Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Nous n'avons pas de mise en garde supplémentaire concernant l'association de lorazépam et de métamizole. Veuillez également consulter les informations pertinentes des spécialistes.
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la lorazépam, lorsqu'il est associé à la métamizole (100%). Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la métamizole, lorsqu'il est associé à la lorazépam (100%).
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La lorazépam a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à peu changer au cours d'une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 14.3 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 57.2 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 91.9% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 111 litres. Le métabolisme ne se fait pas via les cytochromes communs et le transport actif s'effectue notamment via UGT2B7.
La métamizole a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à peu changer au cours d'une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte (0.23333333 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont rapidement atteints. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est plutôt faible à 53%. Le métabolisme ne se fait pas via les cytochromes communs.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||0||Ø||Ø|
Note: À notre connaissance, ni la lorazépam ni la métamizole n'augmentent l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Notation: À notre connaissance, la métamizole n'augmente pas l'activité anticholinergique. L'effet anticholinergique de la lorazépam n'est pas pertinent.
Allongement du temps QT
Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la lorazépam et la métamizole.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||lor||mét|
|Effet de hangover||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Effet de rebond||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
Crise d'épilepsie: lorazépam
La dépression: lorazépam
Dépression respiratoire: lorazépam
Syndrome de Stevens-Johnson: métamizole
Réaction anaphylactique: métamizole
Exanthème médicamenteuse: métamizole
Insuffisance rénale: métamizole
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: Eleven subjects received acetaminophen (650 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence, with and without concurrent administration of probenecid (500 mg) every 6 hr. Nine subjects similarly received lorazepam (2 mg. i.v.) with and without concurrent probenecid. Acetaminophen half-life was prolonged during probenecid treatment (mean +/- S.E., 4.30 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.16 hr; P less than .001) due to markedly decreased clearance (178 +/- 13 vs. 329 +/- 24 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (65 +/- 4 vs. 69 +/- 3 l; NS). Urinary excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide during 24 hr was decreased (84 +/- 9 vs. 260 +/- 21 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide; P less than .001) and acetaminophen sulfate excretion was increased (323 +/- 25 vs. 217 +/- 17 mg of acetaminophen as sulfate; P less than .005) during concurrent probenecid treatment. However, the sum of the two conjugated metabolites was not significantly different (407 +/- 28 vs. 476 +/- 20 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide plus sulfate excreted per 24 hr; NS). Lorazepam half-life was also prolonged during probenecid treatment (33.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 14.3 +/- 1.08 hr; P less than .001) due to decreased clearance (44.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 80.3 +/- 13.2 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (111 +/- 5 vs. 111 +/- 7 l; NS). Formation of the ether glucuronides of acetaminophen and lorazepam is impaired markedly by therapeutic doses of probenecid. Sulfate conjugation is not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of dipyrone are characterised by rapid hydrolysis to the active moiety 4-methyl-amino-antipyrine (MAA), which has 85% bioavailability after oral administration in tablet form, and takes a short time to achieve maximal systemic concentrations (tmax of 1.2 to 2.0 hours). Absolute bioavailability after intramuscular and rectal administration is 87 and 54%, respectively. MAA is further metabolised with a mean elimination half-life (t1/2) of 2.6 to 3.5 hours to 4-formyl-amino-antipyrine (FAA), which is an end-metabolite, and to 4-amino-antipyrine (AA), which is then acetylated to 4-acetyl-amino-antipyrine (AAA) by the polymorphic N-acetyl-transferase (t1/2 of AA is 3.8 hours in rapid acetylators and 5.5 hours in slow acetylators). Urinary excretion of these 4 metabolites accounts for about 60% of the administered dose of dipyrone. Protein binding