Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
|Aumento di peso|
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di asenapina e rivaroxaban. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla asenapina, quando è co-somministrata con la rivaroxaban (100%). Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla rivaroxaban, quando è co-somministrata con la asenapina (100%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La asenapina ha una bassa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale, perciò nel corso di un interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima (Cmax) tende fortemente a cambiare. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 24 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 96 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 95% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 1700 litri. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente attraverso l'enzima CYP1A2 e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori UGT1A4 e TRA8X8.
La rivaroxaban ha un elevata biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 90%, perciò nel corso di un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 7 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 28 ore. La finestra terapeutica è stretta e quindi il margine di sicurezza è piccolo. Anche piccoli cambiamenti nell'esposizione possono aumentare il rischio di tossicità. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 93.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è medio in 50 litri. Dato che il farmaco ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatico, lo spiazzamento del legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb] porta ad un aumento all'esposizione farmacologica. Circa il 36.0% della dose somministrata è escreta inalterata attraverso le urine e in seguito alle varie interazioni farmacologiche questo valore raramente cambia. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente attraverso l'enzima CYP3A4 e il trasporto attivo avviene parzialmente attraverso i trasportatori BCRP e PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la asenapina né la rivaroxaban potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: Somministrata unicamente, la Asenapina possiede lievi effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la rivaroxaban non causa un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
La asenapina potrebbe causare un aumento dell'intervallo QT, ma non è noto se sia in grado di causare aritmie a torsione di punta. Non è noto se la rivaroxaban sia potenzialmente in grado di prolungare l'intervallo QT
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||ase||riv|
|Aumento di peso||11.5 %||11.5||n.a.|
|Ipotensione ortostatica||1.5 %||1.5||n.a.|
|Emorragia gastrointestinale||1.3 %||n.a.||1.3|
Eruzione cutanea: rivaroxaban
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson: rivaroxaban
Aumente delle transaminasi: rivaroxaban
Mal di testa: rivaroxaban
Sindrome neurolettica maligna: asenapina
Angioedema: asenapina, rivaroxaban
Reazione di ipersensibilità: asenapina
Sindrome DRESS: rivaroxaban
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: An assessment of the effects of asenapine on QTc interval in patients with schizophrenia revealed a discrepancy between the results obtained by two different methods: an intersection-union test (IUT) (as recommended in the International Conference on Harmonisation E14 guidance) and an exposure-response (E-R) analysis. Simulations were performed in order to understand and reconcile this discrepancy. Although estimates of the time-matched, placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline (ddQTc) at peak plasma concentrations from the E-R analysis ranged from 2 to 5 ms per dose level, the IUT applied to simulated data from the E-R model yielded maximum ddQTc estimates of 7-10 ms for the various doses of asenapine. These results indicate that the IUT can produce biased estimates that may induce a high false-positive rate in individual thorough QTc trials. In such cases, simulations from an E-R model can aid in reconciling the results from the two methods and may support the use of E-R results as a basis for labeling.
Abstract: The metabolism and excretion of asenapine [(3aRS,12bRS)-5-chloro-2-methyl-2,3,3a,12b-tetrahydro-1H-dibenzo[2,3:6,7]-oxepino [4,5-c]pyrrole (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)] were studied after sublingual administration of [(14)C]-asenapine to healthy male volunteers. Mean total excretion on the basis of the percent recovery of the total radioactive dose was ∼90%, with ∼50% appearing in urine and ∼40% excreted in feces; asenapine itself was detected only in feces. Metabolic profiles were determined in plasma, urine, and feces using high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Approximately 50% of drug-related material in human plasma was identified or quantified. The remaining circulating radioactivity corresponded to at least 15 very polar, minor peaks (mostly phase II products). Overall, >70% of circulating radioactivity was associated with conjugated metabolites. Major metabolic routes were direct glucuronidation and N-demethylation. The principal circulating metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide; other circulating metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoyl-glucuronide, N-desmethylasenapine, and asenapine 11-O-sulfate. In addition to the parent compound, asenapine, the principal excretory metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide. Other excretory metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoylglucuronide, 11-hydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation, 10,11-dihydroxy-N-desmethylasenapine, 10,11-dihydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation (several combinations of these routes were found) and N-formylasenapine in combination with several hydroxylations, and most probably asenapine N-oxide in combination with 10,11-hydroxylations followed by conjugations. In conclusion, asenapine was extensively and rapidly metabolized, resulting in several regio-isomeric hydroxylated and conjugated metabolites.