Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la combinazione di abiraterone, teofillina e fenitoina. Si prega di consultare anche le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
|Fenitoina||1.2 [1.2,1.2] 1||1.2||1|
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. Non abbiamo rilevato alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla abiraterone, se combinato con teofillina (100%). Al momento non possiamo stimare l'influenza della fenitoina. L'esposizione alla fenitoina aumenta al 120%, se combinato con abiraterone (120%) e teofillina (100%). L'AUC è compresa tra 120% e 120% a seconda del
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La abiraterone ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 50%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è di 18 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti dopo circa 72 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 99.8% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 2815 litri, Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP3A4.
La teofillina ha un'elevata biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 85%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare poco durante un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è di 7 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti dopo circa 28 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è piuttosto debole al 40% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è di 36 litri nell'intervallo medio, Poiché la sostanza ha una bassa velocità di estrazione epatica di 0,9, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può aumentare l'esposizione. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 e CYP3A4, tra gli altri.
La fenitoina ha un'elevata biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 85%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare poco durante un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è di 13 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti dopo circa 52 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 90% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è di 47 litri nell'intervallo medio, Poiché la sostanza ha una bassa velocità di estrazione epatica di 0,9, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può aumentare l'esposizione. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP2C19, CYP2C9 e CYP2E1, tra gli altri e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare tramite PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la abiraterone, teofillina né la fenitoina aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Raccomandazione: A scopo precauzionale, occorre prestare attenzione ai sintomi anticolinergici, soprattutto dopo aver aumentato la dose ea dosi nel range terapeutico superiore.
Valutazione: La teofillina ha solo un lieve effetto sul sistema anticolinergico. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica con questo farmaco è piuttosto basso se il dosaggio è nel range usuale. Secondo i nostri risultati, la abiraterone non aumenta l'attività anticolinergica. L'effetto anticolinergico della fenitoina non è rilevante.
Estensione di tempo QT
La abiraterone può potenzialmente aumentare il tempo dell'intervallo QT, ma non sappiamo delle aritmie di torsione di punta. Non conosciamo alcun potenziale di prolungamento dell'intervallo QT per teofillina e fenitoina.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||abi||teo||fen|
|Edema periferico||20.0 %||20.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|ALT aumentata||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|AST aumentata||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|Infezione del tratto urinario||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|Fibrillazione atriale||2.6 %||2.6||0.0||n.a.|
Angina pectoris (1.6%): abiraterone
Vomito: teofillina, fenitoina
Ipertrofia gengivale: fenitoina
Reazioni allergiche della pelle: teofillina
Reazione anafilattica: teofillina
Sindrome DRESS: fenitoina
Iperglicemia: teofillina, fenitoina
Mal di testa: teofillina
Compromissione della memoria: fenitoina
Emorragia intracranica: teofillina
Aumento della frequenza della minzione: teofillina
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson: teofillina, fenitoina
Dermatosi bollosa: fenitoina
Necrolisi epidermica tossica: fenitoina
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: Phenytoin is a relatively insoluble weak acid, usually administered as the sodium salt. Bioavailability is dependent upon particle size and problems of generic inequivalence have therefore arisen, particularly in Scandinavia. The drug has a moderately large volume of distribution and is approximately 90% bound to plasma proteins. Clinically important displacement can be caused by bilirubin and several drugs, particularly sodium valproate, which is often combined with phenytoin. Displacement will lower the total serum concentration but will little affect the free drug concentration. The metabolism of phenytoin to the major metabolite, 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(phenylhydantoin, is saturable, giving rise to a non linear dose-serum concentration relationship. Therefore, the dose range compatible with a therapeutic serum concentration is narrow within subjects, and monitoring serum concentrations is of particular value in dosage tailoring. In renal failure, the binding of phenytoin to plasma proteins is reduced and therefore a lower range of serum drug concentrations is compatible with therapeutic control. In liver disease, binding may also be impaired but delayed metabolism may occur in addition. During pregnancy the serum concentration may fall progressively as pregnancy advances, probably due to an increased rate of metabolism. Phenytoin readily crosses the placenta, and is metabolised rapidly by the neonate exposed in utero.