of the 4 main metabolites is less than 60%. The volume of distribution of MAA is about 1.15 L/kg of lean body mass. All 4 metabolites are excreted into breast milk. A single-dose study (0.75, 1.5 and 3g) and a multiple-dose study (1g 3 times a day for 7 days) revealed nonlinear pharmacokinetics consistent with a shift of MAA metabolism from FAA to AA. Apparent MAA clearance decreased by 22% during multiple administration. MAA clearance was reduced by 33% in the elderly. In patients with cirrhosis of the liver, the apparent clearance of all metabolites is generally reduced. In patients with renal disease, apparent clearance of MAA remains unchanged, whereas elimination of the renally excreted metabolites AAA and FAA is markedly impaired. No clinically important drug interactions have thus far been recognised. Dipyrone does not affect the pharmacodynamic response to alcohol (ethanol), glibenclamide (glyburide), oral anti-coagulants or furosemide (frusemide). The low toxicity of dipyrone and its efficacy support its use in clinical practice, despite some complex aspects of its disposition.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics and dynamics of lorazepam during administration as a bolus plus an infusion, using electroencephalography as a pharmacodynamic end point. METHODS: Nine volunteers received a 2-mg bolus loading dose of lorazepam, coincident with the start of a 2 microg/kg/hr zero-order infusion. The infusion was stopped after 4 hrs. Plasma lorazepam concentrations and electroencephalographic activity in the 13- to 30-Hz range were monitored for 24 hrs. RESULTS: The bolus-plus-infusion scheme rapidly produced plasma lorazepam concentrations that were close to those predicted to be achieved at true steady state. Mean kinetic values for lorazepam were as follows: volume of distribution, 126 L; elimination half-life, 13.8 hrs; and clearance, 109 mL/min. Electroencephalographic effects were maximal 0.5 hr after the loading dose, were maintained essentially constant during infusion, and then declined in parallel with plasma concentrations after the infusion was terminated. There was no evidence of tolerance. Plots of pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect vs. plasma lorazepam concentration demonstrated counterclockwise hysteresis, consistent with an effect-site equilibration delay. This was incorporated into a kinetic-dynamic model in which hypothetical effect-site concentration was related to pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect via the sigmoid Emax model. The analysis yielded the following mean estimates: maximum electroencephalographic effect, 12.7% over baseline; 50% effective concentration, 13.1 ng/mL; and effect-site equilibration half-life, 8.8 mins. CONCLUSION: Despite the delay in effect onset, continuous infusion of lorazepam, preceded by a bolus loading dose, produces a relatively constant sedative effect on the central nervous system, which can be utilized in the context of critical care medicine.
Abstract: The present study investigates the kinetic disposition with focus on the racemization, glucuronidation capacity and the transplacental transfer of lorazepam in term parturients during labor. The study was conducted on 10 healthy parturients aged 18-37 years with a gestational age of 36-40.1 weeks, treated with a single oral dose of 2 mg racemic lorazepam 2-9 h before delivery. Maternal venous blood and urine samples were obtained over a 0-48 h interval and the umbilical cord sample was obtained immediately after clamping. Lorazepam enantiomers were determined in plasma and urine samples by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-R column. In vitro racemization of lorazepam required the calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters as isomeric mixtures. The data were fitted to two-compartment model and the pharmacokinetic parameters are reported as means (95% CI): t(1/2a) 3.2h (2.6-3.7 h), K(a) 0.23 h(-1) (0.19-0.28 h(-1)), t(1/2) 10.4h (9.4-11.3h), beta 0.068 h(-1) (0.061-0.075h(-1)), AUC(0-infinity) 175.3(ngh)/ml (145.7-204.8(ngh)/ml), Cl/F 2.6 ml/(minkg) (2.3-2.9 ml/(minkg)), Vd/F178.8l (146.5-211.1l), Fel 0.3% (0.1-0.5%), and Cl(R) 0.010 ml/(minkg) (0.005-0.015 ml/(minkg)). Placental transfer of lorazepam evaluated as the ratio of vein umbilical/maternal vein plasma concentrations, obtained as an isomeric mixture, was 0.73 (0.52-0.94). Pregnancy changes the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam, with an increase in the apparent distribution volume, an increase in apparent oral clearance, and a reduction of elimination half-life. The increase in oral clearance may indicate an increase in glucuronidation capacity, with a possible reduction in the plasma concentrations of drugs depending on glucuronidation capacity as the major metabolic pathway.
