabolism of methadone, and their concurrent use may require dosing adjustments. Methadone is less expensive than other sustained-release opioid formulations.
Abstract: The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Metabolism and clearance of racemic methadone are stereoselective and highly variable, yet the mechanism remains largely unknown. Initial in vitro studies attributed methadone metabolism to cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4). CYP3A4 was also assumed responsible for methadone clearance in vivo. Nevertheless, recent clinical data do not support a primary role for CYP3A4 and suggest that CYP2B6 may mediate methadone clearance. Expressed CYP2B6 and also CYP2C19 N-demethylate methadone in vitro. This investigation tested the hypothesis that CYPs 2B6, 3A4, and/or 2C19 are responsible for stereoselective methadone metabolism in human liver microsomes and in vivo. METHODS: N-demethylation of racemic methadone and individual enantiomers by expressed CYPs 2B6, 2C19, and 3A4 was evaluated. Stereoselective microsomal methadone metabolism was quantified, compared with CYP 2B6 and 3A4 content, and probed using CYP isoform-selective inhibitors. A crossover clinical investigation (control, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 induction by rifampin, CYP3A inhibition by troleandomycin and grapefruit juice) evaluated stereoselective methadone disposition. RESULTS: At clinical concentrations, methadone enantiomer N-demethylation by recombinant CYPs 2B6, 3A4, and 2C19 was S > R, S = R, and S << R. Greater stereoselective metabolism (S > R) occurred in livers expressing high levels of CYP2B6 compared with CYP3A4. Clopidogrel, troleandomycin, and (+)-N-3-benzyl-nirvanol, selective inhibitors of CYPs 2B6, 3A4, and 2C19, respectively, inhibited microsomal methadone metabolism by 50-60%, 20-30%, and less than 10%. Only inhibition by clopidogrel was stereoselective. Clinically, rifampin diminished both R- and S-methadone plasma concentrations, but troleandomycin and grapefruit juice altered neither R- nor S-methadone concentrations. Plasma R/S-methadone ratios were increased by rifampin but unchanged by CYP3A inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a significant role for CYP2B6, but not CYP3A, in stereoselective human methadone metabolism and disposition.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This topical review addresses methadone's pharmacology, its application in malignant and non-malignant pain conditions, practical issues related to methadone for the treatment of pain and its influence on QTc time. METHODS: Relevant papers were identified in PubMed and EMBASE. RESULTS: Methadone is advocated by experts as a second line opioid when first line opioids fail to provide a satisfactory balance between pain control and side effects (opioid switching). Although randomized-controlled studies are lacking, current evidence suggests that switching to methadone in this situation reduces pain intensity. However, interindividual variability in its pharmacokinetics make its application challenging and metabolism by CYP 3A4 and 2B6 implies a substantial risk of drug-drug interactions. Several ways of switching to methadone have been presented, with a gradual switch during 3 days or 'stop and go' as the dominating strategies. Episodes of torsade de pointes arrhythmia during methadone treatment have been reported in patients with other risk factors for arrhythmia, while small prospective studies have reported a small, lasting and stable increase in QTc time. The extensive use of methadone for opioid replacement in addicts has added additional patient barriers to its use for pain control. CONCLUSION: In spite of challenges related to the variable pharmacokinetics and concerns regarding increase in QTc time, current evidence indicates that opioid switching to methadone improves pain control in a substantial proportion of patients who are candidates for opioid switching. Measures must be instituted to secure that patients receiving methadone for pain are not considered opioid addicts.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone clearance is highly variable, and drug interactions are problematic. Both have been attributed to CYP3A, but actual mechanisms are unknown. Drug interactions can provide such mechanistic information. Ritonavir/indinavir, one of the earliest protease inhibitor combinations, may inhibit CYP3A. We assessed ritonavir/indinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity, and intestinal transporters (P-glycoprotein) activity. CYP3A and transporters were assessed with alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative volunteers underwent a sequential three-part crossover. On three consecutive days, they received oral alfentanil/fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral (deuterium-labeled) methadone, repeated after acute (3 days) and steady-state (2 weeks) ritonavir/indinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were assessed by miosis. RESULTS: Alfentanil apparent oral clearance was inhibited more than 97% by both acute and steady-state ritonavir/indinavir, and systemic clearance was inhibited more than 90% due to diminished hepatic and intestinal extraction. Ritonavir/indinavir increased fexofenadine area under the plasma concentration-time curve four- to five-fold, suggesting significant inhibition of gastrointestinal P-glycoprotein. Ritonavir/indinavir slightly increased methadone N-demethylation, but it had no significant effects on methadone plasma concentrations or on systemic or apparent oral clearance, renal clearance, hepatic extraction or clearance, or bioavailability. Ritonavir/indinavir had no significant effects on methadone plasma concentration-effect relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of both hepatic and intestinal CYP3A activity is responsible for ritonavir/indinavir drug interactions. Methadone disposition was unchanged, despite profound inhibition of CYP3A activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone metabolism and clearance. Methadone bioavailability was unchanged, despite inhibition of gastrointestinal P-glycoprotein activity, suggesting that this transporter does not limit methadone intestinal absorption.