Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Nous n'avons pas de mise en garde supplémentaire concernant l'association de lopinavir et de toltérodine. Veuillez également consulter les informations pertinentes des spécialistes.
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la lopinavir, lorsqu'il est associé à la toltérodine (100%). Nous n'avons détecté aucun changement dans l'exposition à la toltérodine. Nous ne pouvons actuellement pas estimer l'influence de la lopinavir.
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La biodisponibilité de la lopinavir est inconnue. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] n'est pas connue. Le métabolisme se fait principalement via CYP3A4 et le transport actif s'effectue notamment via PGP.
La toltérodine a une faible biodisponibilité orale [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à changer fortement avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte (6 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont rapidement atteints. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est 100 % forte et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 88 litres, c'est pourquoi, avec un taux d'extraction hépatique moyen de 0,9, le débit sanguin hépatique [Q] et une modification de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] sont pertinents. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP2D6 et CYP3A4, entre autres.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø|
Note: À notre connaissance, ni la lopinavir ni la toltérodine n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||Ø||+++|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à de celles situées dans la marge thérapeutique supérieure.
Notation: La toltérodine augmente considérablement l'activité anticholinergique. À notre connaissance, la lopinavir n'augmente pas l'activité anticholinergique.
Allongement du temps QT
Note: En association, la lopinavir et la toltérodine peuvent potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires de type torsades de pointes.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||lop||tol|
|Douleur abdominale||4.0 %||n.a.||4.0|
|Mal de crâne||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
|Réaction d'hypersensibilité||0.0 %||n.a.||0.0|
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of tolterodine following single oral and intravenous doses in healthy volunteers. A secondary aim was to identify major urinary metabolites and determine mass balance. Single oral doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8 mg of tolterodine (as the tartrate salt) were given to 17 healthy male volunteers. Two intravenous doses (0.64 and 1.28 mg) were administered to 8 of the volunteers and mass balance was studied after a single oral dose of 5 mg (14C)-tolterodine in 6 subjects. Tolterodine was rapidly absorbed following oral administration (time to peak serum concentration 0.9 +/- 0.4 h). The absolute bioavailability was highly variable, ranging from 10 to 70%. The volume of distribution at steady-state ranged from 0.9 to 1.6 l/kg and systemic clearance ranged from 0.23 to 0.52 l/h/kg, which resulted in a terminal half-life of 2-3 h. Tolterodine exhibited high first-pass metabolism and 2 hepatic metabolic pathways were identified: oxidation and dealkylation. Independent of route of administration, < 1% of the parent compound was excreted unchanged in urine. Five metabolites were structurally identified in urine. Following oral administration of (14C)-tolterodine, the excretion of radioactivity into urine and feces was 77 +/- 4.0% and 17 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Tolterodine decreased stimulated salivation after 3.2 mg, increased heart rate after 6.4 mg, and nearpoint of vision after 12.8 mg. Six of 8 subjects reported micturition difficulties after a dose of 12.8 mg. The lack of a direct relationship between tolterodine serum concentrations and effects on stimulated salivation suggested the presence of pharmacologically active metabolite(s).
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine in vitro protein binding of tolterodine and its 5-hydroxymethyl (5-HM) and N-dealkylated metabolites in serum from humans and several animal species at concentrations similar to those obtained in clinical and preclinical studies. Binding of tolterodine and the two metabolites to human serum albumin and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was also assessed, as was binding of tolterodine to red blood cells. Ex vivo protein binding of tolterodine and 5-HM was determined in serum samples from healthy volunteers treated with oral tolterodine 4 mg twice daily for 8 days. Tolterodine exhibited high protein binding in human serum; the unbound fraction (f(u)) was 3.7%. The unbound fraction of tolterodine in cat and dog serum (1.5 and 2.1%, respectively) was lower compared with human serum; f(u) was higher in the other species investigated (rat, 22%; mouse, 16-17%; rabbit, 39%). The unbound fraction of 5-HM was much higher in serum from humans (36%) and all animal species investigated (mouse, 72%; rabbit, 68%; cat, 32%; dog, 45%). Binding of N-dealkylated tolterodine to proteins in human serum was intermediate (f(u) 14%). AAG was the major binding protein for tolterodine and 5-HM, and the degree of binding increased with increasing concentration of the protein. The association constant of 5-HM for AAG was lower than that of tolterodine (1.3 x 10(5) M(-1) versus 2.1 x 10(6) M(-1)). The blood:plasma tolterodine concentration ratio was 0.6 in both humans and dog; thus, a minor fraction of tolterodine was present in red blood cells compared with plasma (0.18 and 0.36, respectively). In the mouse, tolterodine was equally present in blood and plasma. In ex vivo samples, f(u) values for tolterodine (pH adjusted) varied between 1.6 and 4.9% (mean 2.8%), which could be explained by differences in AAG concentrations. There was good correlation between observed f(u) values for tolterodine and those predicted on the basis of AAG levels. Similar findings were observed for 5-HM.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: The objective of our study was to determine the QTc effects of tolterodine. A crossover-design thorough QT study of recommended (2 mg twice daily) and supratherapeutic (4 mg twice daily) doses of tolterodine, moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily), and placebo was performed. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) and pharmacokinetic samples were obtained on days 1-4; time-matched baseline ECGs were taken on day 0. Mean placebo-subtracted change from baseline Fridericia-corrected QT (QTcF) during peak drug exposure on day 4 was the primary end point. Mean QTcF prolongation of moxifloxacin was 8.9 ms (machine-read) and 19.3 ms (manual-read). At recommended and supratherapeutic tolterodine doses, mean QTcF prolongation was 1.2 and 5.6 ms (machine-read), respectively, and 5.0 and 11.8 ms (manual-read), respectively. The QTc effect of tolterodine was lower than moxifloxacin. No subject receiving tolterodine exceeded the clinically relevant thresholds of 500 ms absolute QTc or 60 ms change from baseline. In conclusion, tolterodine does not have a clinically significant effect on QT interval.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: On the basis of a single clinical trial in first-line treatment, the atazanavir and ritonavir combination appears to be no more effective than the fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir. The adverse effect profiles were slightly different, but atazanavir carries a troubling risk of torsades de pointes.