Abstract: To investigate a possible interaction between norfloxacin and theophylline, eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers (mean age 27 +/- 5.3 years) were administered aminophylline, 5 mg/kg, before and after a 6-day course of norfloxacin, 400 mg every 12 hours, and changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were measured and compared. Norfloxacin induced significant decreases in theophylline clearance (14.9%; p less than 0.01) and the terminal phase slope (13.3%; p less than 0.02) and increased the AUC (16.6%; p less than 0.01). The apparent volume of distribution at steady state was unchanged. The greatest norfloxacin-induced individual change in theophylline clearance was a reduction of 28.6%. Given these findings, we advise that, for patients who are treated with theophylline and are subsequently treated with norfloxacin, adjustment of the theophylline dosage may be necessary in some patients to minimize the risk of theophylline toxicity.
Abstract: 1. In a double-blind crossover study 10 healthy males received either placebo or omeprazole (40 mg day-1) for 9 days, a single dose of phenytoin (300 mg) being taken on the seventh day. 2. Omeprazole significantly increased the area under the curve (0 to 72 h) of phenytoin (mean +/- s.e. mean) from 121.6 +/- 14.0 to 151.4 +/- 13.6 micrograms ml-1 h) (P less than 0.01). 3. The peak concentration, and apparent elimination half-life of phenytoin also tended to be increased though not significantly. 4. The omeprazole-phenytoin interaction observed may be clinically important because of the low therapeutic index associated with phenytoin.
Abstract: In 42 subjects with chronic obstructive lung disease receiving chronic oral theophylline therapy, the venous whole blood theophylline concentration was closely related to the total plasma theophylline concentrations (r = 0.976, p less than 0.001). The blood/plasma concentration ratio was 0.85 +/- 0.13 and was not related to the haematocrit or the free fraction of theophylline in plasma. The red blood cell theophylline concentration was closely related and numerically similar to the free plasma concentration. This indicates that the free plasma concentration is the most important determinant of red blood cell concentration, and that binding of drug by red blood cells or active uptake into erythrocytes is unlikely to occur. Whole blood concentration can be used to predict plasma theophylline concentration in subjects with obstructive lung disease in situations where preparation of plasma is inconvenient. The therapeutic range for whole blood concentration is approximately 8.5-17 mg/L.
Abstract: Clearance of phenytoin after i.v. injection of 100 mg was studied in six patients before and after 2 weeks daily treatment with 450 mg rifampicin, and in 14 patients with tuberculosis receiving standard treatment with 450 mg rifampicin, 300 mg isoniazid, and 1200 mg ethambutol daily. Acetylator status was measured by urinary acetylated sulphadimidine. Clearance of phenytoin in patients receiving only rifampicin increased from 46.7 ml min-1 +/- 20.6 ml min-1 to 97.8 ml min-1 +/- 33.4 ml min-1 (P less than 0.01), while clearance in patients on three drugs increased from 47.1 +/- 23.4 ml min-1 to 81.3 ml min-1 +/- 41.6 ml min-1 (P less than 0.01). No significant differences were observed between the six fast acetylators and the eight slow acetylators. Phenytoin kinetics were unchanged after further 3 months of combined treatment. Rifampicin is a strong inducer of the elimination of phenytoin. Combined treatment with isoniazid has no counter-acting effect in either fast or slow acetylators.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The effect of erythromycin base on theophylline kinetics was studied in eight informed, nonsmoking, adult males who received a 15-min infusion of theophylline (aminophylline) 5 mg/kg, prior to (control) and after (experimental) a 7-day course of 1 gm daily erythromycin base (E-Mycin). Each subject acted as his own control. Multiple serum samples were collected for 24 hr after each dose and were analyzed for theophylline by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean +/- SD pharmacokinetic parameters for each phase of study were as follows: apparent volume of distribution (L/kg) 0.45 +/- 0.05 (control), 0.41 +/- 0.05 (experimental); clearance (ml . min/kg) 0.83 +/- 0.17 (control), 0.60 +/- 0.11 (experimental); elimination half-life (hr) 6.65 +/- 1.88 (control), 8.10 +/- 1.58 (experimental). Erythromycin significantly affected the elimination half-life and clearance of theophylline (p less than 0.05). The apparent volume of distribution was unaffected (p greater than 0.05). Therefore patients being administered theophylline appear to be at added risk for the development of toxicity when erythromycin is added to the therapeutic regimen.
