Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
|Reazioni allergiche della pelle|
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di astemizolo e difenidramina. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non è stato possibile rilevare nessun tipo di cambiamento nell'esposizione alla astemizolo. Allo stato attuale non è possibile valutare come influisce la difenidramina. Non è stato possibile rilevare nessun tipo di cambiamento nell'esposizione alla difenidramina. Allo stato attuale non è possibile valutare come influisce la astemizolo.
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La astemizolo ha una bassa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale, perciò nel corso di un interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima (Cmax) tende fortemente a cambiare. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 22 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 88 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97%. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2D6 e CYP3A4..
La difenidramina ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 50%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 98.5%. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 e CYP3A4. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la astemizolo né la difenidramina potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||Ø||+++|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: La difenidramina aumenta notevolmente gli effetti anticolinergici. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la astemizolo non causa un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di astemizolo e difenidramina potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||ast||dif|
|Reazioni allergiche della pelle||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
|Disturbo dell'attenzione||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the H1-receptor antagonist diphenhydramine were studied in 21 fasting subjects divided into three age groups: elderly, (mean age 69.4 +/- 4.3 years), young adults, (mean age 31.5 +/- 10.4 years), and children, (mean age 8.9 +/- 1.7 years). All subjects ingested a single dose of diphenhydramine syrup 1.25 mg/kg, in mean doses of 86.0 +/- 7.3 mg, 87.9 +/- 12.4 mg, and 39.5 +/- 8.4 mg, respectively. Blood samples were collected hourly for 6 hours, every 2 hours until 12 hours, at 24 hours, and, in the adults, up to 72 hours after diphenhydramine administration. At these times, histamine skin tests were performed and wheal and flare areas were computed. The mean serum elimination half-life values for diphenhydramine differed significantly in elderly adults, young adults, and children, with values of 13.5 +/- 4.2 hours, 9.2 +/- 2.5 hours, and 5.4 +/- 1.8 hours being found respectively in each age group. Clearance rates for diphenhydramine also differed significantly with age, being 11.7 +/- 3.1 mL/min/kg in elderly adults, 23.3 +/- 9.4 mL/min/kg in young adults and 49.2 +/- 22.8 mL/min/kg in children. Diphenhydramine produced a maximum wheal suppression of 39.6 +/- 22.5% and a maximum flare suppression of 46.5 +/- 32.1% at 5 and 6 hours respectively in the elderly; a maximum wheal suppression of 45.5 +/- 25.0% and a maximum flare suppression of 53.4 +/- 16.9% at 6 and 4 hours respectively in young adults; and a maximum wheal suppression of 68.4 +/- 10.2% and a maximum flare suppression of 87.2 +/- 4.2% at 2 hours in children.
Abstract: This article reviews clinical pharmacokinetic data on the H1-receptor antagonists, commonly referred to as the antihistamines. Despite their widespread use over an extended period, relatively little pharmacokinetic data are available for many of these drugs. A number of H1-receptor antagonists have been assayed mainly using radioimmunoassay methods. These have also generally measured metabolites to greater or lesser extents. Thus, the interpretation of such data is complex. After oral administration of H1-receptor antagonists as syrup or tablet formulations, peak plasma concentrations are usually observed after 2 to 3 hours. Bioavailability has not been extensively studied, but is about 0.34 for chlorpheniramine, 0.40 to 0.60 for diphenhydramine, and about 0.25 for promethazine. Most of these drugs are metabolised in the liver, this being very extensive in some instances (e.g. cyproheptadine and terfenadine). Total body clearance in adults is generally in the range of 5 to 12 ml/min/kg (for astemizole, brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, promethazine and triprolidine), while their elimination half-lives range from about 3 hours to about 18 days [cinnarizine about 3 hours; diphenhydramine about 4 hours; promethazine 10 to 14 hours; chlorpheniramine 14 to 25 hours; hydroxyzine about 20 hours; brompheniramine about 25 hours; astemizole and its active metabolites about 7 to 20 days (after long term administration); flunarizine about 18 to 20 days]. They also have relatively large apparent volumes of distribution in excess of 4 L/kg. In children, the elimination half-lives of chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine are shorter than in adults. In patients with alcohol-related liver disease, the elimination half-life of diphenhydramine was increased from 9 to 15 hours, while in patients with chronic renal disease that of chlorpheniramine was very greatly prolonged. Little, if any, published information is available on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in neonates, pregnancy or during lactation. The relatively long half-lives of a number of the older H1-receptor antagonists such as brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine suggest that they can be administered to adults once daily.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: The histamine I receptor antagonist diphenhydramine is a freely available, over the counter medication for sleep and the most frequently used antihistamine drug. It inhibits the fast sodium channels and, at higher concentrations, the repolarising potassium channels, particularly Ikr which leads to prolongation of the action potential and the QT interval. The toxicity of diphenhydramine is dose-dependent, with a critical dose limit of 1.0 g. We report a case of a young woman who consumed more than 3 g of diphenhydramine in the setting of alcohol intoxication and developed QTc prolongation with nonsustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. These changes reverted to normal with supportive treatment. An overdose of diphenhydramine with concomitant alcohol use can induce torsade de pointes in an otherwise normal heart.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: There have been few cases in recent times where QT interval prolongation has been studied with regards to the use of diphenhydramine. We present a case of a patient who presented because of shortness of breath and needed emergent hemodialysis; during the course of which he developed prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, which was correlated interestingly with the use of diphenhydramine. Pruritus is a common symptom experienced by dialysis patients. A less known, but rare side effect of diphenhydramine is prolongation of QT interval. The histamine H1 receptor antagonist diphenhydramine inhibits the fast sodium channels and at higher concentrations inhibits the repolarizing potassium channels which leads to prolongation of the action potential and the QT interval. Diphenhydramine toxicity is dose-dependent with a critical dose limit of 1.0 g. Although a lot is known about the potential side effects of antihistamines, only a few cases have cited the cardiac side effects. Thus, it is important for the clinician to be aware of this potentially serious consequence of a commonly used drug, especially in the end-stage renal disease population. It is important for clinicians to be aware of this rare yet dangerous side effect of diphenhydramine. <Although a lot is known about the potential side effects of antihistamine drugs little is described regarding cardiac side effects. Some antihistamines such as terfenadine have been discontinued from the US market due to prolonged QT interval; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of potentially serious consequences of a commonly used drug such as diphenhydramine. We describe a case of a patient who developed QT prolongation with a temporal association with diphenhydramine usage.>.