Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di flupentixolo e astemizolo. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla flupentixolo, quando è co-somministrata con la astemizolo (100%). Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla astemizolo, quando è co-somministrata con la flupentixolo (100%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La flupentixolo ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 48%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 35 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 140 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 99%. Il metabolismo non avviene attraverso i tipici citocromi. .
La astemizolo ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 3%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 22 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 88 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97%. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2D6 e CYP3A4..
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la flupentixolo né la astemizolo potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: Somministrata unicamente, la Flupentixolo possiede lievi effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la astemizolo non causa un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di flupentixolo e astemizolo potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||flu||ast|
|Aumento di peso||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Disturbo dell'attenzione||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: The clinical pharmacokinetics of the 4 depot antipsychotics for which plasma level studies are available (i.e. fluphenazine enanthate and decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, clopenthixol decanoate and flupenthixol decanoate) are reviewed. The proper study of these agents has been handicapped until recently by the necessity of accurately measuring subnanomolar concentrations in plasma. Their kinetic properties, the relationship of plasma concentrations to clinical effects, and conversion from oral to injectable therapy are discussed. The depot antipsychotics are synthesised by esterification of the active drug to a long chain fatty acid and the resultant compound is then dissolved in a vegetable oil. The absorption rate constant is slower than the elimination rate constant and therefore, the depot antipsychotics exhibit 'flip-flop' kinetics where the time to steady-state is a function of the absorption rate, and the concentration at steady-state is a function of the elimination rate. Fluphenazine is available as both an enanthate and decanoate ester (both dissolved in sesame oil), although the decanoate is more commonly used clinically. The enanthate produces peak plasma concentrations on days 2 to 3 and declines with an apparent elimination half-life (i.e. the half-time of the apparent first-order decline of plasma concentrations) of 3.5 to 4 days after a single injection. The decanoate produces an early high peak which occurs during the first day and then declines with an apparent half-life ranging from 6.8 to 9.6 days following a single injection. After multiple injections of fluphenazine decanoate, however, the mean apparent half-life increases to 14.3 days, and the time to reach steady-state is 4 to 6 weeks. Withdrawal studies with fluphenazine decanoate suggest that relapsing patients have a more rapid plasma concentration decline than non-relapsing patients, and that the plasma concentrations do not decline smoothly but may exhibit 'lumps' due to residual release from previous injection sites or multicompartment redistribution. Cigarette smoking has been found to be associated with a 2.33-fold increase in the clearance of fluphenazine decanoate. In 3 different studies, fluphenazine has been proposed to have a therapeutic range from less than 0.15 to 0.5 ng/ml with an upper therapeutic range of 4.0 ng/ml. Plasma concentrations following the decanoate injection are generally lower than, but clinically equivalent to, those attained with the oral form of the drug. Haloperidol decanoate plasma concentrations peak on the seventh day following injection although, in some patients, this peak may occur on the first day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Abstract: Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics) are candidates for plasma concentration monitoring, but not all agents have the same potential in this respect. The present review analyses the available data on the kinetics and metabolism of fluphenazine, perphenazine, thiothixene, flupenthixol, clopenthixol, haloperidol, pimozide, penfluridol, sulpiride and clozapine. Although some of the drugs described in this review have been in use for many years, knowledge of their pharmacokinetics is still only approximate. This is primarily because determination in biological fluids is not always feasible. Accordingly, analytical methods useful for pharmacokinetic studies or plasma concentration monitoring of these antipsychotic drugs are discussed. With the exception of sulpiride, all the neuroleptics reviewed share some basic pharmacokinetic properties: good gastrointestinal absorption but reduced systemic availability because of hepatic first-pass metabolism, high hepatic clearance and a large apparent volume of distribution leading to an apparent elimination half-life of about 24 hours for most of these compounds. The renal elimination is negligible and it seems that these drugs do not possess active metabolites. The pharmacokinetic properties of antipsychotic drugs are important for the inclusion of a set of drugs in a psychiatric institution where there is a possibility of drug concentration monitoring. In addition, the availability of a depot preparation is of importance. These factors are discussed in view of the experience made during the last years in the University Psychiatric Institutions of Geneva.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: 1 The binding of some antidepressant drugs, including some new drugs of atypical structure (flupenthixol, iprindole, maprotiline, mianserin, nomifensine, tofenacine and viloxazine) to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain has been studied by displacement of [3H]-atropine. 2 Many of the drugs are potent muscarinic antagonists. 3 Some correlation can be made between the affinity for binding to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the incidence of anticholinergic side effects in clinical usage.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: Antipsychotic drugs (AD) are effective and frequently prescribed to more females than males. AD may cause serious cardiovascular side-effects, including prolonged QT interval, eventually leading to torsades de pointes (TdP) and sudden death. Epidemiologic data and case-control studies indicate an increased rate of sudden death in psychiatric patients taking AD. This review summarizes current knowledge about the QT prolonging effects of AD and gives practical suggestions. Amisulpride, clozapine, flupenthixol, fluphenazine, haloperidol, melperone, olanzapine, perphenazine, pimozide, quetiapine, risperidone, sulpiride, thioridazine and ziprasidone cause a QT prolongation ranging from 4 ms for risperidone to 30 ms for thioridazine. Our knowledge about the QT-prolonging effects of many AD is still limited. Females are under-represented in most studies. Many studies were conducted or supported by pharmaceutical companies. To avoid prodysrhythmia caused by QT prolongation, other factors influencing QT interval have to be considered, such as other drugs affecting the same pathway, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, bradycardia, increased age, female sex, congestive heart failure and polymorphisms of genes coding ion channels or enzymes involved in drug metabolism. Because the response of a patient to AD is individual, an electrocardiogram recording the QT interval has to be performed at baseline, after AD introduction and after occurrence of any factor that might influence the QT interval.