Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Surveillance de la lorazépam et de la méthadone recommandée.
Augmentation possible de l'effet opioïde et de l'effet dépressif du SNCMécanisme: Lorsqu'ils sont pris en même temps, les effets dépressifs du SNC s'additionnent. De plus, les mécanismes pharmacocinétiques tels que l'inhibition de la dégradation des opioïdes par les benzodiazépines et les effets pharmacodynamiques tels que la modulation du récepteur opioïde par les benzodiazépines sont discutés.
Effet: L' utilisation simultanée de benzodiazépines et d'opioïdes peut conduire à une intensification des effets dépressifs respiratoires, sédatifs et dépresseurs centraux. De plus, l'augmentation de l'euphorie peut conduire à une plus grande dépendance psychologique.
Mesures: L'association est plutôt déconseillée en raison de l'effet dépressif additif du SNC et du potentiel de dépendance. Si l'association est nécessaire (par exemple, médecine palliative), l'augmentation de l'effet dépressif du SNC doit être prise en compte.
|Méthadone||1 [1,1.82] 1||1|
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la méthadone, lorsqu'il est associé à la lorazépam (100%). L'AUC est comprise entre 0 % et 100 % selon le
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La méthadone a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez longue (jusqu'à 35 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] ne sont atteints qu'après plus de 140 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 87.5% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 330 litres. Étant donné que la substance a un faible taux d'extraction hépatique de 0,9, le déplacement de la liaison aux protéines [Pb] dans le contexte d'une interaction peut entraîner une augmentation de l'exposition. Environ 20 % d'une dose administrée sont excrétés sous forme inchangée par les reins et cette proportion est rarement modifiée par les interactions. Le métabolisme a lieu via CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 et CYP3A4, entre autres et le transport actif s'effectue notamment via PGP.
La lorazépam a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à peu changer au cours d'une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 14.3 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 57.2 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 91.9% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 111 litres. Le métabolisme ne se fait pas via les cytochromes communs et le transport actif s'effectue notamment via UGT2B7.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||1||+||Ø|
Recommandations: Par mesure de précaution, les symptômes de surstimulation sérotoninergique doivent être pris en compte, en particulier après l'augmentation de la dose et à un niveau compris dans le spectre thérapeutique supérieure.
Note: La méthadone a un effet léger sur le système sérotoninergique. Le risque de syndrome sérotoninergique peut être classé comme faible avec ce médicament si la posologie est dans la fourchette habituelle. À notre connaissance, la lorazépam n'augmente pas l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à de celles situées dans la marge thérapeutique supérieure.
Notation: La méthadone n'a qu'un effet modéré sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la dosage est respecté. L'effet anticholinergique de la lorazépam n'est pas pertinent.
Allongement du temps QT
Note: La méthadone peut potentiellement déclencher des arythmies ventriculaires en torsades de pointes. Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la lorazépam.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||mét||lor|
|La nausée||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Rétention urinaire||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
Crise d'épilepsie: lorazépam, méthadone
Effet de hangover: lorazépam
Effet de rebond: lorazépam
Addiction: lorazépam, méthadone
La dépression: lorazépam
Dépression respiratoire: lorazépam, méthadone
Arrêt respiratoire: méthadone
Insuffisance surrénalienne: méthadone
Réaction d'hypersensibilité: méthadone
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: Concentrations of methadone in plasma, estimates of pain relief, and pupillary size were determined after a single intravenous dose (10 to 30 mg) of methadone hydrochloride to eight patients with chronic pain, five of whom had cancer. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimates reveal rapid and extensive distribution (Varea) and a slow apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) (mean Varea = 3.59 L/kg and harmonic mean t1/2 = 23 hours). The harmonic mean blood clearance is 106 ml/min, the harmonic mean renal clearance is 3.9 ml/min, the mean hepatic extraction ratio is 0.089, and plasma protein binding is 86% to 89%. These results suggest that only the free (unbound) fraction of methadone present in blood is extracted by the liver and that methadone can be classified as a low (hepatic)-extraction drug. The data were fit to a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model to obtain estimates of the steady-state plasma methadone concentration required to produce 50% of the maximum pain relief. This value varied from 0.04 to 1.13 micrograms/ml (mean = 0.29 micrograms/ml). These results indicate substantial interindividual variation in the relationship between changes in plasma methadone concentration and analgesia in patients with chronic pain receiving opioids. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model may be useful for the individualization of analgesic dosage and therefore the optimization of pain management in patients with chronic pain.
