Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di clozapina e astemizolo. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non è stato possibile rilevare nessun tipo di cambiamento nell'esposizione alla clozapina. Allo stato attuale non è possibile valutare come influisce la astemizolo. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla astemizolo, quando è co-somministrata con la clozapina (100%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La clozapina ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 55%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 14.2 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 56.8 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 95% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 112 litri, per cui, con un significativo tasso di estrazione epatico dello 0.33, hanno importanza sia il flusso ematico a livello del fegato [Q] sia le variazioni di legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb]. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP1A2 e CYP2C19. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
La astemizolo ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 3%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 22 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 88 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97%. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2D6 e CYP3A4..
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la clozapina né la astemizolo potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||+++||Ø|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: La clozapina aumenta notevolmente gli effetti anticolinergici. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la astemizolo non causa un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di clozapina e astemizolo potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||clo||ast|
|Aumento di peso||35.0 %||35.0||n.a.|
|Mal di testa||7.0 %||7.0||n.a.|
Sincope (6%): clozapina
Ipertensione (4%): clozapina
Arresto cardiaco: clozapina
Aritmia ventricolare: clozapina
Iperidrosi (6%): clozapina
Eritema multiforme: clozapina
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson: clozapina
Xerostomia (6%): clozapina
Nausea (5%): clozapina
Tremore (6%): clozapina
Sogni anormali (4%): clozapina
Agitazione (4%): clozapina
Irrequietezza (4%): clozapina
Acatisia (3%): clozapina
Convulsioni (3%): clozapina
Insonnia (2%): clozapina
Sindrome neurolettica maligna: clozapina
Ipercolesterolemia (5%): clozapina
Chetoacidosi diabetica: clozapina
Visione offuscata (5%): clozapina
Febbre (5%): clozapina
Fatica (2%): clozapina
Diabete mellito (4%): clozapina
Polmonite (3.5%): clozapina
Arresto respiratorio: clozapina
Leucopenia (3%): clozapina
Embolia polmonare: clozapina
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: The clinical pharmacokinetics of clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, was evaluated in 10 chronic schizophrenic male patients after intravenous and oral administration. The mean equilibrium-state concentration ratio between blood and plasma was experimentally determined to be 0.87. The average values for blood clearance, hepatic extraction ratio and oral bioavailability were 250 ml/min, 0.2 and 0.27, respectively. Plasma concentration peaked on average at 3 h. The mean volume of distribution at steady-state and the terminal half-life was 1.6 l/kg and 10.3 h, respectively. A large fraction of the dose is most probably metabolized by some extrahepatic presystemic routes. The large inter-individual variability in the bioavailability and clearance is probably the main reason for large variation in the steady-state plasma level in patients receiving the same oral dosage regimen.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV absorbance detection is described for the quantification of clozapine (8-chloro-11-(4'-methyl)piperazino-5H-dibenzo[b,e]-1,4-diazepine) and its two major metabolites in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The method involves sample clean-up by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was back-extracted with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. Loxapine served as the internal standard. The analytes were separated by HPLC on a Kromasil Ultrabase C18 analytical column (5 microns particle size; 250 x 4.6 mm I.D.) using acetonitrile-phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (48:52, v/v) as eluent and were measured by UV absorbance detection at 254 nm. The limits of quantiation were 20 ng/ml for clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine and 30 ng/ml for clozapine N-oxide. Recovery from plasma or RBCs proved to be higher than 62%. Precision, expressed as % C.V., was in the range 0.6-15%. Accuracy ranged from 96 to 105%. The method's ability to quantify clozapine and two major metabolites simultaneously with precision, accuracy and sensitivity makes it useful in therapeutic drug monitoring.
Abstract: AIMS: N-Desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide are major metabolites of the atypical neuroleptic clozapine in humans and undergo renal excretion. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the elimination of these metabolites in urine contributes to the total fate of clozapine in patients and how they are handled by the kidney. METHODS: From 15 psychiatric patients on continuous clozapine monotherapy, blood and urine samples were obtained during four 2 h intervals, and clozapine and its metabolites were assayed in serum and urine by solid-phase extraction and h.p.l.c. Unbound fractions of the compounds were measured by equilibrium dialysis. RESULTS: The following unbound fractions in serum were found (geometric means): clozapine 5.5%, N-desmethylclozapine 9.7%, and clozapine N-oxide 24.6%. Renal clearance values calculated from unbound concentrations in serum and quantities excreted in urine were for clozapine on average 11% of the creatinine clearance, whereas those of N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide amounted to 300 and 640%, respectively. The clearances of unbound clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine increased with increasing urine volume and decreasing pH. All renal clearance values exhibited large interindividual variations. The sum of clozapine and its metabolites in urine represented on average 14% of the dose. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide are highly protein-bound in serum. Clozapine is, after glomerular filtration, largely reabsorbed in the tubule, whereas the metabolites undergo net tubular secretion. Metabolic pathways alternative or subsequent to N-demethylation and N-oxidation must make major contributions to the total fate of clozapine in patients.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: To examine the genetic factors influencing clozapine kinetics in vivo, 75 patients treated with clozapine were genotyped for CYPs and ABCB1 polymorphisms and phenotyped for CYP1A2 and CYP3A activity. CYP1A2 activity and dose-corrected trough steady-state plasma concentrations of clozapine correlated significantly (r = -0.61; P = 1 x 10), with no influence of the CYP1A2*1F genotype (P = 0.38). CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (*2/*2 genotype) had 2.3-fold higher (P = 0.036) clozapine concentrations than the extensive metabolizers (non-*2/*2). In patients comedicated with fluvoxamine, a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor, clozapine and norclozapine concentrations correlate with CYP3A activity (r = 0.44, P = 0.075; r = 0.63, P = 0.007, respectively). Carriers of the ABCB1 3435TT genotype had a 1.6-fold higher clozapine plasma concentrations than noncarriers (P = 0.046). In conclusion, this study has shown for the first time a significant in vivo role of CYP2C19 and the P-gp transporter in the pharmacokinetics of clozapine. CYP1A2 is the main CYP isoform involved in clozapine metabolism, with CYP2C19 contributing moderately, and CYP3A4 contributing only in patients with reduced CYP1A2 activity. In addition, ABCB1, but not CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, nor CYP3A7 polymorphisms, influence clozapine pharmacokinetics.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Drug-induced agranulocytosis is a severe complication that has been implicated with most classes of medications. Medications such as clozapine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and methimazole have been more commonly associated with agranulocytosis than other agents. Although the pathogenesis isn't fully elucidated, it appears to be two-fold with a direct toxicity to the myeloid cell line and immune-mediated destruction. Patients may be asymptomatic at the time neutropenia is discovered or may present with more severe complications such as sepsis. In approximately 5% of cases drug-induced agranulocytosis may be fatal. Management of drug-induced agranulocytosis includes the immediate discontinuation of the offending medication, initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics and consideration of the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in high-risk patients.
