Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di asenapina e risperidone. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla asenapina, quando è co-somministrata con la risperidone (100%). Non è stato possibile rilevare nessun tipo di cambiamento nell'esposizione alla risperidone. Allo stato attuale non è possibile valutare come influisce la asenapina.
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La asenapina ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 2%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 24 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 96 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 95% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 1700 litri. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente attraverso l'enzima CYP1A2 e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori UGT1A4 e TRA8X8.
La risperidone ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 70%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto breve in 4.9 ore e lo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge molto velocemente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 82.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è di 74 litri, Poiché la sostanza ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatica di 0.04, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può portare a un aumento dell'esposizione. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2D6 e CYP3A4. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la asenapina né la risperidone potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: La asenapina e la risperidone possiedono soltanto limitati effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di asenapina e risperidone potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||ase||ris|
|Aumento di peso||12.4 %||11.5||+|
|Ipotensione ortostatica||1.5 %||1.5||n.a.|
Fibrillazione atriale: risperidone
Blocco atrioventricolare: risperidone
Eruzione cutanea: risperidone
Dolore addominale: risperidone
Aumento dell'appetito: risperidone
Reazione di ipersensibilità: asenapina
Dolore muscoloscheletrico: risperidone
Convulsioni: risperidone, asenapina
Incidente cerebrovascolare: risperidone
Sindrome neurolettica maligna: risperidone, asenapina
Discinesia tardiva: risperidone
Visione offuscata: risperidone
Incontinenza urinaria: risperidone
Neutropenia: risperidone, asenapina
Porpora trombotica trombocitopenica: risperidone
Chetoacidosi diabetica: risperidone
Disfunzione erettile: risperidone
Embolia polmonare: risperidone
Tromboembolia venosa: risperidone
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Skin biopsies of normal hand skin showed focal parakeratosis and moderately dense dermal infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis and in the superficial dermis and a mononuclear dermal infiltrate consisting of peripheral T lymphocytes with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5-6/1. Biopsies of the immediate vesicular reactions induced by foods showed spongiotic vesicles within the epidermis and a moderate to dense mononuclear dermal perivascular infiltrate. The immunohistochemical features were similar to those described in apparently normal skin. The mechanism of this immediate vesicular reaction requires further research. The rapid appearance of the lesions (after 20-30 min) probably excludes an immunological cell-mediated pathogenesis. A non-immunological mechanism due to direct liberation of mediators by foods is more readily conceivable than an immediate immunological type of contact reaction.
Abstract: The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of the novel antipsychotic risperidone was studied in three healthy male subjects. One week after a single oral dose of 1 mg [14C]risperidone, 70% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine and 14% in the feces. Unchanged risperidone was mainly excreted in the urine and accounted for 30, 11, and 4% of the administered dose in the poor, intermediate, and extensive metabolizer of debrisoquine, respectively. Alicyclic hydroxylation at the 9-position of the tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]-pyrimidin-4-one moiety was the main metabolic pathway. The active metabolite 9-hydroxy-risperidone accounted for 8, 22, and 32% of the administered dose in the urine of the poor, intermediate, and extensive metabolizer, respectively. Oxidative N-dealkylation at the piperidine nitrogen, whether or not in combination with the 9-hydroxylation, accounted for 10-13% of the dose. In methanolic extracts of feces, risperidone, and benzisoxazole-opened risperidone and hydroxylated metabolites were detected. 9-Hydroxy-risperidone was by far the main plasma metabolite. The sum of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone accounted for the largest part of the plasma radioactivity in the three subjects. Although the debrisoquine-type genetic polymorphism plays a distinct role in the metabolism of risperidone, the pharmacokinetics of the active fraction (i.e. risperidone plus 9-hydroxy-risperidone) remained similar among the three subjects.