Abstract: Eleven subjects received acetaminophen (650 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence, with and without concurrent administration of probenecid (500 mg) every 6 hr. Nine subjects similarly received lorazepam (2 mg. i.v.) with and without concurrent probenecid. Acetaminophen half-life was prolonged during probenecid treatment (mean +/- S.E., 4.30 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.16 hr; P less than .001) due to markedly decreased clearance (178 +/- 13 vs. 329 +/- 24 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (65 +/- 4 vs. 69 +/- 3 l; NS). Urinary excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide during 24 hr was decreased (84 +/- 9 vs. 260 +/- 21 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide; P less than .001) and acetaminophen sulfate excretion was increased (323 +/- 25 vs. 217 +/- 17 mg of acetaminophen as sulfate; P less than .005) during concurrent probenecid treatment. However, the sum of the two conjugated metabolites was not significantly different (407 +/- 28 vs. 476 +/- 20 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide plus sulfate excreted per 24 hr; NS). Lorazepam half-life was also prolonged during probenecid treatment (33.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 14.3 +/- 1.08 hr; P less than .001) due to decreased clearance (44.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 80.3 +/- 13.2 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (111 +/- 5 vs. 111 +/- 7 l; NS). Formation of the ether glucuronides of acetaminophen and lorazepam is impaired markedly by therapeutic doses of probenecid. Sulfate conjugation is not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Survey study data and high rates of diazepam use/abuse in methadone maintenance suggest that acute administration of diazepam with daily methadone doses may enhance methadone effects. Acute subjective and physiologic effects of single oral doses of placebo, diazepam (20 and 40 mg), methadone (100%, 150%, and 200% of the maintenance dose), and four diazepam-methadone dose combinations (20 and 40 mg diazepam in combination with 100% and 150% of the maintenance dose) were assessed under double-blind conditions. The subjects were five adult male patients on methadone maintenance with histories of diazepam abuse who were receiving 50 to 60 mg methadone a day. Physiologic measures were continuously monitored for 30 min before and for 2 hr after dosing. Pupil diameter and subjective responses were measured 15 min before dosing and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after dosing. Methadone induced dose-dependent increases in pupil constriction and scores on a subjective opioid effects rating scale, but diazepam had no significant effect on either. The combination of methadone at 150% of the maintenance dose with 40 mg diazepam induced increases in these measures greater than those induced by either drug dose alone. Drug combinations, however, were more frequently identified as being benzodiazepine/barbiturate-like than as methadone-like. Thus although the subjective effects of the drug combination are distinguishable from those of methadone alone, diazepam with methadone in methadone maintenance appears to increase some physiologic and subjective opioid effects that may be related to the relatively great use/abuse of diazepam in this population.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics and dynamics of lorazepam during administration as a bolus plus an infusion, using electroencephalography as a pharmacodynamic end point. METHODS: Nine volunteers received a 2-mg bolus loading dose of lorazepam, coincident with the start of a 2 microg/kg/hr zero-order infusion. The infusion was stopped after 4 hrs. Plasma lorazepam concentrations and electroencephalographic activity in the 13- to 30-Hz range were monitored for 24 hrs. RESULTS: The bolus-plus-infusion scheme rapidly produced plasma lorazepam concentrations that were close to those predicted to be achieved at true steady state. Mean kinetic values for lorazepam were as follows: volume of distribution, 126 L; elimination half-life, 13.8 hrs; and clearance, 109 mL/min. Electroencephalographic effects were maximal 0.5 hr after the