Abstract: The effects of famotidine (80 mg per day), cimetidine (1600 mg per day), and placebo on theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were compared. This was an open-label, randomized, three-period cross-over study, in which each subject first underwent a seven-day theophylline washout period, and thereafter received three single intravenous doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg infused over 30 minutes) during the study. Each of the experimental treatments was administered orally every 12 hours for a total of 9.5 days (19 doses). Theophylline was infused after the 17th dose of each treatment. Fourteen serial blood samples were collected before the start of each infusion, and for 30 hours after the end of each infusion. Plasma samples were assayed for theophylline, pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated, and treatment effects on each parameter were compared. Fourteen COPD patients completed all three periods of the investigation. Famotidine treatment had virtually no effect on any of theophylline's pharmacokinetic parameters. In contrast, cimetidine treatment significantly altered every pharmacokinetic parameter of theophylline as follows: Cimetidine decreased theophylline geometric mean CL from 2.74 L/h to 2.07 L/h (P < .001), and prolonged theophylline harmonic mean half-life from 6.6 to 9.6 hours (P < .001) and mean residence time from 10.8 to 15.0 hours (P < .001). Cimetidine treatment slightly increased theophylline volume of distribution by approximately 10%, and that change also was statistically significant (P = .032). The authors conclude that the treatment effects of cimetidine on theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were in accord with those reported by others, and that famotidine treatment had no effect on any of theophylline's pharmacokinetic parameters in COPD patients.
Abstract: Rifampin and rifabutin induce the metabolism of many drugs, which may result in subtherapeutic concentrations and failure of therapy. However, differences between rifabutin and rifampin in potency of induction, and the specific enzymes which are altered, are not clear. This study, involving 12 adult male volunteers, compared the effects of 14-day courses of rifampin and rifabutin on clearance of theophylline, a substrate for the hepatic microsomal enzyme CYP1A2. Subjects were given oral theophylline solution (5 mg/kg of body weight) on day 1 and then randomized to receive daily rifampin (300 mg) or rifabutin (300 mg) on days 3 to 16. Theophylline was readministered as described above on day 15. The first treatment sequence was followed by a 2-week washout period; subjects then received the alternative treatment. Theophylline concentrations were determined for 46 h after each dose, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. One subject developed flu-like symptoms while taking rifabutin and withdrew voluntarily. Results from the remaining 11 subjects are reported. Compared with the baseline, the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (+/- standard deviation) for theophylline declined significantly following rifampin treatment (from 140 +/- 37 to 100 +/- 24 micrograms . h/ml, P <0.001); there was no significant change following rifabutin treatment (136 +/- 48 to 128 +/- 45 micrograms.h/ml). Baseline theophylline AUCs before each treatment phase were not different. A comparison of equal doses of rifampin and rifabutin administered to healthy volunteers for 2 weeks indicates that induction of CYP1A2, as measured by theophylline clearance, is significantly less following rifabutin treatment than it is following rifampin treatment. However, the relative induction potency for other metabolic enzymes remains to be investigated.
Abstract: Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident.
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of the concomitant administration of theophylline and toborinone on the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in poor and extensive metabolizers via CYP2D6. In period 1, a single dose of 3.5 mg/kg theophylline was administered orally. In period 2, a single dose of 1.0 microg/kg/min toborinone was infused over 6 hours. In period 3, 3.5 mg/kg theophylline was coadministered with 1.0 microg/kg/min toborinone. Serial blood and pooled urine samples were collected before and after toborinone administration for the quantification of toborinone and its metabolites in plasma and urine. Serial blood samples were collected before and after theophylline administration for the quantification of theophylline and its metabolites in plasma. No significant differences were observed in toborinone pharmacokinetics between poor and extensive metabolizers via CYP2D6. Toborinone coadministration with theophylline did not result in a substantive effect on the disposition of theophylline and vice versa.