Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
|Morte cardiaca improvvisa|
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di domperidone e abarelix. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla domperidone, quando è co-somministrata con la abarelix (100%). Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla abarelix, quando è co-somministrata con la domperidone (100%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La domperidone ha una bassa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale, perciò nel corso di un interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima (Cmax) tende fortemente a cambiare. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 7.5 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 30 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 92% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 399 litri, Dato che il farmaco ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatico, lo spiazzamento del legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb] porta ad un aumento all'esposizione farmacologica. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente attraverso l'enzima CYP3A4 e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
La biodisponibilità della abarelix non è nota. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 316.8 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 1267.2 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97.5%. I processi metabolici che avvengono tramite il sistema enzimatico dei citocromi sono ancora in fase di studio..
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la domperidone né la abarelix potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: Somministrata unicamente, la Domperidone possiede lievi effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la abarelix non causa un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di domperidone e abarelix potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||dom||aba|
|Morte cardiaca improvvisa||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Aritmia ventricolare||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Reazione di ipersensibilità||0.0 %||n.a.||n.a.|
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Skin biopsies of normal hand skin showed focal parakeratosis and moderately dense dermal infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis and in the superficial dermis and a mononuclear dermal infiltrate consisting of peripheral T lymphocytes with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5-6/1. Biopsies of the immediate vesicular reactions induced by foods showed spongiotic vesicles within the epidermis and a moderate to dense mononuclear dermal perivascular infiltrate. The immunohistochemical features were similar to those described in apparently normal skin. The mechanism of this immediate vesicular reaction requires further research. The rapid appearance of the lesions (after 20-30 min) probably excludes an immunological cell-mediated pathogenesis. A non-immunological mechanism due to direct liberation of mediators by foods is more readily conceivable than an immediate immunological type of contact reaction.
Abstract: The excretion and metabolism of the novel gastrokinetic and antinauseant drug domperidone were studied after oral administration of the 14C-labelled compound to rats, dogs and man, and after intravenous administration to rats and dogs. Excretion of the radioactivity was almost complete within four days. In the three species, the radioactivity was excreted for the greater part with the faeces. Biliary excretion of the radioactivity amounted to 65% of the dose 24 hours after intravenous administration in rats. Unchanged domperidone as determined by radioimmunoassay, accounted in urine for 0.3% in dogs, 0.4% in man, and in faeces for 9% in dogs and 7% in man. The main metabolic pathways of domperidone in the three species were the aromatic hydroxylation at the benzimidazolone moiety, resulting in hydroxy-domperidone -the main faecal metabolite-, and the oxidative N-dealkylation at the piperidine nitrogen, resulting in 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzamidazole-1-propanoic acid the major radioactive urinary metabolite- and 5-chloro-4-piperidinyl-1,3-dihydro-benzimidazol-2-one. In urine the two first metabolites were present partly as conjugates. A mass balance for the major metabolites in urine, faeces, bile and plasma samples was made up after radio-HPLC (reverse-phase HPLC with on-line radioactivity detection) of various extracts. Only minor species differences were detected.
Abstract: The objective was to identify the major cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) involved in the metabolism of domperidone. Experiments were performed using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes, cytochrome P450 chemical inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies directed against cytochrome P450 enzymes. Four metabolites were identified from incubations performed with HLMs and excellent correlations were observed between the formation of domperidone hydroxylated metabolites (M1, M3 and M4), N-desalkylated domperidone metabolite (M2) and enzymatic markers of CYP3A4/5 (r2 = 0.9427, 0.951, 0.9497 and 0.8304, respectively). Ketoconazole (1 microM) decreased the formation rate of M1, M2, M3 and M4 by 83, 78, 75 and 88%, respectively, whereas the effect of other inhibitors (quinidine, furafylline and sulfaphenazole) was minimal. Important decreases in the formation rate of M1 (68%), M2 (64%) and M3 (54%) were observed with anti-CYP3A4 antibodies. Formation of M1, M2 and M3 in HLMs exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km: 166, 248 and 36 microM, respectively). Similar Km values were observed for M1, M2 and M3 when incubations were performed with recombinant human CYP3A4 (Km: 107, 273 and 34 microM, respectively). The data suggest that CYP3As are the major enzymes involved in the metabolism of domperidone.
Abstract: Domperidone is a dopamine-2 receptor antagonist. It acts as an antiemetic and a prokinetic agent through its effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone and motor function of the stomach and small intestine. Unlike metoclopramide, it does not cause any adverse neurological symptoms as it has minimal penetration through the blood-brain barrier. It thus provides an excellent safety profile for long-term administration orally in the recommended doses. Domperidone is widely used in many countries and can now be officially prescribed to patients in the United States by an investigational new drug application for the treatment of gastroparesis and any condition causing chronic nausea and vomiting. In view of this additional clinical exposure of domperidone to a new generation of gastroenterologists and other specialists, the purpose of this timely review is to revisit the pharmacology, clinical application, and safety profile of this beneficial medication.
