Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
|Infezione delle vie respiratorie superiori|
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
|Pravastatina||1.73 [1.73,3.1] 1||1.02||1.72|
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. L'esposizione alla pravastatina aumenta al 173%, se combinato con amiodarone (102%) e itraconazolo (172%). Questo può portare a un aumento degli effetti collaterali. Non abbiamo rilevato alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla amiodarone, se combinato con pravastatina (100%). Al momento non possiamo stimare l'influenza della itraconazolo. L'esposizione alla itraconazolo aumenta al 208%, se combinato con pravastatina (100%) e amiodarone (208%). Questo può portare a un aumento degli effetti collaterali.
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La pravastatina ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 18%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 0.79 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è piuttosto debole al 48.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è di 34 litri nell'intervallo medio. ecco perché, con una velocità di estrazione epatica media di 0,9, sono rilevanti sia il flusso sanguigno epatico [Q] che una variazione del legame proteico [Pb]. Circa il 47.0% di una dose somministrata viene escreta immodificata attraverso i reni e questa proporzione è raramente modificata dalle interazioni. Il metabolismo non avviene tramite i comuni citocromi e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite BCRP, MRP2, MRP4, OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP2B1 e PGP.
La amiodarone ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 55%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto lunga a 1884 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti solo dopo più di 7536 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 96%. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP2C8 e CYP3A4, tra gli altri e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare tramite PGP.
La itraconazolo ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 55%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è di 21 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti dopo circa 84 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 99.8% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 796 litri, ecco perché, con una velocità di estrazione epatica media di 0,9, sono rilevanti sia il flusso sanguigno epatico [Q] che una variazione del legame proteico [Pb]. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP3A4 e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare tramite PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la pravastatina, amiodarone né la itraconazolo aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
Valutazione: Secondo i nostri risultati, né la pravastatina, amiodarone né la itraconazolo aumentano l'attività anticolinergica.
Estensione di tempo QT
Valutazione: In combinazione, amiodarone e itraconazolo possono potenzialmente innescare aritmie ventricolari di tipo torsione di punta. Non conosciamo alcun potenziale di prolungamento dell'intervallo QT per la pravastatina.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||pra||ami||itr|
|Infezione delle vie respiratorie superiori||19.6 %||12.7||n.a.||8.0↑|
|Dolore muscoloscheletrico||14.4 %||14.4||n.a.||n.a.|
|Perdita di appetito||6.5 %||n.a.||6.5||n.a.|
Atassia (6.5%): amiodarone
Problema di coordinamento (6.5%): amiodarone
Parestesia (6.5%): amiodarone
Mal di testa (6.1%): pravastatina, itraconazolo
Neuropatia periferica: amiodarone
Pseudotumor cerebri: amiodarone
Visione offuscata (6.5%): amiodarone
Neurite ottica: amiodarone
Perdita della vista: amiodarone
Eruzione cutanea (6%): pravastatina, itraconazolo
Prurito (4%): itraconazolo
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson: amiodarone
Necrolisi epidermica tossica: amiodarone
Sinusite (4.5%): itraconazolo
Sindrome da distress respiratorio acuto (2%): amiodarone
Fibrosi polmonare: amiodarone
Edema polmonare: itraconazolo
Edema periferico (4%): itraconazolo
Ipertensione (3%): itraconazolo
Insufficienza cardiaca: amiodarone, itraconazolo
Aritmia ventricolare: amiodarone
Diarrea (2.9%): pravastatina, itraconazolo
Dolore addominale (2.9%): itraconazolo
Pancreatite: pravastatina, itraconazolo
Febbre (2.5%): itraconazolo
Fatica (2.3%): itraconazolo
Ipertiroidismo (2%): amiodarone
Epatotossicità: amiodarone, itraconazolo
Reazione di ipersensibilità: amiodarone, itraconazolo
Insufficienza renale: amiodarone
Rottura del tendine: pravastatina
Perdita dell'udito: itraconazolo
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: Pravastatin sodium, a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, is a new orally effective hypocholesterolaemic agent. In a two-way crossover study, eight healthy male subjects each received an intravenous and an oral dose of [14C]-pravastatin sodium. The oral absorption of [14C] activity from pravastatin sodium was about 34% and the oral bioavailability was about 18%, suggesting first-pass metabolism of pravastatin. After the intravenous dose, the recovery of radioactivity averaged 60% and 34% in urine and faeces, respectively. Corresponding values were 20% (urine) and 71% (faeces) for the oral dose. The estimated average plasma elimination half-life of pravastatin was 0.8 and 1.8 h for the intravenous and oral routes, respectively. The average values for total and renal clearances were 13.5 and 6.3 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively, and the steady-state volume of distribution averaged 0.51 kg-1. These results suggest that both kidney and liver are important sites of elimination for pravastatin.
