Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
|Mal di testa|
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di cilostazol e abarelix. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla cilostazol, quando è co-somministrata con la abarelix (100%). Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla abarelix, quando è co-somministrata con la cilostazol (100%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La biodisponibilità della cilostazol non è nota. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 11 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 44 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 96.5%. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2C19 e CYP3A4..
La biodisponibilità della abarelix non è nota. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 316.8 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 1267.2 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97.5%. I processi metabolici che avvengono tramite il sistema enzimatico dei citocromi sono ancora in fase di studio..
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la cilostazol né la abarelix potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la cilostazol né la abarelix causano un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di cilostazol e abarelix potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||cil||aba|
|Mal di testa||30.5 %||30.5||n.a.|
|Edema periferico||8.0 %||8.0||n.a.|
|Dolore addominale||4.5 %||4.5||n.a.|
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol following single oral administration of 50 to 200 mg in healthy young males, and after repeated oral administration of 100 mg every 12 hours to patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). DESIGN: The healthy male single dose study was a single-centre, randomised sequence, open-label, incomplete block, 3-period, 4-treatment, crossover design. The patient study was a single-centre, multiple dose, open-label study. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: 20 healthy nonsmoking male volunteers were enrolled and successfully completed the single dose study. 26 patients (21 males, 5 females) with intermittent claudication resulting from PAD were enrolled and completed the single/multiple dose study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the time of last measurable plasma concentration, and maximum plasma concentration. RESULTS: Peak plasma concentrations of cilostazol occurred about 3 hours after drug administration and then declined biexponentially with concentrations detectable (> 20 micrograms/L) in the plasma for at least 36 hours postdose. The apparent elimination half-life of cilostazol (approximately 11 hours) was similar after a single dose or after multiple doses, with steady state being reached within 4 days. Cilostazol accumulated 1.7-fold following multiple dose administration. The apparent volume of distribution (Vz/F; 2.76 L/kg) suggested extensive distribution of cilostazol in the tissues. The oral clearance of cilostazol (CL/F; 0.18 L/h/kg) was much lower than liver blood flow, indicating a low extraction ratio drug, and hence low probability of a significant first-pass effect. None of the administered doses were recovered in the urine as unchanged cilostazol, suggesting that metabolism, rather than urinary excretion, is the major elimination route. Following single oral doses of 50 to 200 mg, the plasma concentrations of cilostazol and its metabolites increased less than proportionally to the dose. The pharmacokinetics of cilostazol in normal healthy volunteers are predictive of those in patients with PAD. Single oral doses of 50 to 200 mg cilostazol as well as 100 mg cilostazol every 12 hours were well tolerated. CONCLUSION: The plasma concentration of cilostazol and its metabolites increased less than proportionally with increasing doses. The relatively low plasma clearance and high volume of distribution of cilostazol suggest a low first-pass effect and extensive distribution. The pharmacokinetics of cilostazol in normal volunteers is predictive of that in patients with PAD. Cilostazol was well tolerated in healthy volunteers and patients with intermittent claudication resulting from PAD.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: In vitro results are inconclusive as to whether cilostazol is metabolised by cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6). The goals of this study were (1) to assure the dose of quinidine and timing relative to cilostazol used in this study were adequate to cause inhibition of CYP2D6, (2) to evaluate carryover effects of quinidine administration, and (3) to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6 deficiency and administration of quinidine (a CYP2D6 inhibitor) on the pharmacokinetics of a single 100 mg oral dose of cilostazol. DESIGN: This study was conducted as a single-centre, open-label, randomised sequence, 2-period, crossover pharmacokinetic trial. Water alone (treatment without quinidine) or two 200 mg oral doses of quinidine sulfate with water were administered 25 hours and 1 hour prior to a single 100 mg dose of cilostazol in period 1. Study participants were crossed over to opposite treatment in period 2. Metoprolol 25 mg, used as a positive control, was administered 1 hour after quinidine sulfate with water or using water alone to assess the magnitude of CYP2D6 inhibition by quinidine. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: 22 healthy nonsmoking Caucasian (14 male and 8 female) volunteers participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serial blood and urine samples were collected at predose and after cilostazol administration to characterise cilostazol and its metabolite pharmacokinetics. Additional plasma samples were taken to assess the pharmacokinetics of quinidine. Urine samples were collected to measure metoprolol and hydroxymetoprolol. RESULTS: Administration of metoprolol with quinidine caused a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the urinary 4-hydroxymetoprolol/metoprolol ratio compared with administration of metoprolol alone (42-fold decrease, 0.065 vs 2.707). Hence, quinidine effectively converted extensive metabolisers of CYP2D6 to poor metabolisers of CYP2D6. The 21-day washout period was adequate to have complete recovery from quinidine inhibition of CYP2D6. The analysis of variance demonstrated that the mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) for cilostazol, both adjusted and unadjusted for the free fraction, was higher in the control group than in the quinidine group (p = 0.023). However, the time to Cmax (p = 0.669), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC infinity; p = 0.133), and the apparent oral clearance (p = 0.135) were unchanged. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) comparing with quinidine (test) and without quinidine (reference) coadministration for Cmax and AUC infinity are 0.86 (0.77, 0.95) and 0.92 (0.84, 1.00), respectively. Similar patterns were observed for OPC-13015 and OPC-13213 with regard to Cmax, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration at time t, and AUC infinity (where determinable). The slight decrease in the systemic availability of cilostazol and its metabolites was thought to be a result of the increased gastrointestinal motility secondary to quinidine. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of quinidine sulfate 200 mg profoundly inhibited CYP2D6-mediated metabolism. The effects of quinidine inhibition of CYP2D6 metabolism were completely reversible during the 21-day washout period. Coadministration of quinidine with cilostazol had no substantial effect on cilostazol or its metabolites (OPC-13015 and OPC-13213). Hence, CYP2D6 does not have a significant contribution in the metabolic elimination of cilostazol.