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone plasma concentrations are decreased by nelfinavir. Methadone clearance and the drug interactions have been attributed to CYP3A4, but actual mechanisms of methadone clearance and the nelfinavir interaction are unknown. We assessed nelfinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity, and intestinal P-glycoprotein transport activity. CYP3A4/5 and transporters were assessed using alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy HIV-negative volunteers underwent a sequential crossover. On three consecutive days they received oral alfentanil plus fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral methadone. This was repeated after nelfinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were measured by pupil diameter change (miosis). RESULTS: Nelfinavir decreased intravenous and oral methadone plasma concentrations 40-50%. Systemic clearance, hepatic clearance, and hepatic extraction all increased 1.6- and 2-fold, respectively, for R- and S-methadone; apparent oral clearance increased 1.7- and 1.9-fold. Nelfinavir stereoselectively increased (S>R) methadone metabolism and metabolite formation clearance, and methadone renal clearance. Methadone bioavailability and P-glycoprotein activity were minimally affected. Nelfinavir decreased alfentanil systemic and apparent oral clearances 50 and 76%, respectively. Nelfinavir appeared to shift the methadone plasma concentration-effect (miosis) curve leftward and upward. CONCLUSIONS: Nelfinavir induced methadone clearance by increasing renal clearance, and more so by stereoselectively increasing hepatic metabolism, extraction and clearance. Induction occurred despite 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity and more than 75% inhibition of first-pass CYP3A4/5 activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone disposition. Nelfinavir may alter methadone pharmacodynamics, increasing clinical effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The resulting conjugates from the coupling reactions with glucuronic acid are epimeric pairs of glucuronides. Due to the importance of stereochemical factors in drug disposition it is necessary to separate the diastereomeric forms after synthesis. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was developed and optimized by using microsomal UGT from fresh swine liver to receive multimilligram amounts of the benzodiazepine glucuronides, which were not accessible by standard synthetic procedures, like the Koenigs-Knorr- and Williamson-ether-synthesis. Swine liver microsomes were prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation of liver tissue. In the presence of liver microsomes the benzodiazepines and cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 24h. After incubation the microsomes were removed by protein precipitation and the residual benzodiazepines by liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane). The epimeric pairs of benzodiazepine glucuronides were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) to obtain the pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers. The synthesis products were characterized by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: Numerous established and potential drug interactions with methadone are clinically important in people treated with methadone either for addiction or for chronic pain. Methadone users often have comorbidities and are prescribed drugs that may interact with methadone. Methadone is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and to a lesser extent by CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2D8, 2C9/2C8, 2C19, and 2B6. Eighty-six percent of methadone is protein bound, predominately to α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Polymorphisms in or interactions with CYPs that metabolize methadone, changes in protein binding, and other pathophysiological conditions affect the pharmacokinetic properties of methadone. It is critical for health care providers who treat patients on methadone to have adequate information on the interactions of methadone with other drugs of abuse and other medications. We set out to describe drug-drug interactions as well as physiological and pathophysiological factors that may impact the pharmacokinetics of methadone. Using MEDLINE, we conducted a systematic search for papers and related abstracts published between 1966 and June 2010. Keywords that included methadone, drug-drug interactions, CYP P450 and AGP identified a total of 7709 papers. Other databases, including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus, were also searched; an additional 929 papers were found. Final selection of 286 publications was based on the relevance of each paper to the topic. Over 50 such interactions were found. Interactions of methadone with other drugs can lead to increased or decreased methadone drug levels in patients and result in potential overdose or withdrawal, respectively. The former can contribute to methadone's fatality. Prescribers of methadone and pharmacists should enquire about any new medications (including natural products and over-the-counter medications) periodically, and especially when an otherwise stable patient suddenly experiences drug craving, withdrawal or intoxication.
