Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la combinazione di abiraterone e rifabutina. Si prega di consultare anche le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. Non abbiamo rilevato alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla abiraterone. Al momento non possiamo stimare l'influenza della rifabutina. L'esposizione alla rifabutina aumenta al 104%, se combinato con abiraterone (104%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La abiraterone ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 50%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è di 18 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti dopo circa 72 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 99.8% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 2815 litri, Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP3A4.
La rifabutina ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 20%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto lunga a 45 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti solo dopo più di 180 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 85% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 595 litri, Poiché la sostanza ha una bassa velocità di estrazione epatica di 0,9, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può aumentare l'esposizione. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP3A4 e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare tramite OATP1B1.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la abiraterone né la rifabutina aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo i nostri risultati, né la abiraterone né la rifabutina aumentano l'attività anticolinergica.
Estensione di tempo QT
La abiraterone può potenzialmente aumentare il tempo dell'intervallo QT, ma non sappiamo delle aritmie di torsione di punta. Non conosciamo alcun potenziale di prolungamento dell'intervallo QT per la rifabutina.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||abi||rif|
|Edema periferico||20.0 %||20.0||n.a.|
|ALT aumentata||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.|
|AST aumentata||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.|
|Eruzione cutanea||11.0 %||n.a.||11.0|
|Infezione del tratto urinario||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
Fibrillazione atriale (2.6%): abiraterone
Angina pectoris (1.6%): abiraterone
Diarrea da Clostridium difficile: rifabutina
Senso del gusto alterato: rifabutina
Lupus eritematoso sistemico: rifabutina
Microdepositi corneali: rifabutina
Cambiamenti del colore urine: rifabutina
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: We investigated the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin in 15 male patients as part of a phase I trial of the treatment of early symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Six or more patients were studied at each of four different oral dosage levels: 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 mg/day. Twelve studies were also conducted with tracer doses of intravenous radiolabeled [14C]rifabutin. Blood and urine samples were collected for at least 72 h after the first (day 1) and last (day 28) doses of rifabutin and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration data were best described by a two-compartment open model with a terminal half-life of 36 h. Rifabutin was rapidly absorbed, reaching a peak concentration about 2 to 3 h after an oral dose. Peak and trough concentrations for the 1,200-mg dose were 907 and 194 ng/ml, respectively. Total body clearance was 10 to 18 liters/h. Oral bioavailability was 12 to 20%. The drug was moderately bound to plasma proteins with a free fraction of 29 +/- 2% (mean +/- standard deviation). About 10% of an administered intravenous dose of rifabutin is excreted into the urine unchanged. Renal clearance was 1.5 +/- 0.2 liters/h. The volume of distribution was large (8 to 9 liters/kg), suggesting extensive distribution into the tissues. The area under the curve for the last dose was smaller than that of the first dose, suggesting possible induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes.
Abstract: The clinical effectiveness of rifabutin for prophylaxis of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection has recently been demonstrated in HIV-positive patients with low CD4 counts. Rifabutin is a newly marketed, semisynthetic antimycobacterial agent similar to rifampicin (rifampin) in structure and activity. However, rifabutin has important pharmacokinetic differences compared with rifampicin. Rifabutin has relatively low oral bioavailability; about 20% after single dose administration. With long term administration rifabutin induces its own metabolism and the metabolism of some other drugs. The elimination half-life of rifabutin is long (45 hours) but, as a result of a very large volume of distribution (> 9 L/kg), average plasma concentrations remain relatively low after repeated administration of standard doses. In vitro rifabutin is more active against M. avium-intracellulare complex and at least as active against M. tuberculosis as rifampicin. In vivo the advantage of rifabutin is less apparent due to its lower plasma concentrations at equivalent doses. Adverse effects are unusual at the recommended oral dosage of 300 mg/day, but become common as the total daily dose approaches 1 g. Dose-limiting toxicity consists of a polyarthralgia/arthritis syndrome, possibly complicated by uveitis. More clinical studies are needed to establish the role of rifabutin in combination therapy for M. avium-intracellulare complex and other mycobacterial infections.
Abstract: Biotransformation of rifabutin, an antibiotic used for treatment of tuberculosis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and its interactions with some macrolide and antifungal agents were studied in human intestinal and liver microsomes. Both liver and enterocyte microsomes metabolized rifabutin to 25-O-deacetylrifabutin, 27-O-demethylrifabutin, and 20-, 31-, and 32-hydroxyrifabutin. The same products (except 25-O-deacetylrifabutin) were formed by microsomes from lymphoblastoid cells that contained expressed CYP3A4. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km); approximately 10 to 12 mumol/L) and maximal velocity (Vmax; approximately 100 pmol/min/mg of protein) values for CYP-mediated metabolism were similar in liver and enterocyte microsomes. Deacetylation of rifabutin (Km approximately 16 to 20 mumol/L and Vmax approximately 50 to 100 pmol/min/mg of protein) was catalyzed by microsomal cholinesterase. Clarithromycin, ketoconazole, and fluconazole inhibited CYP-mediated metabolism of rifabutin in enterocyte microsomes equally or more potently than in liver microsomes but had no effect on cholinesterase activity. Azithromycin did not inhibit in vitro metabolism of rifabutin. This study provides evidence that CYP3A4 and cholinesterase are major enzymes that biotransform rifabutin in humans and that intestinal CYP3A4 contributes significantly to rifabutin presystemic first-pass metabolism and drug interactions with macrolide and antifungal agents.