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential effect of daidzein on CYP1A2 activity and on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline by inhibiting its metabolism. METHODS: The experiment was conducted in a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. The caffeine metabolic ratio (CMR) used as an indicator of CYP1A2 function was completed at baseline and after daidzein or placebo co-administration. A single dose of 100 mg theophylline was taken by all 20 volunteers on day 3. Thereafter, volunteers were allocated for one of two regimens. One group received 200 mg daidzein twice daily for 10 days. The other group received placebo. On day 12, the test group received 200 mg daidzein with 100 mg theophylline; the parallel group received 100 mg theophylline with placebo. RESULTS: The baseline value of CMR between test group and control group did not show a difference (P=0.215). The percentage decrease in CMR ranged from -50% to 20%, with an average value of -19.8+/-19.7%. The percentage decrease in test group was statistically significant (P=0.009), and no significant changes were shown in the control group (t=0.12, P=0.914). By comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline before and after daily treatment with daidzein, the effect of daidzein on the metabolism of theophylline was evident. Comparing the kinetics parameters of theophylline of day 1 (without co-medication) with those of day 12 (10-day daidzein), the AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), C(max) and t(1/2) were significantly increased by 33.57+/-21.75% (CI, 1.21-1.46, P< 0.05), 33.77+/-21.45% (CI, 1.20-1.46, P<0.05), 23.54+/-16.93% (CI, 1.23-1.52, P< 0.05) and 41.39+/-45.92% (t=-3.19, P=0.011), respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline within the placebo group showed no statistically significant difference (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Daidzein, a principal isoflavone in soybean, in higher doses may inhibit CYP1A2 activity in vivo, and physicians should be aware of potential drug-food interactions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 by fluvoxamine causes a reduction in the clearance of the high-extraction drug lidocaine, which decreases in proportion to the degree of liver dysfunction. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of liver cirrhosis on the inhibition by fluvoxamine of the metabolic disposition of theophylline, a CYP1A2 substrate with a low-extraction ratio, to assess whether decreased sensitivity to CYP1A2 inhibition in liver disease is a general characteristic of CYP1A2 substrates, regardless of their pharmacokinetic properties, and (2) to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the effect of liver dysfunction on CYP1A2 inhibition. METHODS: The study was carried out in 10 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with cirrhosis, 10 with mild liver dysfunction (Child class A) and 10 with severe liver dysfunction (Child class C), according to a randomized, double-blind, 2-phase, crossover design. In one phase all participants received placebo for 7 days; in the other phase they received one 50-mg fluvoxamine dose for 2 days and two 50-mg fluvoxamine doses, 12 hours apart, in the next 5 days. On day 6, 4 mg/kg of theophylline was administered orally 1 hour after the morning fluvoxamine dose. Concentrations of theophylline and its metabolites, 3-methylxanthine, 1-methyluric acid, and 1,3-dimethyluric acid, were then measured in plasma and urine up to 48 hours. RESULTS: Fluvoxamine-induced inhibition of theophylline clearance decreased from 62% in healthy subjects to 52% and 12% in patients with mild cirrhosis and those with severe cirrhosis, respectively. CYP1A2-mediated formations of 3-methylxanthine and 1-methyluric acid were almost totally inhibited in control subjects, whereas they were only reduced by one third in patients with Child class C cirrhosis. Inhibition of 1,3-dimethyluric acid formation, which is catalyzed by CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, progressively decreased from 58% in healthy subjects to 43% and 7% in patients with mild cirrhosis and those with severe cirrhosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of liver dysfunction on the inhibition of CYP1A2-mediated drug elimination is a general phenomenon, independent of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the CYP1A2 substrate. Therefore, for any drug metabolized by CYP1A2, the clinical consequences of enzyme inhibition are expected to become less and less important as liver function worsens. Two mechanisms, as follows in order of importance, are responsible for the effect of liver dysfunction: (1) decreased sensitivity to fluvoxamine of CYP1A2-mediated biotransformations in the cirrhotic liver, probably resulting from reduced uptake of the inhibitory drug, and (2) reduced hepatic expression of CYP1A2, which makes its contribution to overall drug elimination less important.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Posaconazole is an extended-spectrum triazole antifungal agent for the treatment and prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections. This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multiple-dose study was conducted in healthy adult volunteers to assess the potential for a drug interaction between phenytoin and the posaconazole tablet formulation. METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned for 10 days to one of the following treatments: posaconazole (200 mg once daily), phenytoin (200 mg once daily), or posaconazole (200 mg once daily) and phenytoin (200 mg once daily). Blood samples were collected on days 1 and 10 for pharmacokinetic evaluation of posaconazole and phenytoin concentrations. RESULTS: A total of 36 healthy men enrolled in the study. On day 1, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve calculated from time 0-24 h post-dose (AUC(0-24)) were unchanged upon co-administration. At steady state (day 10), co-administration of posaconazole with phenytoin resulted in 44% (p = 0.012) and 52% (p = 0.007) decreases in posaconazole C(max) and AUC(0-24), respectively. These decreases in exposure corresponded with a 90% increase in steady-state clearance of orally administered posaconazole. Phenytoin C(max) and AUC(0-24) were not significantly altered upon co-administration of the two agents, 24% increase in C(max) (p = 0.196) and 25% increase in AUC(0-24) (p = 0.212) values, although inter-subject variability was observed within this group. CONCLUSION: Because co-administration of phenytoin and posaconazole significantly reduces posaconazole exposure and increases phenytoin levels in some subjects, concomitant use of these agents should be avoided unless the benefit outweighs the risk.