Abstract: Amiodarone is considered to be safe in patients with prior QT prolongation and torsades de pointes taking class I antiarrhythmic agents who require continued antiarrhythmic drug therapy. However, the safety of amiodarone in advanced heart failure patients with a history of drug-induced torsades de pointes, who may be more susceptible to proarrhythmia, is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess amiodarone safety and efficacy in heart failure patients with prior antiarrhythmic drug-induced torsades de pointes. We determined the history of torsades de pointes in 205 patients with heart failure treated with amiodarone, and compared the risk of sudden death in patients with and without such a history. To evaluate the possibility that all patients with a history of torsades de pointes would be at high risk for sudden death regardless of amiodarone treatment, we compared this risk in patients with a history of torsades de pointes who were and were not subsequently treated with amiodarone. Of 205 patients with advanced heart failure, 8 (4%) treated with amiodarone had prior drug-induced torsades de pointes. Despite similar severity of heart failure, the 1-year actuarial sudden death risk was markedly increased in amiodarone patients with than without prior torsades de pointes (55% vs 15%, p = 0.0001). Similarly, the incidence of 1-year sudden death was markedly increased in patients with prior torsades de pointes taking amiodarone compared with such patients who were not subsequently treated with amiodarone (55% vs 0%, p = 0.09).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A novel human organic transporter, OATP2, has been identified that transports taurocholic acid, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and thyroid hormone, as well as the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin. OATP2 is expressed exclusively in liver in contrast to all other known transporter subtypes that are found in both hepatic and nonhepatic tissues. OATP2 is considerably diverged from other family members, sharing only 42% sequence identity with the four other subtypes. Furthermore, unlike other subtypes, OATP2 did not transport digoxin or aldosterone. The rat isoform oatp1 was also shown to transport pravastatin, whereas other members of the OATP family, i.e. rat oatp2, human OATP, and the prostaglandin transporter, did not. Cis-inhibition studies indicate that both OATP2 and roatp1 also transport other statins including lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin. In summary, OATP2 is a novel organic anion transport protein that has overlapping but not identical substrate specificities with each of the other subtypes and, with its liver-specific expression, represents a functionally distinct OATP isoform. Furthermore, the identification of oatp1 and OATP2 as pravastatin transporters suggests that they are responsible for the hepatic uptake of this liver-specific hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor in rat and man.
Abstract: Pravastatin, one of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) widely used in the management of hypercholesterolaemia, has unique pharmacokinetic characteristics among the members of this class. Many in vivo and in vitro human and animal studies suggest that active transport mechanisms are involved in the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin. The oral bioavailability of pravastatin is low because of incomplete absorption and a first-pass effect. The drug is rapidly absorbed from the upper part of the small intestine, probably via proton-coupled carrier-mediated transport, and then taken up by the liver by a sodium-independent bile acid transporter. About half of the pravastatin that reaches the liver via the portal vein is extracted by the liver, and this hepatic extraction is mainly attributed to biliary excretion which is performed by a primary active transport mechanism. The major metabolites are produced by chemical degradation in the stomach rather than by cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism in the liver. The intact drug and its metabolites are cleared through both hepatic and renal routes, and tubular secretion is a predominant mechanism in renal excretion. The dual routes of pravastatin elimination reduce the need for dosage adjustment if the function of either the liver or kidney is impaired, and also reduce the possibility of drug interactions compared with other statins. which are largely eliminated by metabolism. The lower protein binding than other statins weakens the tendency for displacement of highly protein-bound drugs. Although all statins show a hepatoselective disposition, the mechanism for pravastatin is different from that of the others. There is high uptake of pravastatin by the liver via an active transport mechanism, but not by other tissues because of its hydrophilicity, whereas the disposition characteristics of other statins result from high hepatic extraction because of high lipophilicity. These pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin may be the result of the drug being given in the pharmacologically active open hydroxy acid form and the fact that its hydrophilicity is markedly higher than that of other statins. The nature of the pravastatin transporters, particularly in humans, remains unknown at present. Further mechanistic studies are required to establish the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of pravastatin and to provide the optimal therapeutic efficacy for various types of patients with hypercholesterolaemia.
