Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di abarelix e imipramina. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
|Imipramina||1 [0.54,2.78] 1,2||1|
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla abarelix, quando è co-somministrata con la imipramina (100%). Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla imipramina, quando è co-somministrata con la abarelix (100%). L' AUC è compreso tra lo 54% e il 278% in base al
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La biodisponibilità della abarelix non è nota. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 316.8 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 1267.2 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97.5%. I processi metabolici che avvengono tramite il sistema enzimatico dei citocromi sono ancora in fase di studio..
La imipramina ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 44%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 21 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 84 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 85.2% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 1470 litri, per cui, con un significativo tasso di estrazione epatico dello 0.54, hanno importanza sia il flusso ematico a livello del fegato [Q] sia le variazioni di legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb]. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 e CYP3A4. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||2||Ø||++|
Avvertenze: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre particolare attenzione ai sintomi causati da una sovrastimolazione serotoninergica, soprattutto se viene aumentato il dosaggio del farmaco e/o si supera l'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: La imipramina modula il sistema serotoninegico in modo limitato. Il rischio di sindrome serotoninergica è basso se viene rispettato il corretto dosaggio. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la abarelix non potenzia l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||Ø||+++|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: La imipramina aumenta notevolmente gli effetti anticolinergici. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la abarelix non causa un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di abarelix e imipramina potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||aba||imi|
|Ipotensione ortostatica||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
|Aumento di peso||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
|Visione offuscata||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
Mal di testa: imipramina
Glaucoma ad angolo chiuso: imipramina
Ritenzione urinaria: imipramina
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: Clinical reports of concurrent use of fluoxetine and tricyclic antidepressant agents suggest that tricyclic concentrations increase upon coadministration with fluoxetine. This study was conducted to confirm the clinical reports, to quantify the degree of change in tricyclic kinetics, and to establish the mechanism of interaction. Twelve male subjects were given 50 mg desipramine (six subjects) or 50 mg imipramine (six subjects) on three occasions: alone, after a 60 mg dose of fluoxetine, and after eight daily 60 mg doses of fluoxetine. Fluoxetine significantly reduced oral clearance of both imipramine and desipramine as much as tenfold and prolonged half-life as much as fourfold. Desipramine oral clearance values were 289, 112, and 27 L/hr alone, after a single fluoxetine dose, and after multiple fluoxetine doses, respectively. Correspondingly, imipramine oral clearance values were 181, 87, and 51 L/hr. These kinetic changes resulted in significantly higher plasma tricyclic concentrations after fluoxetine administration. The amount of parent drug excreted unchanged in urine increased and imipramine or desipramine clearance to their respective 2-hydroxy metabolites decreased. Metabolic conversion of imipramine to desipramine appeared to be unaffected. The findings indicate that fluoxetine causes an inhibition of tricyclic 2-hydroxylation and may decrease first-pass and systemic metabolism. When imipramine or desipramine are to be coadministered with fluoxetine, a lower dosage may be needed to maintain steady-state concentrations and to avoid undesirable side effects caused by excessive tricyclic concentrations.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of imipramine and desipramine have been extensively investigated with recent studies designed to understand sources of intersubject variability and to study discrete clinical populations rather than healthy volunteers. Sources of intersubject variability in pharmacokinetics are both genetic (oxidative phenotype) and environmental. Oxidative phenotype has an important impact on first-pass metabolism. In individuals with poor metabolism, systemic availability for imipramine is increased. Intrinsic clearance of desipramine is reduced 4-fold in individuals with poor metabolism. Recent pharmacokinetic studies in diverse patient populations such as the depressed elderly, children and alcoholics have revealed decreased clearance of imipramine in the elderly and increased clearance of both imipramine and desipramine in chronic alcoholics. In at least a third of the population, nonlinear pharmacokinetics of desipramine may be observed at steady-state plasma concentrations above 150 micrograms/L. These nonlinear changes in desipramine pharmacokinetics are not associated with age or sex, but are associated with higher desipramine 2-hydroxydesipramine concentration ratios. Hydroxylated metabolites of imipramine and desipramine may possess both antidepressants and cardiotoxic activity but their formation is rate limited and plasma concentrations tend to follow the parent compound with little accumulation. The potent cardiovascular effects of the hydroxymetabolites may be particularly relevant for the elderly and in acute overdose.