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics are not well understood. Drug exposure may increase in patients with hepatic disease, owing to a reduction of certain metabolic enzymes. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of asenapine and its N-desmethyl and N⁺-glucuronide metabolites. METHODS: Two clinical studies were performed to assess exposure to asenapine, desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time data, using standard noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic variables that were studied included the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t(max)). Eligible subjects, from inpatient and outpatient clinics, were aged ≥18 years with a body mass index of ≥18 kg/m² and ≤32 kg/m². Sublingual asenapine (Saphris®) was administered as a single 5 mg dose. RESULTS: Thirty subjects participated in the hepatic impairment study (normal hepatic function, n = 8; mild hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class A], n = 8; moderate hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class B], n = 8; severe hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class C], n = 6). Thirty-three subjects were enrolled in the renal impairment study (normal renal function, n = 9; mild renal impairment, n = 8; moderate renal impairment, n = 8; severe renal impairment, n = 8). Asenapine and N-desmethylasenapine exposures were unaltered in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, compared with healthy controls. Severe hepatic impairment was associated with increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) values for total asenapine, N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide (5-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively), with slight increases in the C(max) of asenapine but 3- and 2-fold decreases in the C(max) values for N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide, respectively, compared with healthy controls. The mean AUC(∞) of unbound asenapine was more than 7-fold higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment than in healthy controls. Mild renal impairment was associated with slight elevations in the AUC(∞) of asenapine compared with healthy controls; alterations observed with moderate and severe renal impairment were marginal. N-desmethylasenapine exposure was only slightly altered by renal impairment. No correlations were observed between exposure and creatinine clearance. CONCLUSION: Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) was associated with pronounced increases in asenapine exposure, but significant increases were not seen with mild (Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment, or with any degree of renal impairment. Asenapine is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment; no dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, or in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: AIMS: The anticoagulant rivaroxaban is an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor for the management of thromboembolic disorders. Metabolism and excretion involve cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and 2J2 (CYP2J2), CYP-independent mechanisms, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) (ABCG2). METHODS: The pharmacokinetic effects of substrates or inhibitors of CYP3A4, P-gp and Bcrp (ABCG2) on rivaroxaban were studied in healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Rivaroxaban did not interact with midazolam (CYP3A4 probe substrate). Exposure to rivaroxaban when co-administered with midazolam was slightly decreased by 11% (95% confidence interval [CI] -28%, 7%) compared with rivaroxaban alone. The following drugs moderately affected rivaroxaban exposure, but not to a clinically relevant extent: erythromycin (moderate CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitor; 34% increase [95% CI 23%, 46%]), clarithromycin (strong CYP3A4/moderate P-gp inhibitor; 54% increase [95% CI 44%, 64%]) and fluconazole (moderate CYP3A4, possible Bcrp [ABCG2] inhibitor; 42% increase [95% CI 29%, 56%]). A significant increase in rivaroxaban exposure was demonstrated with the strong CYP3A4, P-gp/Bcrp (ABCG2) inhibitors (and potential CYP2J2 inhibitors) ketoconazole (158% increase [95% CI 136%, 182%] for a 400 mg once daily dose) and ritonavir (153% increase [95% CI 134%, 174%]). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that rivaroxaban may be co-administered with CYP3A4 and/or P-gp substrates/moderate inhibitors, but not with strong combined CYP3A4, P-gp and Bcrp (ABCG2) inhibitors (mainly comprising azole-antimycotics, apart from fluconazole, and HIV protease inhibitors), which are multi-pathway inhibitors of rivaroxaban clearance and elimination.