Abstract: In part 1 of this review the perioperative aspects of the use of non-opioids (acetaminophen, dipyrone, traditional NSAR, coxibs) and in part 2 of opioids (weak opioids: tramadol, tilidine with naloxone, strong opioids: morphine, piritramide, oxycodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, methadone, buprenorphine) and coanalgesics (gabapentinoids, ketamine) will be discussed. The main aim is to describe the relationship between analgesic efficacy and side effects to make clinical decisions easier in patients with preoperative renal, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and other diseases. Some new aspects concerning perioperative administration of gabapentinoids and ketamine in patients with perioperative neuropathic pain are discussed.
Abstract: Cases of catatonia in patients with renal failure have been rarely reported. In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. Case 1 involved a patient with end-stage renal disease and severe pneumonia related respiratory failure. He responded well to intramuscular lorazepam (total dose, 4 mg) whereby the catatonia was elieved. Case 2 involved a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and rhabdomyolysis-related acute renal failure. He showed great improvement with intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) whereby the catatonia was subsequently relieved. This report demonstrates that intramuscular lorazepam is safe, effective and rapid in relieving catatonia associated with renal function impairment. Neither of the patients had a recurrence of catatonia during a period of 6- months follow-up. In conclusion, intramuscular lorazepam may play an important role in the treatment of catatonia associated with renal insufficiency.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Pharmacokinetics of 4-methyl-amino-antipyrine (MAA), the active metabolite of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent dipyrone, whose time course correlates to the therapeutic effect of the drug, are studied. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 153 patients hospitalized in the Department of Medicine at the Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. INTERVENTION: Patients receiving dipyrone for the treatment of fever or pain were asked to participate in the study. Pharmacokinetics and statistical analysis: Using the population approach based on a formerly developed experimental model, the relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and demographic and physiological covariates are explored. RESULTS: The results of the analysis show considerable variability in pharmacokinetics across the study population, and a significant decrease in clearance with age. CONCLUSION: A population pharmacokinetic analysis of MAA, the active product of dipyrone, reveals that age is a significant predictor of MAA disposition. Covariates that measure hepatic and renal function do not appear to be good predictors of the rate of MAA disposition.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Metamizole (dipyrone) is a popular analgetic, non-opioid drug, commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. In some cases, this agent is still incorrectly classified as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Metamizole is a pro-drug, which spontaneously breaks down after oral administration to structurally related pyrazolone compounds. Apart from its analgesic effect, the medication is an antipyretic and spasmolytic agent. The mechanism responsible for the analgesic effect is a complex one, and most probably rests on the inhibition of a central cyclooxygenase-3 and activation of the opioidergic system and cannabinoid system. Metamizole can block both PG-dependent and PG-independent pathways of fever induced by LPS, which suggests that this drug has a profile of antipyretic action distinctly different from that of NSAIDs. The mechanism responsible for the spasmolytic effect of metamizole is associated with the inhibited release of intracellular Ca2+ as a result of the reduced synthesis of inositol phosphate. Metamizole is predominantly applied in the therapy of pain of different etiology, of spastic conditions, especially affecting the digestive tract, and of fever refractory to other treatments. Co-administration of morphine and metamizole produces superadditive, antinociceptive effects. Metamizole is a relatively safe pharmaceutical preparation although it is not completely free from undesirable effects. Among these side-effects, the most serious one that raises most controversy is the myelotoxic effect. It seems that in the past the risk of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis was exaggerated. Despite the evidence showing no risk of teratogenic and embryotoxic effects, the drug must not be administered to pregnant women, although it is allowed to be given to pregnant and lactating animals. This paper seeks to describe the characteristics of metamizole in the light of current knowledge.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract: WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Metamizole was withdrawn from the market in the United States and several European countries following reports of fatal agranulocytosis among users, but is still available in many countries in Europe, South America and Asia. Over the past several decades, a number of epidemiologic studies have been conducted to quantify the risk of agranulocytosis and other adverse effects associated with metamizole and other non-narcotic analgesics. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the safety of metamizole. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies published between 1 January 1980 and 15 December 2014 were identified through systematic searches of PubMed and Google Scholar; the reference sections of selected articles were also reviewed to identify potentially relevant studies. Studies included in this review focused on the safety of metamizole, that is on outcomes such as haematologic abnormalities, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis and hepatotoxicity. Two study investigators independently reviewed the abstracts and articles to determine relevant studies according to prespecified criteria. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 22 articles met the criteria for evaluation. The majority of studies that evaluated agranulocytosis indicated an increased risk associated with metamizole, with relative risk (RR) estimates ranging from 1·5 (95% CI, 0·8-2·7) to 40·2 (95% CI, 14·7-113·3). Findings of three case-control studies do not suggest an association between metamizole and aplastic anaemia. Of the five case-control studies that evaluated the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, four found a statistically significant increased risk associated with metamizole (RR estimates ranging from 1·4 to 2·7). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether metamizole increases the risk of other outcomes (e.g. hepatic effects, anaphylaxis, congenital anomalies). Few studies evaluated the effects of dose, route of administration or duration of therapy. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Published studies reported differences in the magnitude of risk of adverse outcomes associated with metamizole use and often had small sample sizes and a number of other limitations that may have biased the results. Further research is needed to better quantify the potential risks associated with metamizole compared to other non-narcotic analgesics.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Use of dipyrone (metamizole) in perioperative and ICU pain therapy remains controversial due to a lack of solid evidence weighing dipyrone benefit against its potential life-threatening complications. Although dipyrone has known analgesic and antipyretic properties, its mechanisms of actions are incompletely understood. Although dipyrone effects on renal vasodilator prostaglandin synthesis are documented, little is known about its potential renal side effects, especially in the critical care environment. OBJECTIVE: Investigation of the perioperative nephrotoxic potential of dipyrone in patients prone to acute kidney injury (AKI). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single centre study in a tertiary referral hospital from January 2013 until June 2013. PATIENTS: A total of 500 consecutive patients aged 18 years and older referred to the anaesthesia ICU. Patients were excluded if admitted from or discharged to other ICUs, if referred for post resuscitation care, or if repeatedly admitted to the ICU. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of AKI, as defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Acute Kidney Injury Work Group criteria, and duration of vasopressor therapy. RESULTS: Use of dipyrone was associated with an increased incidence of AKI in a dose-dependent manner with a 1.6-fold increase in the incidence of AKI with each additional gram of intravenous dipyrone per day. Dipyrone dose of more than 2.5 g day was the best risk predictive cut-off for AKI. Patients receiving dipyrone on the ICU presented with a prolonged duration of vasopressor therapy. CONCLUSION: Increasing dipyrone dosage is a potential independent risk factor for AKI in adult ICU patients and may prolong vasopressor therapy. Clinical evidence for a benefit of dipyrone therapy in the ICU is insufficient and needs further critical evaluation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: Metamizole, also known as dipyrone, was introduced to the market nearly a century ago. Due to its excellent analgesic, antipyretic, and spasmolytic properties combined with its mostly favorable gastrointestinal tolerability, the drug was extensively applied worldwide during the first decades after its market introduction. Although rare, agranulocytosis is a well-known adverse event of metamizole and led to its withdrawal from the market in a number of countries beginning in the 1960s. Nevertheless, metamizole is still a frequently used drug worldwide either legally (by prescription in some countries, over the counter in other countries) or without official approval (especially by immigrants knowing the drug from their home countries) or even illegally (due to its growing application as an adulterant in illicit drugs). Metamizole undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver and cases of potential metamizole-associated hepatotoxicity have been described. Here, the literature is extensively reviewed for the first time regarding hepatic effects associated with the use of metamizole.