loading dose, were maintained essentially constant during infusion, and then declined in parallel with plasma concentrations after the infusion was terminated. There was no evidence of tolerance. Plots of pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect vs. plasma lorazepam concentration demonstrated counterclockwise hysteresis, consistent with an effect-site equilibration delay. This was incorporated into a kinetic-dynamic model in which hypothetical effect-site concentration was related to pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect via the sigmoid Emax model. The analysis yielded the following mean estimates: maximum electroencephalographic effect, 12.7% over baseline; 50% effective concentration, 13.1 ng/mL; and effect-site equilibration half-life, 8.8 mins. CONCLUSION: Despite the delay in effect onset, continuous infusion of lorazepam, preceded by a bolus loading dose, produces a relatively constant sedative effect on the central nervous system, which can be utilized in the context of critical care medicine.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the daily dose of the synthetic opioid methadone and the corrected QT (QTc) interval in a series of methadone-treated patients who developed torsade de pointes. DESIGN: Retrospective case series analysis. SETTING: Outpatient pain management center and methadone maintenance treatment programs. PATIENTS: Seventeen patients who developed torsade de pointes while receiving very high daily doses of methadone. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The QTc intervals were calculated for each patient. The relationship between daily methadone dose and QTc interval was assessed and adjusted for clinical characteristics that may have independently prolonged cardiac repolarization. The mean QTc interval was 615 +/- 77 msec. Multiple linear regression indicated that only the daily methadone dose was predictive of the QTc interval (r = +0.51, p = 0.03). All other variables examined, such as age, sex, presence of hypokalemia or structural heart disease, and presence of QT-prolonging drugs, were not predictive of the QTc interval (minimum p = 0.28). CONCLUSION: In this series, the daily methadone dose correlated positively with the QTc interval. This finding supports the possibility that methadone contributed to the development of arrhythmia.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Understanding drug interactions between antiretrovirals and opiate therapies may decrease toxicities and enhance adherence, with improved HIV outcomes in injection drug users. We report results of a clinical pharmacology study designed to examine the interaction of the protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, with methadone and LAAM (N = 48). Nelfinavir decreased methadone exposure, but no withdrawal was observed over the five day study period. LAAM and dinorLAAM concentrations were decreased, while norLAAM concentrations were increased, with minimal overall change in LAAM/metabolite exposure. Methadone and LAAM did not affect nelfinavir concentrations, but methadone decreased M8 metabolite exposure. While no toxicities were observed, clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug interactions when patients require treatment with nelfinavir and these opiate medications.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The disposition of the long-acting opioid methadone, used to prevent opiate withdrawal and treat short- and long-lasting pain, is highly variable. Methadone undergoes N -demethylation to the primary metabolite 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolinium (EDDP), catalyzed in vitro by intestinal, hepatic, and expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. However, the role of CYP3A4 in human methadone disposition in vivo is unclear. This investigation tested the hypothesis that CYP3A induction (or inhibition) would increase (or decrease) methadone metabolism and clearance in humans. METHODS: Healthy volunteers were studied in a randomized, balanced, 4-way crossover study. They received intravenous (IV) midazolam (to assess CYP3A4 activity) and then simultaneous oral deuterium-labeled and IV unlabeled methadone after pretreatment with rifampin (INN, rifampicin) (hepatic/intestinal CYP3A induction), troleandomycin (hepatic/intestinal CYP3A inhibition), grapefruit juice (selective intestinal CYP3A inhibition), or nothing. Methadone effects were measured by dark-adapted pupil diameter. CYP isoforms catalyzing methadone metabolism by human liver microsomes and expressed CYPs in vitro were also evaluated. RESULTS: Methadone had high oral bioavailability (70%) and low intestinal (22%) and hepatic (9%) extraction, and there was a significant correlation ( r = 0.94, P <.001) between oral bioavailability and intestinal (but not hepatic) availability. Rifampin decreased bioavailability and oral and IV methadone plasma concentrations and increased IV clearance (4.42 +/- 1.00 mL. kg -1. min -1 versus 1.61 +/- 0.67 mL. kg -1. min -1, P <.05) and oral clearance (8.50 +/- 3.68 mL. kg -1. min -1 versus 2.05 +/- 0.92 mL. kg -1. min -1, P <.05), EDDP/methadone area under the curve (AUC) ratios, EDDP formation clearances, and hepatic extraction (0.27 +/- 0.06 versus 0.09 +/- 0.04, P <.05). Troleandomycin and grapefruit juice decreased the EDDP/methadone AUC ratio after oral methadone (0.17 +/- 0.10 and 0.14 +/- 0.06 versus 0.27 +/- 0.20, P <.05) but not IV methadone and had no effect on methadone plasma concentrations, IV clearance (1.29 +/- 0.41 mL. kg -1. min -1 and 1.48 +/- 0.55 mL. kg -1. min -1 ) or oral clearance (2.05 +/- 1.52 mL. kg -1. min -1 and 1.89 +/- 1.07 mL. kg -1. min -1 ), or other kinetic parameters. There was no correlation between methadone clearance and hepatic CYP3A4 activity. Pupil diameter changes reflected plasma methadone concentrations. In vitro experiments showed a predominant role for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in liver microsomal methadone N -demethylation. CONCLUSION: First-pass intestinal metabolism is a determinant of methadone bioavailability. Intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity only slightly affects human methadone N -demethylation but has no significant effect on methadone concentrations, clearance, or clinical effects. Greater rifampin effects, compared with troleandomycin and grapefruit juice, on methadone disposition suggest a major role for intestinal transporters and for other CYPs, such as CYP2B6. Interindividual variability and drug interactions affecting intestinal transporter and hepatic CYP3A and CYP2B6 activity may alter methadone disposition.
Abstract: This article reviews the unique pharmacological properties of methadone and outlines its appropriate clinical application, with focus upon its use in the treatment of chronic pain. Although methadone is most widely known for its use in the treatment of opioid dependence, methadone also provides effective analgesia. Patients who experience inadequate pain relief or intolerable side effects with other opioids or who suffer from neuropathic pain may benefit from a transition to methadone as their analgesic agent. Adverse effects, particularly respiratory depression and death, make a fundamental knowledge of methadone's pharmacological properties essential to the provider considering methadone as analgesic therapy for a patient with chronic pain.
Abstract: Methadone is a synthetic opioid with potent analgesic effects. Although it is associated commonly with the treatment of opioid addiction, it may be prescribed by licensed family physicians for analgesia. Methadone's unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics make it a valuable option in the management of cancer pain and other chronic pain, including neuropathic pain states. It may be an appropriate replacement for opioids when side effects have limited further dosage escalation. Metabolism of and response to methadone varies with each patient. Transition to methadone and dosage titration should be completed slowly and with frequent monitoring. Conversion should be based on the current daily oral morphine equivalent dosage. After starting methadone therapy or increasing the dosage, systemic toxicity may not become apparent for several days. Some medications alter the absorption or metabolism of methadone, and their concurrent use may require dosing adjustments. Methadone is less expensive than other sustained-release opioid formulations.