Abstract: AIMS: To assess the steady-state pharmacokinetic and QT(c) effects of domperidone and ketoconazole, given alone and together. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study was carried out. Healthy subjects (14 men, 10 women; age 18-39 years; mean weight 73.5kg, range 53.8-98.8kg; 23 Europid, 1 Afro-Caribbean) received orally, for 7 days each, placebo, domperidone 10mg, four doses daily, at 4h intervals, ketoconazole 200mg 12-hourly and domperidone and ketoconazole together. The washout period was 15 days. Pharmacokinetics and serial 12-lead ECGs were assessed on day 7, and serial ECGs on day -1 and at follow-up. Two subjects withdrew before the third treatment period, so data were available for 22-24 subjects. RESULTS Ketoconazole tripled domperidone concentrations at steady-state. Domperidone, ketoconazole and their combination significantly increased QT(c) F in men. Overall adjusted mean differences from placebo were 4.20 (95% CI 0.77, 7.63), 9.24 (95% CI 5.85, 12.63) and 15.90 (95% CI 12.47, 19.33) ms, respectively. In women, QT(c) F was not significantly different from placebo on either domperidone or ketoconazole alone, or in combination. However, QT(c) was positively correlated with plasma drug concentrations, in both men and women. ΔQT(c) F increased by about 2ms per 10ngml(-1) rise in domperidone concentration, and per 1µgml(-1) rise in ketoconazole concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Ketoconazole tripled the plasma concentrations of domperidone. Domperidone and ketoconazole increased QT(c) F in men, whether given together or separately. The effect of domperidone alone was below the level of clinical importance. The negative result in women is unexplained.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the influence of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics, and the CNS and prolactin-elevating effects of domperidone in humans. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers received either itraconazole (200 mg daily) or placebo for 5 days with a double blind, randomized, cross-over design. A single oral 20-mg dose of domperidone was administered to subjects on day 5. Plasma domperidone and serum prolactin concentrations were measured. The effects of domperidone on CNS were also assessed using self-rating scales and electroencephalography. RESULTS: Itraconazole significantly increased domperidone AUC(0-∞) (3.2-fold) and C(max) (2.7-fold) compared with placebo, but had no significant effect on the elimination half-life of domperidone. The CNS effects of domperidone assessed by self-rating of mood and electroencephalography, and the prolactin-elevating effect, were not significantly affected by itraconazole. A counterclockwise hysteresis was evident in the relationship between plasma domperidone and serum prolactin concentrations. Itraconazole shifted the hysteresis to the right. Concentration-effect modeling procedures yielded a significant linear relationship between hypothetical effect site domperidone concentrations and prolactin levels. Itraconazole reduced the slope of the linear relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Itraconazole significantly increased plasma domperidone concentrations. The interaction is probably mainly due to a reduced first pass elimination by inhibition of CYP3A and/or MDR1. The clinical significance of the altered relationship between domperidone concentrations and prolactin levels caused by itraconazole is still to be determined.
Abstract: We aimed to investigate the application of combined mechanistic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling and simulation in predicting the domperidone (DOM) triggered pseudo-electrocardiogram modification in the presence of a CYP3A inhibitor, ketoconazole (KETO), using in vitro-in vivo extrapolation. In vitro metabolic and inhibitory data were incorporated into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models within Simcyp to simulate time course of plasma DOM and KETO concentrations when administered alone or in combination with KETO (DOM+KETO). Simulated DOM concentrations in plasma were used to predict changes in gender-specific QTcF (Fridericia correction) intervals within the Cardiac Safety Simulator platform taking into consideration DOM, KETO, and DOM+KETO triggered inhibition of multiple ionic currents in population. Combination of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, PBPK, and systems pharmacology of electric currents in the heart was able to predict the direction and magnitude of PK and PD changes under coadministration of the two drugs although some disparities were detected.
Abstract: AIMS: In New Zealand, domperidone is approved for gastrointestinal motility and nausea and vomiting. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) recently concluded that domperidone poses a significant risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and has restricted use in Europe. This paper reviews the risk of QT prolongation and cardiac adverse effects with domperidone and provide information to allow prescribers to make informed decisions on usage. METHODS: A search of two bibliographic databases, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website, Micromedex, Lexicomp and reference texts was undertaken for domperidone related reports of QT prolongation, cardiac arrhythmias and/or SCD. The New Zealand Centre for Adverse Drugs Reaction Monitoring was also contacted for cardiac adverse event reports with domperidone. RESULTS: Over 30 published papers, EMA documents and other information sources were collated, including two studies that met thorough QT study (TQT) criteria (ICH-E14). The first TQT1 was negative while the second was marginally positive. Reports of QT prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias and SCD were located (predominantly high/very high-dose IV domperidone). With oral domperidone, a Dutch case-controlled study reported an adjusted odds ratio of SCD of 11.4 (95% CI 1.99-65.2), based on only three patients out of 1,366 cases of SCD. A second nested case-controlled study calculated an odds ratio of ventricular arrhythmia or SCD of 1.59 (1.28-1.98) vs. placebo. DISCUSSION: Based on the results of the two TQT (the regulatory agency gold standard for assessment of QT prolongation) domperidone does not appear to be strongly associated with QT prolongation at oral doses of 20 mg QID in healthy volunteers. Further, there are limited case reports supporting an association with cardiac dysfunction, and the frequently cited case-control studies have significant flaws. While there remains an ill-defined risk at higher systemic concentrations, especially in patients with a higher baseline risk of QT prolongation, our review does not support the view that domperidone presents intolerable risk.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.