Abstract: Seven forms of congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) caused by mutations in ion channel genes have been identified. Genotype-phenotype correlation in clinical and experimental studies involving arterially-perfused canine left ventricular wedges suggest that beta-blockers are protective in LQT1, less so in LQT2, but not protective in LQT3. A class IB sodium channel blocker, mexiletine, is most effective in abbreviating QT interval in LQT3, but effectively reduces transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) and prevents the development of Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in all 3 models, suggesting its potential as an adjunctive therapy in LQT1 and LQT2. High concentrations of intravenous nicorandil, a potassium channel opener, have been shown to be capable of decreasing QT and TDR, and preventing TdP in LQT1 and LQT2 but not in LQT3. The calcium channel blocker, verapamil, has also been suggested as adjunctive therapy for LQT1, LQT2 and possibly LQT3. Experimental data using right ventricular wedge preparations suggest that a prominent transient outward current (I(to))-mediated action potential (AP) notch and a loss of AP dome in epicardium, but not in endocardium, give rise to a transmural voltage gradient, resulting in ST segment elevation and the induction of ventricular fibrillation (VF), characteristics of the Brugada syndrome. Since the maintenance of the AP dome is determined by the balance of currents active at the end of phase 1 of the AP, any intervention that reduces the outward current or boosts inward current at the end of phase 1 may normalize the ST segment elevation and suppress VF. Such interventions are candidates for pharmacological therapy of the Brugada syndrome. The infusion of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic stimulant, strongly augments L-type calcium current (I(Ca-L)), and is the first choice for suppressing electrical storms associated with Brugada syndrome. Quinidine, by virtue of its actions to block I(to), has been proposed as adjunctive therapy, with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator as backup. Oral denopamine, atropine or cilostazol all increase ICa-L, and for this reason may be effective in reducing episodes of VF.
Abstract: This 24-year-old woman had incessant polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT) during week 24 of her pregnancy and received over 200 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharges. She failed to respond to quinidine, magnesium, isoproterenol, amiodarone, esmolol, and cilostazol during her PVT storm, although her dramatic response to verapamil was consistent with the diagnosis of short-coupled variant of torsades de pointes. The case illustrated the utility of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during refractory PVT, while attempting diagnostic and therapeutic pharmacologic maneuvers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the corrected QT (QTc) interval using a large database obtained from clinical settings. Additionally, the effects of factors including age on QTc intervals were estimated. METHODS: Using an open-access QT database (ECG-ViEW), QTc-lengthening effects of 14 selected atypical antipsychotics and SSRIs were compared to those of a positive control drug, cilostazol, and a negative control drug, diazepam. We also evaluated effects of age, sexgender, and select electrolyte levels on observed QTc intervals. RESULTS: The frequency of QTc prolongation with the pooled data of the 14 study drugs was lower than that with cilostazol (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.69), but no significant difference was found relative to when compared with that with diazepam (age-adjusted OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.55-1.47). Furthermore, administration of the 14 study drugs significantly increased the QTc interval by 2.89 ms after each 10-year age increment (p-value < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that atypical antipsychotic drugs and SSRIs are less likely to be associated with QTc prolongation in clinical settings. In addition, age showed a significant association with the QTc interval. Further studies with well-characterized cohorts are warranted.
Abstract: PURPOSE: CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP3A5 are primarily involved in the metabolism of cilostazol. We investigated the effects of CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol and its two active metabolites. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy Korean volunteers were administered a single 100-mg oral dose of cilostazol. The concentrations of cilostazol and its active metabolites (OPC-13015 and OPC-13213) in the plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Although the pharmacokinetic parameters for cilostazol were similar in different CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes, CYP2C19PM subjects showed significantly higher AUC,for OPC-13015 and lower for OPC-13213 compared to those in CYP2C19EM subjects (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Pharmacokinetic differences in OPC-13015 between CYP3A5 non-expressors and expressors were significant only within CYP2C19PM subjects. The amount of cilostazol potency-adjusted total active moiety was the greatest in subjects with CYP2C19PM-CYP3A5 non-expressor genotype. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms affect the plasma exposure of cilostazol total active moiety. CYP2C19 plays a crucial role in the biotransformation of cilostazol.