Abstract: The present study investigates the kinetic disposition with focus on the racemization, glucuronidation capacity and the transplacental transfer of lorazepam in term parturients during labor. The study was conducted on 10 healthy parturients aged 18-37 years with a gestational age of 36-40.1 weeks, treated with a single oral dose of 2 mg racemic lorazepam 2-9 h before delivery. Maternal venous blood and urine samples were obtained over a 0-48 h interval and the umbilical cord sample was obtained immediately after clamping. Lorazepam enantiomers were determined in plasma and urine samples by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-R column. In vitro racemization of lorazepam required the calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters as isomeric mixtures. The data were fitted to two-compartment model and the pharmacokinetic parameters are reported as means (95% CI): t(1/2a) 3.2h (2.6-3.7 h), K(a) 0.23 h(-1) (0.19-0.28 h(-1)), t(1/2) 10.4h (9.4-11.3h), beta 0.068 h(-1) (0.061-0.075h(-1)), AUC(0-infinity) 175.3(ngh)/ml (145.7-204.8(ngh)/ml), Cl/F 2.6 ml/(minkg) (2.3-2.9 ml/(minkg)), Vd/F178.8l (146.5-211.1l), Fel 0.3% (0.1-0.5%), and Cl(R) 0.010 ml/(minkg) (0.005-0.015 ml/(minkg)). Placental transfer of lorazepam evaluated as the ratio of vein umbilical/maternal vein plasma concentrations, obtained as an isomeric mixture, was 0.73 (0.52-0.94). Pregnancy changes the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam, with an increase in the apparent distribution volume, an increase in apparent oral clearance, and a reduction of elimination half-life. The increase in oral clearance may indicate an increase in glucuronidation capacity, with a possible reduction in the plasma concentrations of drugs depending on glucuronidation capacity as the major metabolic pathway.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Metabolism and clearance of racemic methadone are stereoselective and highly variable, yet the mechanism remains largely unknown. Initial in vitro studies attributed methadone metabolism to cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4). CYP3A4 was also assumed responsible for methadone clearance in vivo. Nevertheless, recent clinical data do not support a primary role for CYP3A4 and suggest that CYP2B6 may mediate methadone clearance. Expressed CYP2B6 and also CYP2C19 N-demethylate methadone in vitro. This investigation tested the hypothesis that CYPs 2B6, 3A4, and/or 2C19 are responsible for stereoselective methadone metabolism in human liver microsomes and in vivo. METHODS: N-demethylation of racemic methadone and individual enantiomers by expressed CYPs 2B6, 2C19, and 3A4 was evaluated. Stereoselective microsomal methadone metabolism was quantified, compared with CYP 2B6 and 3A4 content, and probed using CYP isoform-selective inhibitors. A crossover clinical investigation (control, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 induction by rifampin, CYP3A inhibition by troleandomycin and grapefruit juice) evaluated stereoselective methadone disposition. RESULTS: At clinical concentrations, methadone enantiomer N-demethylation by recombinant CYPs 2B6, 3A4, and 2C19 was S > R, S = R, and S << R. Greater stereoselective metabolism (S > R) occurred in livers expressing high levels of CYP2B6 compared with CYP3A4. Clopidogrel, troleandomycin, and (+)-N-3-benzyl-nirvanol, selective inhibitors of CYPs 2B6, 3A4, and 2C19, respectively, inhibited microsomal methadone metabolism by 50-60%, 20-30%, and less than 10%. Only inhibition by clopidogrel was stereoselective. Clinically, rifampin diminished both R- and S-methadone plasma concentrations, but troleandomycin and grapefruit juice altered neither R- nor S-methadone concentrations. Plasma R/S-methadone ratios were increased by rifampin but unchanged by CYP3A inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a significant role for CYP2B6, but not CYP3A, in stereoselective human methadone metabolism and disposition.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This topical review addresses methadone's pharmacology, its application in malignant and non-malignant pain conditions, practical issues related to methadone for the treatment of pain and its influence on QTc time. METHODS: Relevant papers were identified in PubMed and EMBASE. RESULTS: Methadone is advocated by experts as a second line opioid when first line opioids fail to provide a satisfactory balance between pain control and side effects (opioid switching). Although randomized-controlled studies are lacking, current evidence suggests that switching to methadone in this situation reduces pain intensity. However, interindividual variability in its pharmacokinetics make its application challenging and metabolism by CYP 3A4 and 2B6 implies a substantial risk of drug-drug interactions. Several ways of switching to methadone have been presented, with a gradual switch during 3 days or 'stop and go' as the dominating strategies. Episodes of torsade de pointes arrhythmia during methadone treatment have been reported in patients with other risk factors for arrhythmia, while small prospective studies have reported a small, lasting and stable increase in QTc time. The extensive use of methadone for opioid replacement in addicts has added additional patient barriers to its use for pain control. CONCLUSION: In spite of challenges related to the variable pharmacokinetics and concerns regarding increase in QTc time, current evidence indicates that opioid switching to methadone improves pain control in a substantial proportion of patients who are candidates for opioid switching. Measures must be instituted to secure that patients receiving methadone for pain are not considered opioid addicts.