Allongement du temps QT
Événements indésirables médicamenteux
Variantes ✨Pour une évaluation intensive des variantes par ordinateur, veuillez choisir l'abonnement standard payant.
Explications concernant les substances pour les patients
Nous n'avons pas de mise en garde supplémentaire concernant l'association de lorazépam et de tranylcypromine. Veuillez également consulter les informations pertinentes des spécialistes.
Les changements d'exposition rapportés correspondent aux changements de la courbe concentration-temps plasmatique [ AUC ]. Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la lorazépam, lorsqu'il est associé à la tranylcypromine (100%). Nous ne prévoyons aucun changement dans l'exposition à la tranylcypromine, lorsqu'il est associé à la lorazépam (100%).
Les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de la population moyenne sont utilisés comme point de départ pour calculer les changements individuels d'exposition dus aux interactions.
La lorazépam a une biodisponibilité orale élevée [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi la concentration plasmatique maximale [Cmax] a tendance à peu changer au cours d'une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est de 14.3 heures et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont atteints après environ 57.2 heures. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] est modérément forte à 91.9% et le volume de distribution [ Vd ] est très grand à 111 litres. Le métabolisme ne se fait pas via les cytochromes communs et le transport actif s'effectue notamment via UGT2B7.
La tranylcypromine a une biodisponibilité orale moyenne [ F ] de 100 %, c'est pourquoi les concentrations plasmatiques maximales [Cmax] ont tendance à changer avec une interaction. La demi-vie terminale [ t12 ] est assez courte (2.5 heures) et des taux plasmatiques constants [ Css ] sont rapidement atteints. La liaison aux protéines [ Pb ] n'est pas connue. Le métabolisme via les cytochromes est actuellement encore en cours d'études.
|Effets sérotoninergiques a||3||Ø||+++|
Recommandations: Le risque d'un syndrome sérotoninergique est augmenté, mais sans réponse exacte aux questions sur les symptômes cognitifs, végétatifs et neuromusculaires, ainsi nous ne pouvons faire aucune recommandation d'action.
Note: La tranylcypromine augmente considérablement l'activité sérotoninergique. À notre connaissance, la lorazépam n'augmente pas l'activité sérotoninergique.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Recommandation: Par mesure de précaution, une attention particulière doit être portée aux symptômes anticholinergiques, en particulier après augmentation de la dose et à de celles situées dans la marge thérapeutique supérieure.
Notation: La tranylcypromine n'a qu'un effet modéré sur le système anticholinergique. Le risque de syndrome anticholinergique avec ce médicament est plutôt faible si la dosage est respecté. L'effet anticholinergique de la lorazépam n'est pas pertinent.
Allongement du temps QT
Nous ne connaissons aucun potentiel d'allongement de l'intervalle QT pour la lorazépam et la tranylcypromine.
Effets indésirables généraux
|Effets secondaires||∑ fréquence||lor||tra|
|Mal de crâne||30.1 %||n.a.||30.1|
|Vision floue||10.1 %||n.a.||10.1|
Crise d'épilepsie: lorazépam
Effet de hangover: lorazépam
Effet de rebond: lorazépam
La dépression: lorazépam, tranylcypromine
Œdème périphérique: tranylcypromine
Crise d'hypertension: tranylcypromine
Perte d'appétit: tranylcypromine
La nausée: tranylcypromine
Dépression respiratoire: lorazépam
Sur la base de vos réponses et des informations scientifiques, nous évaluons le risque individuel d'effets secondaires indésirables. Ces recommandations sont destinées à conseiller les professionnels et ne se substituent pas à la consultation d'un médecin. Dans la version d'essai (alpha), le risque de toutes les substances n'a pas encore été évalué de manière concluante.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: Eleven subjects received acetaminophen (650 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence, with and without concurrent administration of probenecid (500 mg) every 6 hr. Nine subjects similarly received lorazepam (2 mg. i.v.) with and without concurrent probenecid. Acetaminophen half-life was prolonged during probenecid treatment (mean +/- S.E., 4.30 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.16 hr; P less than .001) due to markedly decreased clearance (178 +/- 13 vs. 329 +/- 24 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (65 +/- 4 vs. 69 +/- 3 l; NS). Urinary excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide during 24 hr was decreased (84 +/- 9 vs. 260 +/- 21 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide; P less than .001) and acetaminophen sulfate excretion was increased (323 +/- 25 vs. 217 +/- 17 mg of acetaminophen as sulfate; P less than .005) during concurrent probenecid treatment. However, the sum of the two conjugated metabolites was not significantly different (407 +/- 28 vs. 476 +/- 20 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide plus sulfate excreted per 24 hr; NS). Lorazepam half-life was also prolonged during probenecid treatment (33.