Abstract: This paper reviews studies examining the pharmacological interactions and epidemiology of the combined use of opioids and benzodiazepines (BZDs). A search of English language publications from 1970 to 2012 was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO(®). Our search found approximately 200 articles appropriate for inclusion in this paper. While numerous reports indicate that the co-abuse of opioids and BZDs is ubiquitous around the world, the reasons for the co-abuse of these medications are not entirely clear. Though the possibility remains that opioid abusers are using BZDs therapeutically to self-medicate anxiety, mania or insomnia, the data reviewed in this paper suggest that BZD use is primarily recreational. For example, co-users report seeking BZD prescriptions for the purpose of enhancing opioid intoxication or "high," and use doses that exceed the therapeutic range. Since there are few clinical studies investigating the pharmacological interaction and abuse liability of their combined use, this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated in clinical settings. As such, our analysis encourages further systematic investigation of BZD abuse among opioid abusers. The co-abuse of BZDs and opioids is substantial and has negative consequences for general health, overdose lethality, and treatment outcome. Physicians should address this important and underappreciated problem with more cautious prescribing practices, and increased vigilance for abusive patterns of use.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Polysubstance use is prevalent in individuals using buprenorphine or methadone nonmedically, with benzodiazepines being a common co-ingestant. The objective of this study was to compare the severity of buprenorphine and methadone toxicity with concomitant use of benzodiazepines. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of buprenorphine and methadone cases from November 1, 2002 to December 31, 2010 reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS) was conducted. INCLUSION CRITERIA: age ≥ 18 years, nonmedical use of methadone with benzodiazepines (methadone-BZD) or buprenorphine with benzodiazepines (BUP-BZD), and case followed to a documented outcome. Cases with co-ingestants other than benzodiazepines were excluded. Clinical effects, treatments, disposition and final medical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 692 methadone-BZD cases and 72 BUP-BZD cases. Clinical effects in methadone-BZD and BUP-BZD groups were lethargy (71.1%, 59.7%), respiratory depression (29.0%, 15.3%), coma (22.4%, 5.6%), respiratory arrest (4.5%, 0), hypotension (11.8%, 2.8%) and cardiac arrest (1.9%, 0), respectively. Patients in the methadone-BZD group were four-times more likely to receive naloxone (60.4% vs 15.3%) or be intubated (16.3% vs 4.2%) than in the BUP-BZD group. Hospitalization rates were highest for methadone-BZD patients with 67.3% receiving medical admissions compared to 43.3% of BUP-BZD patients. Outcomes were more serious for methadone-BZD cases (p<0.0001); while there were no BUP-BZD deaths, exposure to methadone-BZD yielded 16 deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Nonmedical use of benzodiazepines with methadone is associated with higher hospitalization rates, greater ICU utilization rates and considerably worse medical outcomes when compared to nonmedical use of benzodiazepines with buprenorphine.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.