Abstract: On separate occasions 6 extensive metabolizers of sparteine took a single oral dose of 100 mg imipramine and desipramine before and during the intake of quinidine sulphate 200 mg/day. During quinidine the total oral clearance of imipramine on average was reduced by 35%, and that of desipramine by 85%. The clearance of imipramine via demethylation was not significantly reduced during quinidine administration, whereas its clearance by other pathways, largely 2-hydroxylation, was reduced by more than 50%. 2-OH-Imipramine and 2-OH-desipramine were detected in plasma before (maximum concentrations 30-100 nmol.l-1) but not during quinidine. It appears that quinidine is a potent inhibitor of the sparteine/debrisoquine oxygenase, P450dbl, which is responsible for the 2-hydroxylation of imipramine and desipramine, but not of the P450 isozyme responsible for the demethylation of imipramine.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetic characteristics of imipramine were studied after a single, oral, 100 mg dose was taken by 12 healthy male subjects following 3 days of pretreatment with placebo, cimetidine (300 mg every 6 h), and ranitidine (150 mg every 12 h) in a randomized, double blind, crossover trial. After each imipramine dose plasma samples were collected for 72 h and assayed for imipramine, desipramine, 2-hydroxyimipramine and 2-hydroxydesipramine by HPLC. Cimetidine preadministration statistically prolonged imipramine t 1/2 compared to ranitidine (22.7 vs. 13.0 h) or placebo (10.8 h). Mean imipramine area under the curve (AUC) following cimetidine pretreatment was more than double that following placebo (2.633 vs. 0.966 micrograms X h X ml-1) or ranitidine (1.14 micrograms X h X ml-1) pretreatment. Imipramine apparent oral clearance was reduced in all 12 subjects after cimetidine. Compared to ranitidine or placebo, cimetidine pretreatment was associated with an increased imipramine/desipramine AUC ratio, suggesting cimetidine-induced impairment of demethylation of imipramine. Ranitidine was not observed to alter imipramine pharmacokinetics.
Abstract: Imipramine hydrochloride (IMI) was administered to 12 healthy volunteers on three occasions in random sequence: 12.5 mg IV, 50 mg orally after overnight fast, and 50 mg orally 30 min after eating a standardized breakfast. IMI concentrations were measured by gas-liquid chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorous detection and pharmacokinetic and bioavailability parameters determined by iterative nonlinear least-squares regression analysis. After IV administration, mean kinetic variables were: volume of distribution, 21.0 l/kg; total clearance, 12.8 ml/min per kg, and elimination half-life, 21. h. Mean absolute bioavailability of IMI in the fasting state was 43.6%. When IMI was administered immediately after the standardized meal, absolute bioavailability was 44.1%. After oral administration, the time to peak IMI level was not changed by concurrent food ingestion (2.8 vs 3.2 h after dosage), and the peak IMI concentration was no different (35 vs 30 ng/ml). Thus concurrent food ingestion has no effect on IMI absolute bioavailability, peak concentration attained after oral dosage, or the time to peak concentration.
Abstract: Active hydroxy metabolites of imipramine (IMI) and desipramine (DMI) have been quantified in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients at steady-state. In plasma of prepubescent boys and adults the concentration of unconjugated 2-hydroxyimipramine is only 15% to 25% that of IMI; 2-hydroxydesipramine (OH-DMI) concentration, however, is usually 50% that of DMI and in some cases OH-DMI is the predominant compound. In CSF from adult patients the ratio of concentrations of OH-DMI/DMI is higher than in plasma. Judging from the CSF/plasma ratio 12% of DMI exists in the free form at steady state, whereas 16% of OH-DMI is free (P less than 0.02). There is no evidence for saturation of hydroxylation within the therapeutic dose and concentration ranges investigated. On the basis of a steady-state OH-DMI/DMI ratio of less than 1/30 in plasma 5% of the population studied could be classified as deficient DMI hydroxylators. This in the same as the incidence of deficient debrisoquine hydroxylators reported in other populations.
Abstract: The effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine (100 mg/day for 10 consecutive days) on the kinetics of a single oral dose of imipramine (50 mg) and desipramine (100 mg) was investigated in 12 healthy subjects. Compared with a control session, treatment with fluvoxamine caused a significant prolongation of imipramine half-life (from 22.8 +/- 6.4 to 40.5 +/- 5.0 h, means +/- SD, p < 0.01) and a marked decrease in imipramine apparent oral clearance (from 1.02 +/- 0.19 to 0.28 +/- 0.06 L/h/kg, p < 0.0001). No significant changes in desipramine kinetics were observed during fluvoxamine treatment. These findings indicate that, at the dosage tested, fluvoxamine markedly inhibits the demethylation of imipramine without affecting significantly the CYP2D6-mediated hydroxylation of desipramine.