Abstract: This review highlights the design and development of fesoterodine (Toviaz) as a prodrug of 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT), which is also the active metabolite of tolterodine, for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Tolterodine and 5-HMT are both potent antimuscarinic agents. A prodrug approach was necessary for systemic bioavailability of 5-HMT after oral administration. Fesoterodine was selected amongst a series of ester analogues of 5-HMT to develop an advanced OAB treatment with an optimum biopharmaceutics profile, while maintaining a pharmacological link to tolterodine. While tolterodine and 5-HMT have similar antimuscarinic activity, the logD value, a determinant of lipophilicity and permeability across biological interfaces such as the gut wall and blood-brain barrier, is considerably lower for 5-HMT (0.74) versus tolterodine (1.83). In contrast to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6-mediated metabolism of tolterodine, 5-HMT formation from fesoterodine occurs via ubiquitous nonspecific esterases. Consequently, treatment with fesoterodine results in consistent, genotype-independent exposure to a singular active moiety (5-HMT); treatment with tolterodine results in CYP2D6 genotype-dependent exposure to varying proportions of two active moieties (5-HMT and tolterodine). At least partially due to the avoidance of variations in pharmacokinetic exposures observed with tolterodine, it was possible to develop fesoterodine with the flexibility of two efficacious and well-tolerated dosage regimens of 4 and 8 mg daily.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) is a complex regulatory and clinical problem due to the rarity of this sometimes fatal adverse event. In this context, the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an important source of information, which can be applied to the analysis of TdP liability of marketed drugs. OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the risk of antimicrobial-induced TdP by detecting alert signals in the AERS, on the basis of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. METHODS: Reports of TdP from January 2004 through December 2008 were retrieved from the public version of the AERS. The absolute number of cases and reporting odds ratio as a measure of disproportionality were evaluated for each antimicrobial drug (quantitative approach). A list of drugs with suspected TdP liability (provided by the Arizona Centre of Education and Research on Therapeutics [CERT]) was used as a reference to define signals. In a further analysis, to refine signal detection, we identified TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT (qualitative approach). RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, 374 reports of TdP were retrieved: 28 antibacterials, 8 antifungals, 1 antileprosy and 26 antivirals were involved. Antimicrobials more frequently reported were levofloxacin (55) and moxifloxacin (37) among the antibacterials, fluconazole (47) and voriconazole (17) among the antifungals, and lamivudine (8) and nelfinavir (6) among the antivirals. A significant disproportionality was observed for 17 compounds, including several macrolides, fluoroquinolones, linezolid, triazole antifungals, caspofungin, indinavir and nelfinavir. With the qualitative approach, we identified the following additional drugs or fixed dose combinations, characterized by at least two TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT: ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, cotrimoxazole, metronidazole, ribavirin, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. DISCUSSION: Disproportionality for macrolides, fluoroquinolones and most of the azole antifungals should be viewed as 'expected' according to Arizona CERT list. By contrast, signals were generated by linezolid, caspofungin, posaconazole, indinavir and nelfinavir. Drugs detected only by the qualitative approach should be further investigated by increasing the sensitivity of the method, e.g. by searching also for the TdP surrogate marker, prolongation of the QT interval. CONCLUSIONS: The freely available version of the FDA AERS database represents an important source to detect signals of TdP. In particular, our analysis generated five signals among antimicrobials for which further investigations and active surveillance are warranted. These signals should be considered in evaluating the benefit-risk profile of these drugs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: The objective of this analysis was to explore exposure-response modeling of data from a thorough QT (TQT) study of tolterodine in CYP2D6 extensive (EMs) and poor metabolizers (PMs). Crossover treatments of the TQT study included the recommended (2 mg twice daily) and supratherapeutic (4 mg twice daily) doses of tolterodine, moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily), and placebo. The concentration-response relationships for the QTc effects of moxifloxacin and tolterodine were described using a linear model with baseline effect, placebo effect, and a drug effect. The mixed effects modeling approach, using the first order conditional estimation method, was implemented in NONMEM. Simulated data from 250 trial replicates were used for limited predictive check and to describe the expected extreme responders in this study, under the derived model and point estimates. Modeling results for tolterodine showed linear concentrationdependent increases in QTc interval, with no difference in slopes between EMs and PMs. Modelpredicted QTc prolongations for tolterodine and moxifloxacin were consistent with their respective observed mean results. No subjects were predicted to have increases of > 60 milliseconds (ms); the predicted incidence of borderline QTc increases (> 30 and ≤ 60 ms) remained low at the supratherapeutic tolterodine dose in both PMs (9.1%) and EMs (3.9%). In conclusions, this analysis supports our clinical experience that tolterodine does not have a clinically significant effect on QT interval.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.