Abstract: Risperidone is a relatively new antipsychotic drug that has been reported to improve both the positive and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and produces relatively few extrapyramidal side effects at low doses. Formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone, an active metabolite, is the most important metabolic pathway of risperidone in human. In the present study, in vitro metabolism of risperidone (100 microM) was investigated using the recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9-arg144, CYP2C9-cys144, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 supplemented with an NADPH-generating system. 9-Hydroxyrisperidone was determined by a new HPLC method with an Hypersil CN column and a UV detector. Of these enzymes, CYPs 2D6, 3A4 and 3A5 were found to be the ones capable of metabolising risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, with activities of 7.5, 0.4 and 0.2 pmol pmol(-1) CYP min(-1), respectively. A correlation study using a panel of human liver microsomes showed that the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with CYP2D6 and 3A activities. Thus, both CYP2D6 and 3A4 are involved in the 9-hydroxylation of risperidone at the concentration of risperidone used in this study. This observation is confirmed by the findings that both quinidine (inhibitor of CYP2D6) and ketoconazole (inhibitor of CYP3A4) can inhibit the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Furthermore, inducers of CYP can significantly increase the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone in rat. The formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activities, suggesting that inducible CYP3A contributes significantly to the metabolism of risperidone in rat.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The authors review the mechanisms and establish the risk of torsade de pointes and sudden death with antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: They present a review of original concepts, the distinction between familial and drug-induced cases of torsade de pointes, and the recognition of the role of noncardiac drugs in torsade de pointes and sudden death. They review the evidence linking QTc interval prolongation, potassium channels, and torsade de pointes from both the long QT syndrome and drugs. They examine the risk for torsade de pointes from antipsychotic drugs and estimate the frequency of sudden death on the basis of epidemiological data in normal and schizophrenic populations. RESULTS: All drugs that cause torsade de pointes prolong the QTc interval and bind to the potassium rectifier channel, but the relationships are not precise. Prediction of torsade de pointes and sudden death can be improved by examining dose dependency, the percent of QTc intervals higher than 500 msec, and the risk of drug-drug interactions. Although sudden unexpected death occurs almost twice as often in populations treated with antipsychotics as in normal populations, there are still only 10-15 such events in 10,000 person-years of observation. CONCLUSIONS: Although pimozide, sertindole, droperidol, and haloperidol have been documented to cause torsade de pointes and sudden death, the most marked risk is with thioridazine. There is no association with olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone. Ziprasidone does prolong the QT interval, but there is no evidence to suggest that this leads to torsade de pointes or sudden death. Only widespread use will prove if ziprasidone is entirely safe. To date, all antipsychotic drugs have the potential for serious adverse events. Balancing these risks with the positive effects of treatment poses a challenge for psychiatry.
Abstract: The transmembrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a wide range of drugs. P-gp potentially limits access to brain tissue of psychoactive substrates, but little is known about its specificity for antipsychotics. The objective of this study was to assess the affinity of some atypical antipsychotic drugs in vitro for P-gp as indicative of their potential as P-gp substrates in vivo. The activity of P-gp towards four atypical and two conventional antipsychotics and a proven substrate, verapamil, was examined by their P-gp ATPase activity, a putative measure of P-gp affinity. The Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the data. The rank order of the ratio V(max) / K(m) was: verapamil (2.6) > quetiapine (1.7) > risperidone (1.4) > olanzapine (0.8) > chlorpromzaine (0.7) > haloperidol (0.3) = clozapine (0.3). The atypical antipsychotics quetiapine and risperidone were relatively good P-gp substrates, although their affinities were not as high as verapamil. Olanzapine showed intermediate affinity and clozapine showed the least affinity of the drugs studied. These results suggest that P-gp is likely to influence the access to the brain of all of the atypical antipsychotics studied to various degrees. In vivo studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of cytochrome 450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and ABCB1 variants on plasma risperidone concentrations and treatment response in 83 drug-naive patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis. METHODS: All patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks. The CYP2D6 genotyping was performed by allele-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (for alleles *3,*4,*6) and long-distance PCR (for duplications and allele *5), while real-time PCR analysis was used for the ABCB1 G2677T/A and C3435T variants. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-OH risperidone were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The number of patients with the CYP2D6 wild type (wt)/wt, wt/mutation (mut) and mut/mut genotype was 43, 32 and 8, respectively. The number of patients with the ABCB1 2677G/G, G/T and T/T variants was 29, 42 and 12, respectively; those with the 3435CC, C/T and T/T variants was 25, 37 and 21, respectively. The CYP2D6 genotype had a strong effect on the steady-state dose-corrected plasma levels (C/D) of risperidone, its 9-OH metabolite and the active moiety, while the ABCB1 2677 T/T and 3435 T/T genotypes has similarly strong effects on the active moiety C/D. The CYP2D6 poor metabolizers had a significantly higher risperidone C/D and active moiety C/D and lower 9-OH risperidone C/D. The ABCB1 3435 T allele and the ABCB1 2667 T-3435 T haplotype carriers were more frequent among subjects without extrapyramidal syndromes. Patients showed significant improvements in positive and general symptoms, but not in negative symptoms. These changes were not related to variations in genetic and drug concentration data. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that CYP2D6 and ABCB1 G2677T and C3435T may be useful determinants of risperidone plasma concentrations, but the clinical implications of these associations in relation to treatment response and side-effects remain unclear.
Abstract: An assessment of the effects of asenapine on QTc interval in patients with schizophrenia revealed a discrepancy between the results obtained by two different methods: an intersection-union test (IUT) (as recommended in the International Conference on Harmonisation E14 guidance) and an exposure-response (E-R) analysis. Simulations were performed in order to understand and reconcile this discrepancy. Although estimates of the time-matched, placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline (ddQTc) at peak plasma concentrations from the E-R analysis ranged from 2 to 5 ms per dose level, the IUT applied to simulated data from the E-R model yielded maximum ddQTc estimates of 7-10 ms for the various doses of asenapine. These results indicate that the IUT can produce biased estimates that may induce a high false-positive rate in individual thorough QTc trials. In such cases, simulations from an E-R model can aid in reconciling the results from the two methods and may support the use of E-R results as a basis for labeling.
Abstract: The metabolism and excretion of asenapine [(3aRS,12bRS)-5-chloro-2-methyl-2,3,3a,12b-tetrahydro-1H-dibenzo[2,3:6,7]-oxepino [4,5-c]pyrrole (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)] were studied after sublingual administration of [(14)C]-asenapine to healthy male volunteers. Mean total excretion on the basis of the percent recovery of the total radioactive dose was ∼90%, with ∼50% appearing in urine and ∼40% excreted in feces; asenapine itself was detected only in feces. Metabolic profiles were determined in plasma, urine, and feces using high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Approximately 50% of drug-related material in human plasma was identified or quantified. The remaining circulating radioactivity corresponded to at least 15 very polar, minor peaks (mostly phase II products). Overall, >70% of circulating radioactivity was associated with conjugated metabolites. Major metabolic routes were direct glucuronidation and N-demethylation. The principal circulating metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide; other circulating metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoyl-glucuronide, N-desmethylasenapine, and asenapine 11-O-sulfate. In addition to the parent compound, asenapine, the principal excretory metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide. Other excretory metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoylglucuronide, 11-hydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation, 10,11-dihydroxy-N-desmethylasenapine, 10,11-dihydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation (several combinations of these routes were found) and N-formylasenapine in combination with several hydroxylations, and most probably asenapine N-oxide in combination with 10,11-hydroxylations followed by conjugations. In conclusion, asenapine was extensively and rapidly metabolized, resulting in several regio-isomeric hydroxylated and conjugated metabolites.