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone clearance is highly variable, and drug interactions are problematic. Both have been attributed to CYP3A, but actual mechanisms are unknown. Drug interactions can provide such mechanistic information. Ritonavir/indinavir, one of the earliest protease inhibitor combinations, may inhibit CYP3A. We assessed ritonavir/indinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity, and intestinal transporters (P-glycoprotein) activity. CYP3A and transporters were assessed with alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative volunteers underwent a sequential three-part crossover. On three consecutive days, they received oral alfentanil/fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral (deuterium-labeled) methadone, repeated after acute (3 days) and steady-state (2 weeks) ritonavir/indinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were assessed by miosis. RESULTS: Alfentanil apparent oral clearance was inhibited more than 97% by both acute and steady-state ritonavir/indinavir, and systemic clearance was inhibited more than 90% due to diminished hepatic and intestinal extraction. Ritonavir/indinavir increased fexofenadine area under the plasma concentration-time curve four- to five-fold, suggesting significant inhibition of gastrointestinal P-glycoprotein. Ritonavir/indinavir slightly increased methadone N-demethylation, but it had no significant effects on methadone plasma concentrations or on systemic or apparent oral clearance, renal clearance, hepatic extraction or clearance, or bioavailability. Ritonavir/indinavir had no significant effects on methadone plasma concentration-effect relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of both hepatic and intestinal CYP3A activity is responsible for ritonavir/indinavir drug interactions. Methadone disposition was unchanged, despite profound inhibition of CYP3A activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone metabolism and clearance. Methadone bioavailability was unchanged, despite inhibition of gastrointestinal P-glycoprotein activity, suggesting that this transporter does not limit methadone intestinal absorption.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone plasma concentrations are decreased by nelfinavir. Methadone clearance and the drug interactions have been attributed to CYP3A4, but actual mechanisms of methadone clearance and the nelfinavir interaction are unknown. We assessed nelfinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity, and intestinal P-glycoprotein transport activity. CYP3A4/5 and transporters were assessed using alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy HIV-negative volunteers underwent a sequential crossover. On three consecutive days they received oral alfentanil plus fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral methadone. This was repeated after nelfinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were measured by pupil diameter change (miosis). RESULTS: Nelfinavir decreased intravenous and oral methadone plasma concentrations 40-50%. Systemic clearance, hepatic clearance, and hepatic extraction all increased 1.6- and 2-fold, respectively, for R- and S-methadone; apparent oral clearance increased 1.7- and 1.9-fold. Nelfinavir stereoselectively increased (S>R) methadone metabolism and metabolite formation clearance, and methadone renal clearance. Methadone bioavailability and P-glycoprotein activity were minimally affected. Nelfinavir decreased alfentanil systemic and apparent oral clearances 50 and 76%, respectively. Nelfinavir appeared to shift the methadone plasma concentration-effect (miosis) curve leftward and upward. CONCLUSIONS: Nelfinavir induced methadone clearance by increasing renal clearance, and more so by stereoselectively increasing hepatic metabolism, extraction and clearance. Induction occurred despite 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity and more than 75% inhibition of first-pass CYP3A4/5 activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone disposition. Nelfinavir may alter methadone pharmacodynamics, increasing clinical effects.
Abstract: Cases of catatonia in patients with renal failure have been rarely reported. In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. Case 1 involved a patient with end-stage renal disease and severe pneumonia related respiratory failure. He responded well to intramuscular lorazepam (total dose, 4 mg) whereby the catatonia was elieved. Case 2 involved a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and rhabdomyolysis-related acute renal failure. He showed great improvement with intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) whereby the catatonia was subsequently relieved. This report demonstrates that intramuscular lorazepam is safe, effective and rapid in relieving catatonia associated with renal function impairment. Neither of the patients had a recurrence of catatonia during a period of 6- months follow-up. In conclusion, intramuscular lorazepam may play an important role in the treatment of catatonia associated with renal insufficiency.
