Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di loperamide e abarelix. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla loperamide, quando è co-somministrata con la abarelix (100%). Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla abarelix, quando è co-somministrata con la loperamide (100%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La loperamide ha una bassa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale, perciò nel corso di un interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima (Cmax) tende fortemente a cambiare. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 11.5 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 46 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 292 litri, Dato che il farmaco ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatico, lo spiazzamento del legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb] porta ad un aumento all'esposizione farmacologica. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2C8 e CYP3A4. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
La biodisponibilità della abarelix non è nota. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 316.8 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 1267.2 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97.5%. I processi metabolici che avvengono tramite il sistema enzimatico dei citocromi sono ancora in fase di studio..
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la loperamide né la abarelix potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: Somministrata unicamente, la Loperamide possiede lievi effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la abarelix non causa un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di loperamide e abarelix potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||lop||aba|
|Dolore addominale||1.4 %||1.4||n.a.|
|Ileo paralitico||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Problema di coordinamento||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: A pharmacokinetic study of the antidiarrheal agent loperamide hydrochloride (Imodium) was conducted in six male subjects. The study utilized a random crossover design and employed a 2-mg capsule and a 0.2-mg/ml syrup formulation. Each treatment consisted of a single oral dose of 8 mg loperamide HCl followed by a two-week interval before the next treatment. Serum and urine samples obtained at various times after drug administration were assayed for loperamide using a radioimmunoassay specific for the drug. The mean biologic half-life, calculated from the elimination phase of the log serum concentration-versus-time data, was 10.8 +/- 0.6 hours for the overall study, 10.2 +/- 0.6 hours for the syrup formulation, and 11.2 +/- 0.8 hours for the capsules. The loperamide from the syrup was absorbed more rapidly than from the capsule formulation, with the peak serum levels observed at a mean time of 2.4 +/- 0.7 hours for the syrup and 5.2 +/- 0.3 hours for the capsule formulation. The relative areas under the serum loperamide concentration-versus-time curves suggested that the two formulations have comparable physiologic availability. The maximum observed serum concentrations were also similar, indicating the safety of the syrup formulation. Excretion of approximately 1 per cent of the dose in the urine as unchanged loperamide after seven days was observed independent of the particular dosage form that was administered.
Abstract: This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Skin biopsies of normal hand skin showed focal parakeratosis and moderately dense dermal infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis and in the superficial dermis and a mononuclear dermal infiltrate consisting of peripheral T lymphocytes with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5-6/1. Biopsies of the immediate vesicular reactions induced by foods showed spongiotic vesicles within the epidermis and a moderate to dense mononuclear dermal perivascular infiltrate. The immunohistochemical features were similar to those described in apparently normal skin. The mechanism of this immediate vesicular reaction requires further research. The rapid appearance of the lesions (after 20-30 min) probably excludes an immunological cell-mediated pathogenesis. A non-immunological mechanism due to direct liberation of mediators by foods is more readily conceivable than an immediate immunological type of contact reaction.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Loperamide is biotransformed in vitro by the cytochromes P450 (CYP) 2C8 and 3A4 and is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. Our aim was to investigate the effects of itraconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, and gemfibrozil, an inhibitor of CYP2C8, on the pharmacokinetics of loperamide. METHODS: In a randomized crossover study with 4 phases, 12 healthy volunteers took 100 mg itraconazole (first dose 200 mg), 600 mg gemfibrozil, both itraconazole and gemfibrozil, or placebo, twice daily for 5 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 4-mg dose of loperamide. Loperamide and N-desmethylloperamide concentrations in plasma were measured for up to 72 h and in urine for up to 48 h. Possible central nervous system effects of loperamide were assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and by subjective drowsiness. RESULTS: Itraconazole raised the peak plasma loperamide concentration (Cmax) 2.9-fold (range, 1.2-5.0; P < 0.001) and the total area under the plasma loperamide concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) 3.8-fold (1.4-6.6; P < 0.001) and prolonged the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of loperamide from 11.9 to 18.7 h (P < 0.001). Gemfibrozil raised the Cmax of loperamide 1.6-fold (0.9-3.2; P < 0.05) and its AUC(0-infinity) 2.2-fold (1.0-3.7; P < 0.05) and prolonged its t(1/2) to 16.7 h (P < 0.01). The combination of itraconazole and gemfibrozil raised the Cmax of loperamide 4.2-fold (1.5-8.7; P < 0.001) and its AUC(0-infinity) 12.6-fold (4.3-21.8; P < 0.001) and prolonged the t(1/2) of loperamide to 36.9 h (P < 0.001). The amount of loperamide excreted into urine within 48 h was increased 3.0-fold, 1.4-fold and 5.3-fold by itraconazole, gemfibrozil and their combination, respectively (P < 0.05). Itraconazole, gemfibrozil and their combination reduced the plasma AUC(0-72) ratio of N-desmethylloperamide to loperamide by 65%, 46% and 88%, respectively (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in the Digit Symbol Substitution Test or subjective drowsiness between the phases. CONCLUSION: Itraconazole, gemfibrozil and their combination markedly raise the plasma concentrations of loperamide. Although not seen in the psychomotor tests used, an increased risk of adverse effects should be considered during concomitant use of loperamide with itraconazole, gemfibrozil and especially their combination.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: Loperamide is an antidiarrheal medication approved for the control of diarrhea symptoms and is available without a prescription. Loperamide works by a number of different mechanisms of action that decrease peristalsis and fluid secretion, resulting in longer gastrointestinal transit time and increased absorption of fluids and electrolytes from the gastrointestinal tract. It is a phenylpiperidine derivative with a chemical structure similar to opiate receptor agonists such as diphenoxylate and haloperidol. It was designed to maintain the antidiarrheal activity of these drugs, but minimize the negative aspects associated with their effects on the opiate receptor. Because of loperamides's low oral absorption and inability to cross the blood-brain barrier, it has minimal central nervous system effects. It also has a longer duration of action than diphenoxylate. However, it has no clinically significant analgesic activity and does not decrease the pain associated with some forms of irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea. Loperamide is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system and is a substrate for the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. Concurrent administration with CYP3A4 inhibitors may elevate loperamide concentrations. Common adverse reactions to loperamide include cramps and nausea. Loperamide is an effective treatment for patients with painless diarrhea and is considered to be free of abuse potential.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: CASE: A 41year-old male presented with torsades de pointes. The patient was taking over 100mg of loperamide per day to self-medicate for chronic pain. Coronary angiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic testing were negative for pre-disposing ischemia, cardiomyopathy, or genetic variant respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients without predisposing genetic or cardiac abnormalities are at risk of life-threatening QTc prolongation and torsades with use of high-dose loperamide. The authors suggest consideration of regulating the quantity of loperamide that can be purchased at a single time similar to the regulations in place for other over-the-counter medications with high potential for misuse.
Abstract: Loperamide is an over-the-counter, peripherally acting, μ-opioid receptor agonist used for the treatment of diarrhea. In recent times users have found that at higher doses, loperamide crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches central μ-receptors in the brain, leading to central opiate effects including euphoria and respiratory depression. We report a case of a 37-year-old female who attempted suicide with over 200 loperamide tablets. During her overdose, her QTc was significantly prolonged at >600 ms. Our case aims to add to the growing body of literature describing life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias associated with loperamide toxicity and further suggests that a metabolite of loperamide, desmethylloperamide, may play a role in the pathogenesis.
Abstract: No Abstract available