Abstract: WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is mainly metabolized by human cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 and partly by CYP3A4 to 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Ketoconazole is used as a CYP3A4 inhibitor probe for studying drug-drug interactions. We aim to investigate the effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of risperidone in healthy male volunteers. METHODS: An open-label, randomized, two-phase crossover design with a 2-week washout period was performed in 10 healthy male volunteers. The volunteers received a single oral dose of 2mg of risperidone alone or in combination with 200mg of ketoconazole, once daily for 3days. Serial blood samples were collected at specific periods after ingestion of risperidone for a period of 96h. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined using a validated HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: After pretreatment with ketoconazole, the clearance of risperidone decreased significantly by 34·81±5·10% and the T(1/2) of risperidone increased significantly by 28·03±40·60%. The AUC(0-96) and AUC(0-∞) of risperidone increased significantly by 66·61± 43·03% and 66·54±39·76%, respectively. The Vd/f of risperidone increased significantly by 39·79±53·59%. However, the C(max) and T(max) of risperidone were not significantly changed, indicating that ketoconazole had minimal effect on the absorption of risperidone. The C(max) , T(max) and T(1/2) of 9-hydroxyrisperidone did not decrease significantly. However, the Cl/f of 9-hydroxyrisperidone increased significantly by 135·07± 124·68%, and the Vd/f of 9-hydroxyrisperidone decreased significantly by 29·47±54·64%. These changes led to a corresponding significant decrease in the AUC(0-96) and AUC(0-∞) of 9-hydroxyrisperidone by 47·76±22·39% and 48·49± 20·03%, respectively. Ketoconazole significantly inhibited the metabolism of risperidone through the inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4. our results suggest that besides CYP2D6, CYP3A4 contributes significantly to the metabolism of risperidone. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetics of risperidone was affected by the concomitant administration of ketoconazole. If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is used concomitantly with risperidone, it is necessary for the clinicians to monitor their patients for signs of adverse drug reactions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics are not well understood. Drug exposure may increase in patients with hepatic disease, owing to a reduction of certain metabolic enzymes. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of asenapine and its N-desmethyl and N⁺-glucuronide metabolites. METHODS: Two clinical studies were performed to assess exposure to asenapine, desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time data, using standard noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic variables that were studied included the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t(max)). Eligible subjects, from inpatient and outpatient clinics, were aged ≥18 years with a body mass index of ≥18 kg/m² and ≤32 kg/m². Sublingual asenapine (Saphris®) was administered as a single 5 mg dose. RESULTS: Thirty subjects participated in the hepatic impairment study (normal hepatic function, n = 8; mild hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class A], n = 8; moderate hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class B], n = 8; severe hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class C], n = 6). Thirty-three subjects were enrolled in the renal impairment study (normal renal function, n = 9; mild renal impairment, n = 8; moderate renal impairment, n = 8; severe renal impairment, n = 8). Asenapine and N-desmethylasenapine exposures were unaltered in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, compared with healthy controls. Severe hepatic impairment was associated with increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) values for total asenapine, N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide (5-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively), with slight increases in the C(max) of asenapine but 3- and 2-fold decreases in the C(max) values for N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide, respectively, compared with healthy controls. The mean AUC(∞) of unbound asenapine was more than 7-fold higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment than in healthy controls. Mild renal impairment was associated with slight elevations in the AUC(∞) of asenapine compared with healthy controls; alterations observed with moderate and severe renal impairment were marginal. N-desmethylasenapine exposure was only slightly altered by renal impairment. No correlations were observed between exposure and creatinine clearance. CONCLUSION: Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) was associated with pronounced increases in asenapine exposure, but significant increases were not seen with mild (Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment, or with any degree of renal impairment. Asenapine is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment; no dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, or in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Asenapine is one of the newer atypical antipsychotics on the market. It is a sublingually administered drug that is indicated for the treatment of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and is considered to be safe and well tolerated. Herein, we report a 71-year-old female with a history of bipolar disorder who had ventricular trigemini and experienced a large increase in her QTc interval after starting treatment with asenapine. These changes ceased following withdrawal of asenapine. In this case report, we discuss the importance of cardiac monitoring when switching antipsychotics, even to those that are considered to have low cardiac risk.