Abstract: Involvement of LST-1 (a human liver-specific transporter, also called OATP2) as the major transporter in the uptake of pravastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, by human liver was demonstrated. The hepatic uptake of pravastatin evaluated using human hepatocytes was Na(+)-independent and reached saturation with a Michaelis constant (K(m)) of 11.5 +/- 2.2 microM. The uptake of pravastatin was temperature-dependent and was inhibited by estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide, taurocholic acid, bromosulfophthalein, and simvastatin acid, but not by p-aminohippurate. Estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide competitively inhibited pravastatin uptake with an inhibition constant comparable to the K(m) value for estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide transport, indicating that a common transporter mediates the transport of pravastatin and estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide in human hepatocytes. The results obtained with human hepatocytes agreed with those obtained with LST-1 expressing Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes microinjected with human liver polyadenylated mRNA showed Na(+)-independent uptake of pravastatin and estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide. A simultaneous injection of LST-1 antisense oligonucleotides completely abolished this uptake. Expression of LST-1 was immunohistochemically demonstrated in the human hepatocytes, but not in Hep G2 cells, which showed very low uptake of pravastatin. Therefore, LST-1 was regarded as a key molecule for pravastatin in liver-specific inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, making pravastatin accessible to the target enzyme, which would otherwise not be inhibited by this hydrophilic drug.
Abstract: Human organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2/SLC21A6) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) play important roles in the vectorial transport of organic anions across hepatocytes. In the present study, we have established a double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK II) cell monolayer, which expresses both OATP2 and MRP2 on basal and apical membranes, respectively. The basal-to-apical transport of 17 beta estradiol 17 beta-d-glucuronide (E(2)17 beta G), pravastatin, and leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)), which are substrates of OATP2 and MRP2, was significantly higher than that in the opposite direction in the double-transfected cells. Such vectorial transport was also observed for taurolithocholate sulfate, which is transported by rat oatp1 and Mrp2. The K(m) values of E(2)17 beta G and pravastatin for the basal-to-apical flux were 27.9 and 24.3 microm, respectively, which were comparable with those reported for OATP2. Moreover, the MRP2-mediated export of E(2)17 beta G across the apical membrane was not saturated. In contrast, basal-to-apical transport of estrone-3-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are significantly transported by OATP2, but not by MRP2, was not stimulated by MRP2 expression. The double-transfected MDCK II monolayer expressing both OATP2 and MRP2 may be used to analyze the hepatic vectorial transport of organic anions and to screen the transport profiles of new drug candidates.
Abstract: The pH-sensitive activity of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B, which is expressed at the apical membrane of human small intestinal epithelial cells, was functionally characterized. When initial uptake of estrone-3-sulfate, a typical substrate of OATP, was studied kinetically, we observed an increase in V(max) with decrease of pH from 7.4 to 5.0, whereas the change in K(m) was negligible. OATP-B-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate was independent of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, or glutathione, whereas the proton ionophore carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone exhibited a pH-dependent inhibitory effect, suggesting that a proton gradient is a driving force for OATP-B. When OATP-B was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, uptake activities for anionic compounds showed various kinds of pH sensitivity. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, estrone-3-sulfate, and fexofenadine were transported by OATP-B at both neutral and acidic pH, whereas estradiol-17beta-glucuronide, acetic acid, and lactic acid were not transported at all. Transport of taurocholic acid and pravastatin by OATP-B was observed only at acidic pH, demonstrating a pH-sensitive substrate specificity of OATP-B. Because the physiological pH close to the surface of intestinal epithelial cells is acidic, the roles of OATP-B in the small intestine might be different from those in other tissues, such as liver basolateral membrane. Although the driving force for OATP-B has not been fully established, the clarification of factors, such as pH, that affect the OATP-B-activity is essential for an understanding of the physiological and pharmacological relevance of the transporter in the small intestine.