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone plasma concentrations are decreased by nelfinavir. Methadone clearance and the drug interactions have been attributed to CYP3A4, but actual mechanisms of methadone clearance and the nelfinavir interaction are unknown. We assessed nelfinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity, and intestinal P-glycoprotein transport activity. CYP3A4/5 and transporters were assessed using alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy HIV-negative volunteers underwent a sequential crossover. On three consecutive days they received oral alfentanil plus fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral methadone. This was repeated after nelfinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were measured by pupil diameter change (miosis). RESULTS: Nelfinavir decreased intravenous and oral methadone plasma concentrations 40-50%. Systemic clearance, hepatic clearance, and hepatic extraction all increased 1.6- and 2-fold, respectively, for R- and S-methadone; apparent oral clearance increased 1.7- and 1.9-fold. Nelfinavir stereoselectively increased (S>R) methadone metabolism and metabolite formation clearance, and methadone renal clearance. Methadone bioavailability and P-glycoprotein activity were minimally affected. Nelfinavir decreased alfentanil systemic and apparent oral clearances 50 and 76%, respectively. Nelfinavir appeared to shift the methadone plasma concentration-effect (miosis) curve leftward and upward. CONCLUSIONS: Nelfinavir induced methadone clearance by increasing renal clearance, and more so by stereoselectively increasing hepatic metabolism, extraction and clearance. Induction occurred despite 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity and more than 75% inhibition of first-pass CYP3A4/5 activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone disposition. Nelfinavir may alter methadone pharmacodynamics, increasing clinical effects.
Abstract: AIMS: To assess the role of MDR1 and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-gamma 2 sub unit (GABRG2) gene polymorphism in seizure susceptibility in generalized seizure (GS) and febrile seizure (FS) patients and to evaluate MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphism's role in absorption of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin (PHT) in a cohort of patients. METHODS: One hundred twenty-seven cases of seizure (86 GS and 41 FS) patients were analyzed for MDR1 C3435T and GABRG2 C588T gene polymorphisms using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. Serum PHT levels were analyzed. RESULTS: The T allele of MDR1 C3435T and GABRG2 C588T gene polymorphism was higher in GS in the Indian population compared with controls. From the data in GS, CT and TT genotype carriers of the MDR1 gene and TT genotype carriers of the GABRG2 gene had more recurrent seizures compared with others. MDR1 T allele carriers in the seizure reoccurrence (SR) group of GS and FS were high compared with the well-controlled seizure group (with no seizures after treatment). TT genotype carriers in SR group were high in FS (with regard to MDR1 gene polymorphism) and GS (with regard to GABRG2 gene polymorphism) compared with a well-controlled seizure group. MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphism affects serum PHT levels (p<0.015). Association of dose PHT ratio and genotype groups of MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphism showed a significant association (p<0.05). MDR1*CC genotype was more common in cases with low serum PHT levels.In addition, it is evident that CT and TT genotype carriers have a high percentage of SR with elevated serum PHT levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the MDR1 3435T and GABRG2 588T alleles play a role in seizure occurrence. Moreover, the MDR1 3435T allele also affects PHT absorption. We suggest MDR1 C3435T and GABRG2 C588T genotyping would be of value in order to lower the risk of concentration-dependent drug toxicity and for better patient management.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependant efflux pump transports a wide range of substrates across cellular membranes. Earlier studies have identified drug efflux due to the over-expression of P-gp as one of the causes for the resistance of phenytoin, an anti-epileptic drug (AED). While no clear evidence exists on the specific characteristics of phenytoin association with the human P-gp, this study employed structure-based computational approaches to identify its binding site and the underlying interactions. The identified site was validated with that of rhodamine, a widely accepted reference and an experimental probe. Further, an in silico proof-of-concept for phenytoin interactions and its decreased binding affinity with the closed-state of human P-gp model was provided in comparison with other AEDs. This is the first report to provide insights into the phenytoin binding site and possibly better explain its efflux by P-gp.