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 14.3 +/- 1.08 hr; P less than .001) due to decreased clearance (44.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 80.3 +/- 13.2 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (111 +/- 5 vs. 111 +/- 7 l; NS). Formation of the ether glucuronides of acetaminophen and lorazepam is impaired markedly by therapeutic doses of probenecid. Sulfate conjugation is not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Excessive stimulation of serotonin 5HT1A receptors causes a syndrome of serotonin excess that consists of shivering, muscle rigidity, salivation, confusion, agitation and hyperthermia. The most common cause of this syndrome is an interaction between a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and a specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Venlafaxine is a new antidepressant agent that inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. We report a venlafaxine-MAOI interaction that resulted in the serotonin syndrome in a 23-y-old male who was taking tranylcypromine for depression. He had been well until the morning of presentation when he took 1/2 tab of venlafaxine. Within 2 h he became confused with jerking movements of his extremities, tremors and rigidity. He was brought directly to a hospital where he was found to be agitated and confused with shivering, myoclonic jerks, rigidity, salivation and diaphoresis. His pupils were 7 mm and sluggishly reactive to light. Vital signs were: blood pressure 120/67 mm Hg, heart rate 127/min, respiratory rate 28/min, and temperature 97 F. After 180 mg of diazepam i.v. he remained tremulous with muscle rigidity and clenched jaws. He was intubated for airway protection and because of hypoventilation, and was paralyzed to control muscle rigidity. His subsequent course was remarkable for non-immune thrombocytopenia which resolved. The patient's maximal temperature was 101.2 F and his CPK remained < 500 units/L with no other evidence of rhabdomyolysis. His mental status normalized and he was transferred to a psychiatry ward. This patient survived without sequelae due to the aggressive sedation and neuromuscular paralysis.
Abstract: A number of novel serotonergic antidepressants have been introduced to clinical practice over the last decade. These medications are felt to be safe alternatives to the traditional tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, particularly in the overdose setting. Serious adverse reactions and drug interactions have been appreciated and fatalities have been reported. We describe the development of the serotonin syndrome in a 60 year old female on chronic tranylcypromine treatment following the inadvertent ingestion of a single dose of venlafaxine. Manifestations included and altered mental status that progressed to hyperthermia and coma. She recovered quickly and without complications. Health care providers and poison specialists need to be aware that this potentially serious syndrome can be precipitated by a single dose of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor in patients being treated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics and dynamics of lorazepam during administration as a bolus plus an infusion, using electroencephalography as a pharmacodynamic end point. METHODS: Nine volunteers received a 2-mg bolus loading dose of lorazepam, coincident with the start of a 2 microg/kg/hr zero-order infusion. The infusion was stopped after 4 hrs. Plasma lorazepam concentrations and electroencephalographic activity in the 13- to 30-Hz range were monitored for 24 hrs. RESULTS: The bolus-plus-infusion scheme rapidly produced plasma lorazepam concentrations that were close to those predicted to be achieved at true steady state. Mean kinetic values for lorazepam were as follows: volume of distribution, 126 L; elimination half-life, 13.8 hrs; and clearance, 109 mL/min. Electroencephalographic effects were maximal 0.5 hr after the loading dose, were maintained essentially constant during infusion, and then declined in parallel with plasma concentrations after the infusion was terminated. There was no evidence of tolerance. Plots of pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect vs. plasma lorazepam concentration demonstrated counterclockwise hysteresis, consistent with an effect-site equilibration delay. This was incorporated into a kinetic-dynamic model in which hypothetical effect-site concentration was related to pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect via the sigmoid Emax model. The analysis yielded the following mean estimates: maximum electroencephalographic effect, 12.7% over baseline; 50% effective concentration, 13.1 ng/mL; and effect-site equilibration half-life, 8.8 mins. CONCLUSION: Despite the delay in effect onset, continuous infusion of lorazepam, preceded by a bolus loading dose, produces a relatively constant sedative effect on the central nervous system, which can be utilized in the context of critical care medicine.