Abstract: Itraconazole (ITZ) is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A in vivo. However, unbound plasma concentrations of ITZ are much lower than its reported in vitro Ki, and no clinically significant interactions would be expected based on a reversible mechanism of inhibition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for the in vitro-in vivo discrepancy. The metabolism of ITZ by CYP3A4 was studied. Three metabolites were detected: hydroxy-itraconazole (OH-ITZ), a known in vivo metabolite of ITZ, and two new metabolites: keto-itraconazole (keto-ITZ) and N-desalkyl-itraconazole (ND-ITZ). OHITZ and keto-ITZ were also substrates of CYP3A4. Using a substrate depletion kinetic approach for parameter determination, ITZ exhibited an unbound K(m) of 3.9 nM and an intrinsic clearance (CLint) of 69.3 ml.min(-1).nmol CYP3A4(-1). The respective unbound Km values for OH-ITZ and keto-ITZ were 27 nM and 1.4 nM and the CLint values were 19.8 and 62.5 ml.min(-1).nmol CYP3A4(-1). Inhibition of CYP3A4 by ITZ, OH-ITZ, keto-ITZ, and ND-ITZ was evaluated using hydroxylation of midazolam as a probe reaction. Both ITZ and OH-ITZ were competitive inhibitors of CYP3A4, with unbound Ki (1.3 nM for ITZ and 14.4 nM for OH-ITZ) close to their respective Km. ITZ, OH-ITZ, keto-ITZ and ND-ITZ exhibited unbound IC50 values of 6.1 nM, 4.6 nM, 7.0 nM, and 0.4 nM, respectively, when coincubated with human liver microsomes and midazolam (substrate concentration < Km). These findings demonstrate that ITZ metabolites are as potent as or more potent CYP3A4 inhibitors than ITZ itself, and thus may contribute to the inhibition of CYP3A4 observed in vivo after ITZ dosing.
Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms of drug interactions with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) has become increasingly important because of the potential for serious adverse effects, most notably myopathy. Most of the evidence supports the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes in many of these drug interactions. However, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux protein located in the gastrointestinal tract, placenta, kidneys, brain, and liver, may also play a role. Results of several studies with in vitro models have shown that lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin are inhibitors for P-gp and may be substrates for this transporter as well. Pravastatin and fluvastatin consistently demonstrate no significant inhibition of P-gp. Drug interaction studies involving statins and digoxin support a role for P-gp. Many additional drugs such as diltiazem, verapamil, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine, as well as dietary supplements such as St. John's wort and grapefruit juice, interact with statins and are modulators of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. However, the role of P-gp in these specific drug interactions remains unclear.
Abstract: Itraconazole (ITZ) is metabolized in vitro to three inhibitory metabolites: hydroxy-itraconazole (OH-ITZ), keto-itraconazole (keto-ITZ), and N-desalkyl-itraconazole (ND-ITZ). The goal of this study was to determine the contribution of these metabolites to drug-drug interactions caused by ITZ. Six healthy volunteers received 100 mg ITZ orally for 7 days, and pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted at days 1 and 7 of the study. The extent of CYP3A4 inhibition by ITZ and its metabolites was predicted using this data. ITZ, OH-ITZ, keto-ITZ, and ND-ITZ were detected in plasma samples of all volunteers. A 3.9-fold decrease in the hepatic intrinsic clearance of a CYP3A4 substrate was predicted using the average unbound steady-state concentrations (C(ss,ave,u)) and liver microsomal inhibition constants for ITZ, OH-ITZ, keto-ITZ, and ND-ITZ. Accounting for circulating metabolites of ITZ significantly improved the in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of CYP3A4 inhibition compared to a consideration of ITZ exposure alone.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The objective is to confirm if the prediction of the drug-drug interaction using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is more accurate. In vivo Ki values were estimated using PBPK model to confirm whether in vitro Ki values are suitable. METHOD: The plasma concentration-time profiles for the substrate with coadministration of an inhibitor were collected from the literature and were fitted to the PBPK model to estimate the in vivo Ki values. The AUC ratios predicted by the PBPK model using in vivo Ki values were compared with those by the conventional method assuming constant inhibitor concentration. RESULTS: The in vivo Ki values of 11 inhibitors were estimated. When the in vivo Ki values became relatively lower, the in vitro Ki values were overestimated. This discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo Ki values became larger with an increase in lipophilicity. The prediction from the PBPK model involving the time profile of the inhibitor concentration was more accurate than the prediction by the conventional methods. CONCLUSION: A discrepancy between the in vivo and in vitro Ki values was observed. The prediction using in vivo Ki values and the PBPK model was more accurate than the conventional methods.