Abstract: The combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with tricyclic antidepressants has proven useful in treatment-resistant depression but has the potential for adverse drug-drug interactions. In the present study, the metabolism of a single dose of imipramine was studied before and after treatment with paroxetine. Paroxetine induced significant elevations of approximately 50% in half-life, area under the curve, and Cmax of imipramine and decreased clearance twofold. The effects on desipramine pharmacokinetics were even more pronounced. These findings indicate a significant interaction of paroxetine with the CYP2D6 isoenzyme.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of the study was to characterize further the role of CYP3A4 in the metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants. METHODS: The effect of oral ketoconazole (200 mg day-1 for 14 days) on the kinetics of a single oral dose of imipramine (100 mg) and desipramine (100 mg) was evaluated in two groups of six healthy male subjects. RESULTS: Ketoconazole administration was associated with a decrease in imipramine apparent oral clearance (from 1.16 +/- 0.21 to 0.96 +/- 0.20 l h-1 kg-1, mean +/- s.d.; P < 0.02), a prolongation in imipramine half-life (from 16.7 +/- 3.3 to 19.2 +/- 5.4 h, P < 0.05) and a decrease in area under the curve of metabolically derived desipramine (from 3507 +/- 1707 to 3180 +/- 1505 nmol l-1 h, P < 0.05), whereas concentrations of 2-hydroxy-imipramine were unaffected. In the subjects given desipramine, no significant changes in desipramine and 2-hydroxy-desipramine kinetics were observed during ketoconazole treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that ketoconazole, a relatively specific inhibitor of CYP3A4, inhibits the N-demethylation of imipramine without affecting the 2-hydroxylation of imipramine and desipramine. This interaction, confirms that CYP3A4 plays a role in the demethylation of tricyclic antidepressants.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the pharmacokinetic interaction between the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline and the tricyclic antidepressants desipramine or imipramine in 12 healthy male subjects. METHODS: Participants received a 50 mg single dose of either desipramine or imipramine under three conditions: alone, after a single 150 mg dose of sertraline, and after the eighth daily 150 mg dose of sertraline. Plasma samples were analyzed for desipramine or imipramine concentration by HPLC with electrochemical detection, and pharmacokinetics were determined with use of noncompartmental analysis of individual data. RESULTS: Multiple-dose, but not single-dose, treatment with sertraline significantly reduced apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) and prolonged the half-life of desipramine relative to baseline. These changes resulted in higher plasma desipramine concentrations, as indicated by a significant increase in maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] (22% and 54%, respectively). Both single- and multiple-dose treatment with sertraline significantly reduced the CL/F of imipramine. This effect was stronger after multiple predoses of sertraline, when imipramine Cmax and AUC(0-infinity) were increased by 39% and 68%, respectively. These treatment effects were consistent between individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This pharmacokinetic interaction is likely the result of an inhibition of CYP2D6 tricyclic metabolism by sertraline. When a tricyclic antidepressant, such as desipramine or imipramine, is coadministered with sertraline, lower dosages of the tricyclic agents may be necessary to prevent elevated tricyclic levels.
Abstract: The QT interval measuring depolarisation and repolarisation has, when lengthened, been implicated as a risk factor for the development of torsades de pointes and sudden death, particularly in patients predisposed to these complications due to cardiovascular impairment. Since some of the medications used in psychiatry have been implicated, an extensive review of available literature was made of the major classes, including antipsychotics, antidepressants, lithium, anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines. Further, where no publications were found on a particular medication, the pharmaceutical firms responsible for these items were contacted concerning possibly unpublished data. Results of the survey indicate that there may be difficulty in one of three situations: immediate (in the first minutes to hours after oral or parenteral administration), short-term use of 4 - 12 weeks or long-term use of 6 months. Based on this approach, the greatest concern is directed at the immediate application of haloperidol, droperidol, pimozide and trazodone, the short-term use of thioridazine, pimozide, sertindole, nortriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin and the long-term use of clozapine, olanzapine and carbamazepine. It is of interest that a reduction in QTc is reported with aripiprazole. Among the antidepressants, the tertiary tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, amitriptyline and doxepin) appear to have a more general impact, while the secondary tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline, desipramine) may impact more on children and the elderly. Among other antidepressants, the only reports of torsades de pointes appeared to occur with mirtazapine. It was also of interest to find data showing no effect or reductions in QTc produced by sertraline, citalopram, paroxetine and bupropion in multiple studies. Effects of medications on other heart parameters are also briefly reviewed. In particular, the safety of sertraline in post-MI patients and of bupropion in heart disease patients is highlighted. Little information was available on other classes of medications used in psychiatric disorders. What is available concerning lithium, the anticonvulsants and the benzodiazepines indicates little effect on the QTc, although there may be effects on other cardiovascular parameters.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential of anticholinergic drugs as a cause of non-degenerative mild cognitive impairment in elderly people. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: 63 randomly selected general practices in the Montpellier region of southern France. PARTICIPANTS: 372 people aged > 60 years without dementia at recruitment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anticholinergic burden from drug use, cognitive examination, and neurological assessment. RESULTS: 9.2% of subjects continuously used anticholinergic drugs during the year before cognitive assessment. Compared with non-users, they had poorer performance on reaction time, attention, delayed non-verbal memory, narrative recall, visuospatial construction, and language tasks but not on tasks of reasoning, immediate and delayed recall of wordlists, and implicit memory. Eighty per cent of the continuous users were classified as having mild cognitive impairment compared with 35% of non-users, and anticholinergic drug use was a strong predictor of mild cognitive impairment (odds ratio 5.12, P = 0.001). No difference was found between users and non-users in risk of developing dementia at follow-up after eight years. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people taking anticholinergic drugs had significant deficits in cognitive functioning and were highly likely to be classified as mildly cognitively impaired, although not at increased risk for dementia. Doctors should assess current use of anticholinergic drugs in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment before considering administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.