Abstract: Numerous established and potential drug interactions with methadone are clinically important in people treated with methadone either for addiction or for chronic pain. Methadone users often have comorbidities and are prescribed drugs that may interact with methadone. Methadone is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and to a lesser extent by CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2D8, 2C9/2C8, 2C19, and 2B6. Eighty-six percent of methadone is protein bound, predominately to α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Polymorphisms in or interactions with CYPs that metabolize methadone, changes in protein binding, and other pathophysiological conditions affect the pharmacokinetic properties of methadone. It is critical for health care providers who treat patients on methadone to have adequate information on the interactions of methadone with other drugs of abuse and other medications. We set out to describe drug-drug interactions as well as physiological and pathophysiological factors that may impact the pharmacokinetics of methadone. Using MEDLINE, we conducted a systematic search for papers and related abstracts published between 1966 and June 2010. Keywords that included methadone, drug-drug interactions, CYP P450 and AGP identified a total of 7709 papers. Other databases, including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus, were also searched; an additional 929 papers were found. Final selection of 286 publications was based on the relevance of each paper to the topic. Over 50 such interactions were found. Interactions of methadone with other drugs can lead to increased or decreased methadone drug levels in patients and result in potential overdose or withdrawal, respectively. The former can contribute to methadone's fatality. Prescribers of methadone and pharmacists should enquire about any new medications (including natural products and over-the-counter medications) periodically, and especially when an otherwise stable patient suddenly experiences drug craving, withdrawal or intoxication.
Abstract: This paper reviews studies examining the pharmacological interactions and epidemiology of the combined use of opioids and benzodiazepines (BZDs). A search of English language publications from 1970 to 2012 was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO(®). Our search found approximately 200 articles appropriate for inclusion in this paper. While numerous reports indicate that the co-abuse of opioids and BZDs is ubiquitous around the world, the reasons for the co-abuse of these medications are not entirely clear. Though the possibility remains that opioid abusers are using BZDs therapeutically to self-medicate anxiety, mania or insomnia, the data reviewed in this paper suggest that BZD use is primarily recreational. For example, co-users report seeking BZD prescriptions for the purpose of enhancing opioid intoxication or "high," and use doses that exceed the therapeutic range. Since there are few clinical studies investigating the pharmacological interaction and abuse liability of their combined use, this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated in clinical settings. As such, our analysis encourages further systematic investigation of BZD abuse among opioid abusers. The co-abuse of BZDs and opioids is substantial and has negative consequences for general health, overdose lethality, and treatment outcome. Physicians should address this important and underappreciated problem with more cautious prescribing practices, and increased vigilance for abusive patterns of use.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Polysubstance use is prevalent in individuals using buprenorphine or methadone nonmedically, with benzodiazepines being a common co-ingestant. The objective of this study was to compare the severity of buprenorphine and methadone toxicity with concomitant use of benzodiazepines. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of buprenorphine and methadone cases from November 1, 2002 to December 31, 2010 reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS) was conducted. INCLUSION CRITERIA: age ≥ 18 years, nonmedical use of methadone with benzodiazepines (methadone-BZD) or buprenorphine with benzodiazepines (BUP-BZD), and case followed to a documented outcome. Cases with co-ingestants other than benzodiazepines were excluded. Clinical effects, treatments, disposition and final medical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 692 methadone-BZD cases and 72 BUP-BZD cases. Clinical effects in methadone-BZD and BUP-BZD groups were lethargy (71.1%, 59.7%), respiratory depression (29.0%, 15.3%), coma (22.4%, 5.6%), respiratory arrest (4.5%, 0), hypotension (11.8%, 2.8%) and cardiac arrest (1.9%, 0), respectively. Patients in the methadone-BZD group were four-times more likely to receive naloxone (60.4% vs 15.3%) or be intubated (16.3% vs 4.2%) than in the BUP-BZD group. Hospitalization rates were highest for methadone-BZD patients with 67.3% receiving medical admissions compared to 43.3% of BUP-BZD patients. Outcomes were more serious for methadone-BZD cases (p<0.0001); while there were no BUP-BZD deaths, exposure to methadone-BZD yielded 16 deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Nonmedical use of benzodiazepines with methadone is associated with higher hospitalization rates, greater ICU utilization rates and considerably worse medical outcomes when compared to nonmedical use of benzodiazepines with buprenorphine.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.