Abstract: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) dose-dependently lower both the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease. In 2004, the UK approved a low-dose over-the-counter (OTC) simvastatin, but the US has rejected applications for non-prescription preparations of statins. The pharmacokinetics and interaction potentials of the possible OTC candidate statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin are clearly different. Simvastatin and lovastatin are mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, fluvastatin is metabolized by CYP2C9, and pravastatin is excreted largely unchanged. Several cell membrane transporters can influence the disposition of statins, e.g. the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 enhances their hepatic uptake. The c.521T>C (p.Val174Ala) genetic polymorphism of SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) considerably increases the plasma concentrations of simvastatin acid and moderately increases those of pravastatin but seems to have no significant effect on fluvastatin. Strong inhibitors of CYP3A (itraconazole, ritonavir) greatly (up to 20-fold) increase plasma concentrations of simvastatin, lovastatin and their active acid forms, thus enhancing the risk of myotoxicity. Weak or moderately potent CYP3A inhibitors such as verapamil, diltiazem and grapefruit juice can be used cautiously with low doses of simvastatin or lovastatin, but their concomitant use needs medical supervision. Potent inducers of CYP3A can greatly decrease plasma concentrations of simvastatin and simvastatin acid, and probably those of lovastatin and lovastatin acid. Although fluvastatin is metabolized by CYP2C9, its concentrations are changed less than 2-fold by inhibitors or inducers of CYP2C9. Pravastatin plasma concentrations are not significantly affected by any CYP inhibition and only slightly affected by inducers. Ciclosporin inhibits CYP3A, P-glycoprotein and OATP1B1. Gemfibrozil and its glucuronide inhibit CYP2C8 and OATP1B1. Ciclosporin and gemfibrozil increase plasma concentrations of statins and the risk of their myotoxicity, but fluvastatin seems to carry a smaller risk than other statins. Inhibitors of OATP1B1 may decrease the benefit-risk ratio of simvastatin, lovastatin and pravastatin by interfering with their (active acid forms) entry into hepatocytes. Understanding the differences in the pharmacokinetics and interaction potential of various statins helps in their selection for possible non-prescription status. On the pharmacokinetic basis, fluvastatin and pravastatin can be better choices than simvastatin or lovastatin for an OTC statin.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The most common acquired cause of Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is drug induced QT interval prolongation. It is an electrophysiological entity, which is characterized by an extended duration of the ventricular repolarization. Reflected as a prolonged QT interval in a surface ECG, this syndrome increases the risk for polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsade de Pointes) and sudden death. METHOD: Bibliographic databases as MEDLINE and EMBASE, reports and drug alerts from several regulatory agencies (FDA, EMEA, ANMAT) and drug safety guides (ICH S7B, ICH E14) were consulted to prepare this article. The keywords used were: polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, adverse drug events, prolonged QT, arrhythmias, intensive care unit and Torsade de Pointes. Such research involved materials produced up to December 2017. RESULTS: Because of their mechanism of action, antiarrhythmic drugs such as amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, procainamide, verapamil and diltiazem are associated to the prolongation of the QTc interval. For this reason, they require constant monitoring when administered. Other noncardiovascular drugs that are widely used in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), such as ondansetron, macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, typical and atypical antipsychotics agents such as haloperidol, thioridazine, and sertindole are also frequently associated with the prolongation of the QTc interval. As a consequence, critical patients should be closely followed and evaluated. CONCLUSION: ICU patients are particularly prone to experience a QTc interval prolongation mainly for two reasons. In the first place, they are exposed to certain drugs that can prolong the repolarization phase, either by their mechanism of action or through the interaction with other drugs. In the second place, the risk factors for TdP are prevalent clinical conditions among critically ill patients. As a consequence, the attending physician is expected to perform preventive monitoring and ECG checks to control the QTc interval.
Abstract: The accurate estimation of "in vivo" inhibition constants () of inhibitors and fraction metabolized () of substrates is highly important for drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. We hypothesized that analysis of the pharmacokinetic alterations of substrate metabolites in addition to the parent drug would enable accurate estimation of in vivoandTwenty-four pharmacokinetic DDIs caused by P450 inhibition were analyzed with PBPK models using an emerging parameter estimation method, the cluster Newton method, which enables efficient estimation of a large number of parameters to describe the pharmacokinetics of parent and metabolized drugs. For each DDI, two analyses were conducted (with or without substrate metabolite data), and the parameter estimates were compared with each other. In 17 out of 24 cases, inclusion of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis improved the reliability of bothandImportantly, the estimatedfor the same inhibitor from different DDI studies was generally consistent, suggesting that the estimatedfrom one study can be reliably used for the prediction of untested DDI cases with different victim drugs. Furthermore, a large discrepancy was observed between the reported in vitroand the in vitro estimates for some inhibitors, and the current in vivoestimates might be used as reference values when optimizing in vitro-in vivo extrapolation strategies. These results demonstrated that better use of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis of clinical DDI data can improve reliability of top-down parameter estimation and prediction of untested DDIs.
Abstract: Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used antiarrhythmic drugs. Despite its well-known side effects, amiodarone is considered to be a relatively safe drug, especially in short-term usage to prevent life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Our case demonstrates an instance where short-term usage can yield drug side effect.