Abstract: Rivaroxaban is an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor that targets free and clot-bound Factor Xa and Factor Xa in the prothrombinase complex. It is absorbed rapidly, with maximum plasma concentrations being reached 2-4 h after tablet intake. Oral bioavailability is high (80-100 %) for the 10 mg tablet irrespective of food intake and for the 15 mg and 20 mg tablets when taken with food. Variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters is moderate (coefficient of variation 30-40 %). The pharmacokinetic profile of rivaroxaban is consistent in healthy subjects and across a broad range of different patient populations studied. Elimination of rivaroxaban from plasma occurs with a terminal half-life of 5-9 h in healthy young subjects and 11-13 h in elderly subjects. Rivaroxaban produces a pharmacodynamic effect that is closely correlated with its plasma concentration. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship for inhibition of Factor Xa activity can be described by an E max model, and prothrombin time prolongation by a linear model. Rivaroxaban does not inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes or known drug transporter systems and, because rivaroxaban has multiple elimination pathways, it has no clinically relevant interactions with most commonly prescribed medications. Rivaroxaban has been approved for clinical use in several thromboembolic disorders.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the interactions of 3 anticoagulants, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran, with 5 human solute carrier transporters, hOAT1, hOAT3, hOCT2, hOATP1B1, and hOATP1B3. Apixaban inhibited hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP1B3, and rivaroxaban inhibited hOAT3 and hOATP1B3, with ICvalues of >20 and >5 μM, respectively. The effect of dabigatran was negligible or very weak, so significant drug interactions at therapeutic doses are unlikely. Specific uptake of rivaroxaban was observed only in human and mouse OAT3-expressing cells. The Kfor mouse Oat3 (mOat3) was 1.01 ± 0.70 μM. A defect in mOat3 reduced the kidney-to-plasma concentration ratio of rivaroxaban by 38% in mice. Probenecid treatment also reduced the kidney-to-plasma concentration ratio of rivaroxaban in rats by 73%. Neither mOat3 defect nor probenecid administration in rats reduced the renal clearance of rivaroxaban. The uptake of rivaroxaban by monkey kidney slices was temperature dependent and inhibited by probenecid but not by tetraethylammonium. Taken together, organic anion transporters, mainly OAT3, may mediate basolateral uptake of rivaroxaban in kidneys. hOAT3 could be an additional factor that differentiates the potential drug-drug interactions of the 3 anticoagulants in the urinary excretion process in clinical settings.
Abstract: Pharmacokinetics and antithrombotic effects of the Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban were studied in subjects with mild renal insufficiency concurrently taking the P-glycoprotein and moderate CYP3A inhibitor verapamil, a drug commonly administered to patients with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, or atrial fibrillation. Age-matched controls with normal renal function were studied concurrently. Subjects' overall mean age was 59 years. Mean creatinine clearance values in the 2 groups were 105 and 71 mL/min. After single 20-mg oral doses, rivaroxaban area under the curve (AUC) was increased by a factor of 1.11 (ratio of geometric means [RGM]) in mild renal insufficiency compared to controls. Verapamil coadministration independently increased AUC to the same extent in both the mild renal insufficiency and control groups (RGM, 1.39 and 1.43). Concurrent mild renal insufficiency and verapamil produced additive inhibition compared to controls without verapamil (RGM, 1.58). Prothrombin time (PT) prolongation and Factor Xa inhibition tracked plasma rivaroxaban, and were enhanced by verapamil. Concentration-response relationships for PT (linear) and Factor Xa inhibition (hyperbolic) were unaffected by renal function or verapamil. The absolute and relative increases in rivaroxaban AUC caused by verapamil in mild renal insufficiency subjects are potentially associated with an increased bleeding risk. Modification of recommended dosage may be required in this combination of circumstances to reduce risk to patients.
Abstract: Asenapine is one of the newer atypical antipsychotics on the market. It is a sublingually administered drug that is indicated for the treatment of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and is considered to be safe and well tolerated. Herein, we report a 71-year-old female with a history of bipolar disorder who had ventricular trigemini and experienced a large increase in her QTc interval after starting treatment with asenapine. These changes ceased following withdrawal of asenapine. In this case report, we discuss the importance of cardiac monitoring when switching antipsychotics, even to those that are considered to have low cardiac risk.