Abstract: AIM: Conducting PK studies in pregnant women is challenging. Therefore, we asked if a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could be used to predict the disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared by multiple CYP enzymes. METHODS: We expanded and verified our previously published pregnancy PBPK model by incorporating hepatic CYP2B6 induction (based on in vitro data), CYP2C9 induction (based on phenytoin PK) and CYP2C19 suppression (based on proguanil PK), into the model. This model accounted for gestational age-dependent changes in maternal physiology and hepatic CYP3A, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 activity. For verification, the pregnancy-related changes in the disposition of methadone (cleared by CYP2B6, 3A and 2C19) and glyburide (cleared by CYP3A, 2C9 and 2C19) were predicted. RESULTS: Predicted mean post-partum to second trimester (PP : T2 ) ratios of methadone AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 1.9, 1.7 and 2.0, vs. observed values 2.0, 2.0 and 2.6, respectively. Predicted mean post-partum to third trimester (PP : T3 ) ratios of methadone AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 2.1, 2.0 and 2.4, vs. observed values 1.7, 1.7 and 1.8, respectively. Predicted PP : T3 ratios of glyburide AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 2.6, 2.2 and 7.0 vs. observed values 2.1, 2.2 and 3.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our PBPK model integrating prior physiological knowledge, in vitro and in vivo data, allowed successful prediction of methadone and glyburide disposition during pregnancy. We propose this expanded PBPK model can be used to evaluate different dosing scenarios, during pregnancy, of drugs cleared by single or multiple CYP enzymes.
Abstract: Three open-label, single-dose studies investigated the impact of hepatic or renal impairment on abiraterone acetate pharmacokinetics and safety/tolerability in non-cancer patients. Patients (n = 8 each group) with mild/moderate hepatic impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-, BMI-matched healthy controls received a single oral 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate (tablet dose); while patients (n = 8 each) with severe hepatic impairment and matched healthy controls received 125- and 2,000-mg abiraterone acetate (suspension doses), respectively (systemic exposure of abiraterone acetate suspension is approximately half to that of tablet formulation). Blood was sampled at specified timepoints up to 72 or 96 hours postdose to measure plasma abiraterone concentrations. Abiraterone exposure was comparable between healthy controls and patients with mild hepatic impairment or ESRD, but increased by 4-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Despite a 16-fold reduction in dose, abiraterone exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment was about 22% and 44% of the Cmax and AUC∞ of healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that abiraterone pharmacokinetics were not changed markedly in patients with ESRD or mild hepatic impairment. However, the capacity to eliminate abiraterone was substantially compromised in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. A single-dose administration of abiraterone acetate was well-tolerated.
Abstract: Two novel oral drugs that target androgen signaling have recently become available for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Abiraterone acetate inhibits the synthesis of the natural ligands of the androgen receptor, whereas enzalutamide directly inhibits the androgen receptor by several mechanisms. Abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide appear to be equally effective for patients with mCRPC pre- and postchemotherapy. Rational decision making for either one of these drugs is therefore potentially driven by individual patient characteristics. In this review, an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics is given for both drugs and potential and proven drug-drug interactions are presented. Additionally, the effect of patient-related factors on drug disposition are summarized and the limited data on the exposure-response relationships are described. The most important pharmacological feature of enzalutamide that needs to be recognized is its capacity to induce several key enzymes in drug metabolism. The potency to cause drug-drug interactions needs to be addressed in patients who are treated with multiple drugs simultaneously. Abiraterone has a much smaller drug-drug interaction potential; however, it is poorly absorbed, which is affected by food intake, and a large interpatient variability in drug exposure is observed. Dose reductions of abiraterone or, alternatively, the selection of enzalutamide, should be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Understanding the pharmacological characteristics and challenges of both drugs could facilitate decision making for either one of the drugs.
Abstract: We present a case of a 77 year-old gentleman with previous coronary artery bypass grafting, admitted to hospital with recurrent torsades de pointes (TdP) due to abiraterone-induced hypokalaemia and prolonged QTc. The patient was on abiraterone and prednisone for metastatic prostate cancer. He required multiple defibrillations for recurrent TdP. Abiraterone is a relatively novel drug used in metastatic prostate cancer and we discuss this potential adverse effect and its management in this unusual presentation.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.