Abstract: The present study investigates the kinetic disposition with focus on the racemization, glucuronidation capacity and the transplacental transfer of lorazepam in term parturients during labor. The study was conducted on 10 healthy parturients aged 18-37 years with a gestational age of 36-40.1 weeks, treated with a single oral dose of 2 mg racemic lorazepam 2-9 h before delivery. Maternal venous blood and urine samples were obtained over a 0-48 h interval and the umbilical cord sample was obtained immediately after clamping. Lorazepam enantiomers were determined in plasma and urine samples by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-R column. In vitro racemization of lorazepam required the calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters as isomeric mixtures. The data were fitted to two-compartment model and the pharmacokinetic parameters are reported as means (95% CI): t(1/2a) 3.2h (2.6-3.7 h), K(a) 0.23 h(-1) (0.19-0.28 h(-1)), t(1/2) 10.4h (9.4-11.3h), beta 0.068 h(-1) (0.061-0.075h(-1)), AUC(0-infinity) 175.3(ngh)/ml (145.7-204.8(ngh)/ml), Cl/F 2.6 ml/(minkg) (2.3-2.9 ml/(minkg)), Vd/F178.8l (146.5-211.1l), Fel 0.3% (0.1-0.5%), and Cl(R) 0.010 ml/(minkg) (0.005-0.015 ml/(minkg)). Placental transfer of lorazepam evaluated as the ratio of vein umbilical/maternal vein plasma concentrations, obtained as an isomeric mixture, was 0.73 (0.52-0.94). Pregnancy changes the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam, with an increase in the apparent distribution volume, an increase in apparent oral clearance, and a reduction of elimination half-life. The increase in oral clearance may indicate an increase in glucuronidation capacity, with a possible reduction in the plasma concentrations of drugs depending on glucuronidation capacity as the major metabolic pathway.
Abstract: Cases of catatonia in patients with renal failure have been rarely reported. In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. Case 1 involved a patient with end-stage renal disease and severe pneumonia related respiratory failure. He responded well to intramuscular lorazepam (total dose, 4 mg) whereby the catatonia was elieved. Case 2 involved a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and rhabdomyolysis-related acute renal failure. He showed great improvement with intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) whereby the catatonia was subsequently relieved. This report demonstrates that intramuscular lorazepam is safe, effective and rapid in relieving catatonia associated with renal function impairment. Neither of the patients had a recurrence of catatonia during a period of 6- months follow-up. In conclusion, intramuscular lorazepam may play an important role in the treatment of catatonia associated with renal insufficiency.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract: It has been over 50 years since a review has focused exclusively on the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP). A new review has therefore been conducted for TCP in two parts which are written to be read preferably in close conjunction: part I - pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, toxicology; and part II - clinical studies with meta-analysis of controlled studies in depression, practice of TCP treatment, place in therapy. The irreversible and nonselective MAO-A/B inhibitor TCP has been confirmed as an efficacious and safe antidepressant drug. For the first time, a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials in depression demonstrated that TCP is superior to placebo (pooled logOR=0.509, 95%CI=0.026 to 0.993, 4 studies) and equal to other antidepressants (pooled logOR=0.208, 95%CI=-0.128 to 0.544, 10 studies). In treatment resistant depression (TRD) after tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), TCP was superior to placebo (logOR=2.826, 95%CI=1.494 to 4.158, one study) and non-established antidepressants (pooled logOR=1.976, 95%CI=0.907 to 3.045, 4 studies), and was equal to other MAO inhibitors and an antidepressant combination (pooled logOR=-0.366, 95%CI=-0.869 to 0.137, 4 studies). Controlled studies revealed that TCP might provide a special advantage in the treatment of atypical depression, which was supported by a recent PET study of MAO-A activity in brain. However, TCP treatment remains beset with the need for a mandatory tyramine-restricted diet and is therefore limited to use as a third-line antidepressant according to recent treatment algorithms and guidelines for depression treatment. On the other hand, the effort needed to maintain a tyramine-restricted diet may have been overestimated in the perception of both doctors and patients, which may have led to relative underuse of TCP. Interaction with serotonergic drugs bears the risk of severe serotonin toxicity (SST) and combination with indirect sympathomimetic drugs may result in hypertensive crisis which both adds to the risks of TCP. At the same time, TCP has low to no risks of central anticholinergic, sedative, cardiac conduction, body weight, hemostatic effects, or pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Neuroprotection by MAO inhibitors due to reduced oxidative stress is becoming increasingly studied. Taken together, TCP is being increasingly recognized as an important option in systematic treatment approaches for patients suffering from severe courses of depression, such as TRD and atypical depression, by offering a MAO-related pathophysiological rationale.