Abstract: Rituximab can cause late-onset neutropenia that may result in serious life-threatening complications. The author describes the pathophysiology, incidence, and management of this adverse reaction and presents two case histories.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Using national Danish registers, we estimated rates of clozapine-associated cardiac adverse events. Rates of undiagnosed myocarditis were estimated by exploring causes of death after clozapine initiation. METHOD: Through nationwide health registers, we identified all out-patients initiating antipsychotic treatment (January 1, 1996-January 1, 2015). Rates of clozapine-associated myocarditis and pericarditis within 2 months from clozapine initiation and rates of cardiomyopathy within 1-2 years from clozapine initiation were compared to rates for other antipsychotics. Mortality within 2 months from clozapine initiation was extracted. RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred and sixty-two patients of a total 7932 patients initiated clozapine as out-patients (41.12%). One patient (0.03%) developed myocarditis, and no patients developed pericarditis within 2 months from clozapine initiation. Two (0.06%) and four patients (0.12%) developed cardiomyopathy within 1 and 2 years respectively. Rates were similar for other antipsychotics. Twenty-six patients died within 2 months from clozapine initiation. Pneumonia (23.08%) and stroke (11.54%) were the main causes of death. We estimated the maximum rate of clozapine-associated fatal myocarditis to 0.28%. CONCLUSION: Cardiac adverse effects in Danish out-patients initiating clozapine treatment are extremely rare and these rates appear to be comparable to those observed for other antipsychotic drugs.
Abstract: Non-chemotherapy idiosyncratic drug-induced neutropenia (IDIN) is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disorder that occurs in susceptible individuals, with an incidence of 2.4 to 15.4 cases per million population. Affected patients typically experience severe neutropenia within several weeks to several months after first exposure to a drug, and mortality is ∼5%. The drugs most frequently associated with IDIN include metamizole, clozapine, sulfasalazine, thiamazole, carbimazole, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, ticlopidine, and valganciclovir. The idiosyncratic nature of IDIN, the lack of mouse models and diagnostic testing, and its low overall incidence make rigorous studies to elucidate possible mechanisms exceptionally difficult. An immune mechanism for IDIN involving neutrophil destruction by hapten (drug)-specific antibodies and drug-induced autoantibodies is frequently suggested, but strong supporting evidence is lacking. Although laboratory testing for neutrophil drug-dependent antibodies is rarely performed because of the complexity and low sensitivity of tests currently in use, these assays could possibly be enhanced by using reactive drug metabolites in place of the parent drug. Patients typically experience acute, severe neutropenia, or agranulocytosis (<0.5 × 10neutrophils/L) and symptoms of fever, chills, sore throat, and muscle and joint pain. Diagnosis can be difficult, but timely recognition is critical because if left untreated, there is an increase in mortality. Expanded studies of the production and mechanistic role of reactive drug metabolites, genetic associations, and improved animal models of IDIN are essential to further our understanding of this important disorder.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Background and Objective: Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic drug that is considered the most effective treatment for refractory schizophrenia. Several clozapine population pharmacokinetic models have been introduced in the last decades. Thus, a systematic review was performed (i) to compare published pharmacokinetics models and (ii) to summarize and explore identified covariates influencing the clozapine pharmacokinetics models. Methods: A search of publications for population pharmacokinetic analyses of clozapine either in healthy volunteers or patients from inception to April 2019 was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS databases. Reviews, methodology articles, in vitro and animal studies, and noncompartmental analysis were excluded. Results: Twelve studies were included in this review. Clozapine pharmacokinetics was described as one-compartment with first-order absorption and elimination in most of the studies. Significant interindividual variations of clozapine pharmacokinetic parameters were found in most of the included studies. Age, sex, smoking status, and cytochrome P450 1A2 were found to be the most common identified covariates affecting these parameters. External validation was only performed in one study to determine the predictive performance of the models. Conclusions: Large pharmacokinetic variability remains despite the inclusion of several covariates. This can be improved by including other potential factors such as genetic polymorphisms, metabolic factors, and significant drug-drug interactions in a well-designed population pharmacokinetic model in the future, taking into account the incorporation of larger sample size and more stringent sampling strategy. External validation should also be performed to the previously published models to compare their predictive performances.