Abstract: AIMS: We assessed the potential mutual interaction of oral macitentan (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrate) at steady-state with single-dose oral rivaroxaban (CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein substrate) and evaluated the effect of the CYP3A and P-glycoprotein inducer St John's wort (SJW) on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers completed this open-label, monocentre, two-period, one-sequence phase I clinical trial. The pharmacokinetics of macitentan (10 mg) was assessed on study days 3 (single dose), 15 (steady-state), 16 (impact of rivaroxaban) and 29 (after induction by oral SJW), and of rivaroxaban on days 2 (single dose), 16 (impact of macitentan at steady-state) and 29 (after induction by SJW). Concurrently, we quantified changes of CYP3A activity using oral microdoses of midazolam (30 μg). RESULTS: Rivaroxaban and macitentan did not significantly change the pharmacokinetics of each other. After induction with SJW, CYP3A activity increased by 272% and geometric mean ratios of macitentan AUC decreased by 48% and of C,by 45%. Concurrently, also geometric mean ratios of rivaroxaban AUC and C,decreased by 25%. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence for a relevant pharmacokinetic interaction between macitentan and rivaroxaban suggesting that these two drugs can be combined without dose adjustment. SJW strongly increased CYP3A activity and substantially reduced rivaroxaban and macitentan exposure while estimated net endothelin antagonism only decreased by 20%, which is considered clinically irrelevant. The combination of SJW with rivaroxaban should be avoided.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been described for the determination of asenapine (ASE) in presence of its inactive metabolites-desmethyl asenapine (DMA) and asenapine--glucuronide (ASG). ASE, and ASE 13C-d3, used as internal standard (IS), were extracted from 300 µL human plasma by a simple and precise liquid-liquid extraction procedure using methyl-butyl ether. Baseline separation of ASE from its inactive metabolites was achieved on Chromolith Performance RP(100 mm × 4.6 mm) column using acetonitrile-5.0 mM ammonium acetate-10% formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) within 4.5 min. Quantitation of ASE was done on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for ASE and ASE 13C-d3 were286.1 → 166.0 and290.0 → 166.1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method were 0.0025 ng/mL and 0.050 ng/mL respectively in a linear concentration range of 0.050-20.0 ng/mL for ASE. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) and mean relative recovery across quality control levels were ≤ 5.8% and 87.3%, respectively. Matrix effect, evaluated as IS-normalized matrix factor, ranged from 1.03 to 1.05. The stability of ASE under different storage conditions was ascertained in presence of the metabolites. The developed method is much simpler, matrix free, rapid and economical compared to the existing methods. The method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of asenapine in healthy Indian subjects for the first time.
Abstract: Rivaroxaban is indicated for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Its elimination is mediated by both hepatic metabolism and renal excretion. Consequently, its clearance is susceptible to both intrinsic (pathophysiological) and extrinsic (concomitant drugs) variabilities that in turn implicate bleeding risks. Upon systematic model verification, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are qualified for the quantitative rationalization of complex drug-drug-disease interactions (DDDIs). Hence, this study aimed to develop and verify a PBPK model of rivaroxaban systematically. Key parameters required to define rivaroxaban's disposition were either obtained from in vivo data or generated via in vitro metabolism and transport kinetic assays. Our developed PBPK model successfully predicted rivaroxaban's clinical pharmacokinetic parameters within predefined success metrics. Consideration of basolateral organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3)-mediated proximal tubular uptake in tandem with apical P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux facilitated mechanistic characterization of the renal elimination of rivaroxaban in both healthy and renal impaired patients. Retrospective drug-drug interaction (DDI) simulations, incorporating in vitro metabolic inhibitory parameters, accurately recapitulated clinically observed attenuation of rivaroxaban's hepatic clearance due to enzyme-mediated DDIs with CYP3A4/2J2 inhibitors (verapamil and ketoconazole). Notably, transporter-mediated DDI simulations between rivaroxaban and the P-gp inhibitor ketoconazole yielded minimal increases in rivaroxaban's systemic exposure when P-gp-mediated efflux was solely inhibited, but were successfully characterized when concomitant basolateral uptake inhibition was incorporated in the simulation. In conclusion, our developed PBPK model of rivaroxaban is systematically verified for prospective interrogation and management of untested yet clinically relevant DDDIs pertinent to AF management using rivaroxaban. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Rivaroxaban is susceptible to DDDIs comprising renal impairment and P-gp and CYP3A4/2J2 inhibition. Here, systematic construction and verification of a PBPK model of rivaroxaban, with the inclusion of a mechanistic kidney component, provided insight into the previously arcane role of OAT3-mediated basolateral uptake in influencing both clinically observed renal elimination of rivaroxaban and differential extents of transporter-mediated DDIs. The verified model holds potential for investigating clinically relevant DDDIs involving rivaroxaban and designing dosing adjustments to optimize its pharmacotherapy in atrial fibrillation.