Abstract: Therapeutic drug monitoring studies have generally concentrated on controlling compliance and avoiding side effects by maintaining long-term exposure to minimally effective blood concentrations. The rationale for using therapeutic drug monitoring in relation to second-generation antipsychotics is still being discussed at least with regard to the real clinical utility, but there is evidence that it can improve efficacy, especially when patients do not respond or develop side effects using therapeutic doses. Furthermore, drug plasma concentration determinations can be of some utility in medico-legal problems. This review concentrates on the clinical pharmacokinetic data related to clozapine, risperidone, paliperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, sertindole, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, brexpiprazole and cariprazine and briefly considers the main aspects of their pharmacodynamics. Optimal plasma concentration ranges are proposed for clozapine, risperidone, paliperidone and olanzapine because the studies of quetiapine, amisulpride, asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone provide only limited information and there is no direct evidence concerning ziprasidone, aripiprazole, sertindole, brexpiprazole and cariprazine: the few reported investigations need to be confirmed and extended.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been described for the determination of asenapine (ASE) in presence of its inactive metabolites-desmethyl asenapine (DMA) and asenapine--glucuronide (ASG). ASE, and ASE 13C-d3, used as internal standard (IS), were extracted from 300 µL human plasma by a simple and precise liquid-liquid extraction procedure using methyl-butyl ether. Baseline separation of ASE from its inactive metabolites was achieved on Chromolith Performance RP(100 mm × 4.6 mm) column using acetonitrile-5.0 mM ammonium acetate-10% formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) within 4.5 min. Quantitation of ASE was done on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for ASE and ASE 13C-d3 were286.1 → 166.0 and290.0 → 166.1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method were 0.0025 ng/mL and 0.050 ng/mL respectively in a linear concentration range of 0.050-20.0 ng/mL for ASE. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) and mean relative recovery across quality control levels were ≤ 5.8% and 87.3%, respectively. Matrix effect, evaluated as IS-normalized matrix factor, ranged from 1.03 to 1.05. The stability of ASE under different storage conditions was ascertained in presence of the metabolites. The developed method is much simpler, matrix free, rapid and economical compared to the existing methods. The method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of asenapine in healthy Indian subjects for the first time.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is characterized by an excessive impact on positive and adverse drug reactions to antipsychotics, such as risperidone. Consequently, the pharmacokinetics of the drug and metabolite can be substantially altered and exhibit a high variability between the different phenotypes. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model considering the CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIS) taking CYP3A4 into account. Additionally, risperidone dose adjustments, which would compensate for genetically caused differences in the plasma concentrations of the active moiety (sum of risperidone and 9-OH-RIS) were calculated. METHODS: Based on available knowledge about risperidone, 9-OH-RIS, and relevant physiological changes according to different CYP2D6 phenotypes, several PBPK models were built. In addition, an initial model was further evaluated based on the plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-OH-RIS from a single-dose study including 71 genotyped healthy volunteers treated with 1 mg of oral risperidone. RESULTS: PBPK models were able to accurately describe risperidone exposure after single-dose administration, especially in the concentration range ≥ 1 µg/L, illustrated by a minimal bias and a good precision. About 90.3% of all weighted residuals versus observed plasma concentrations ≥ 1 µg/L were in the ± 30% range. The risperidone/9-OH-RIS ratio increased progressively according to reduced CYP2D6 activity, resulting in a mean ratio of 4.96 for poor metabolizers. Simulations demonstrate that dose adjustment of the drug by - 25% for poor metabolizers and by - 10% for intermediate metabolizers results in a similar exposure to that of extensive metabolizers. Conversely, the risperidone/9-OH-RIS ratio can be used to determine the phenotype of individuals. CONCLUSION: PBPK modelling can provide a valuable tool to predict the pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-OH-RIS in healthy volunteers, according to the different CYP2D6 phenotypes taking CYP3A4 into account. These models are able to ultimately support decision-making regarding dose-optimization strategies, especially for subjects showing lower CYP2D6 activity.