Abstract: Ten human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were given rifabutin in addition to fluconazole and clarithromycin. There was a 76% increase in the area under the concentration-time curve of rifabutin when either fluconazole or clarithromycin was given alone and a 152% increase when both drugs were given together with rifabutin. Patients should be monitored for adverse effects of rifabutin administered concomitantly with clarithromycin and/or fluconazole.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Treatment of HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients is complex due to drug-drug interactions for these chronic diseases. This study evaluates an intermittent dosing regimen for rifabutin when it is co-administered with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized, multiple-dose, parallel-group study was conducted in healthy subjects and these subjects received a daily dose of rifabutin 150 mg (n = 15, reference group) or a twice weekly dose with atazanavir 300 mg/ritonavir 100 mg once daily (n = 18, test group). Serial blood samples were collected at steady-state for pharmacokinetic analysis. Modelling and simulation techniques were utilized, integrating data across several healthy subject studies. This study is known as Study AI424-360 and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00646776. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), AUC(24avg) and C(min)) for rifabutin (149%, 48% and 40% increase, respectively) and 25-O-desacteyl rifabutin (6.77-, 9.90- and 10.45-fold increases, respectively) were both increased when rifabutin was co-administered with atazanavir/ritonavir than rifabutin 150 mg once daily alone. The study was stopped because subjects experienced more severe declines in neutrophil counts when rifabutin was given with atazanavir/ritonavir than alone. A post-hoc simulation analysis showed that when rifabutin 150 mg was given three times weekly with atazanavir/ritonavir, the average daily exposure of rifabutin was comparable to rifabutin 300 mg once daily, a dose necessary for reducing rifamycin resistance in HIV/TB co-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits to HIV/TB co-infected patients receiving rifabutin 150 mg three times weekly or every other day may outweigh the risks of neutropenia observed here in non-HIV-infected subjects, provided that patients on combination therapy will be closely monitored for safety and tolerability.
Abstract: Three open-label, single-dose studies investigated the impact of hepatic or renal impairment on abiraterone acetate pharmacokinetics and safety/tolerability in non-cancer patients. Patients (n = 8 each group) with mild/moderate hepatic impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-, BMI-matched healthy controls received a single oral 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate (tablet dose); while patients (n = 8 each) with severe hepatic impairment and matched healthy controls received 125- and 2,000-mg abiraterone acetate (suspension doses), respectively (systemic exposure of abiraterone acetate suspension is approximately half to that of tablet formulation). Blood was sampled at specified timepoints up to 72 or 96 hours postdose to measure plasma abiraterone concentrations. Abiraterone exposure was comparable between healthy controls and patients with mild hepatic impairment or ESRD, but increased by 4-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Despite a 16-fold reduction in dose, abiraterone exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment was about 22% and 44% of the Cmax and AUC∞ of healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that abiraterone pharmacokinetics were not changed markedly in patients with ESRD or mild hepatic impairment. However, the capacity to eliminate abiraterone was substantially compromised in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. A single-dose administration of abiraterone acetate was well-tolerated.
Abstract: Rifabutin, used to treat HIV-infected tuberculosis, shows highly variable drug exposure, complicating dosing. Effects of SLCO1B1 polymorphisms on rifabutin pharmacokinetics were investigated in 35 African HIV-infected tuberculosis patients after multiple doses. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling found that influential covariates for the pharmacokinetics were weight, sex, and a 30% increased bioavailability among heterozygous carriers of SLCO1B1 rs1104581 (previously associated with low rifampin concentrations). Larger studies are needed to understand the complex interactions of host genetics in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00640887.).
Abstract: Two novel oral drugs that target androgen signaling have recently become available for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Abiraterone acetate inhibits the synthesis of the natural ligands of the androgen receptor, whereas enzalutamide directly inhibits the androgen receptor by several mechanisms. Abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide appear to be equally effective for patients with mCRPC pre- and postchemotherapy. Rational decision making for either one of these drugs is therefore potentially driven by individual patient characteristics. In this review, an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics is given for both drugs and potential and proven drug-drug interactions are presented. Additionally, the effect of patient-related factors on drug disposition are summarized and the limited data on the exposure-response relationships are described. The most important pharmacological feature of enzalutamide that needs to be recognized is its capacity to induce several key enzymes in drug metabolism. The potency to cause drug-drug interactions needs to be addressed in patients who are treated with multiple drugs simultaneously. Abiraterone has a much smaller drug-drug interaction potential; however, it is poorly absorbed, which is affected by food intake, and a large interpatient variability in drug exposure is observed. Dose reductions of abiraterone or, alternatively, the selection of enzalutamide, should be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Understanding the pharmacological characteristics and challenges of both drugs could facilitate decision making for either one of the drugs.
Abstract: We present a case of a 77 year-old gentleman with previous coronary artery bypass grafting, admitted to hospital with recurrent torsades de pointes (TdP) due to abiraterone-induced hypokalaemia and prolonged QTc. The patient was on abiraterone and prednisone for metastatic prostate cancer. He required multiple defibrillations for recurrent TdP. Abiraterone is a relatively novel drug used in metastatic prostate cancer and we discuss this potential adverse effect and its management in this unusual presentation.