Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
|Mal di testa|
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di aloperidolo e astemizolo. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non è stato possibile rilevare nessun tipo di cambiamento nell'esposizione alla aloperidolo. Allo stato attuale non è possibile valutare come influisce la astemizolo. Non è stato possibile rilevare nessun tipo di cambiamento nell'esposizione alla astemizolo. Allo stato attuale non è possibile valutare come influisce la aloperidolo.
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La aloperidolo ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 60%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 16.7 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 66.8 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 90% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 694 litri. per cui, con un significativo tasso di estrazione epatico dello 0.37, hanno importanza sia il flusso ematico a livello del fegato [Q] sia le variazioni di legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb]. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2D6 e CYP3A4..
La astemizolo ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 3%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 22 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 88 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97%. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2D6 e CYP3A4..
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la aloperidolo né la astemizolo potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: Somministrata unicamente, la Aloperidolo possiede lievi effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la astemizolo non causa un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di aloperidolo e astemizolo potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||alo||ast|
|Mal di testa||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Discinesia tardiva||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
Sindrome neurolettica maligna: aloperidolo
Visione offuscata: aloperidolo
Disfunzione erettile: aloperidolo
Fibrillazione ventricolare: aloperidolo
Disturbo tromboembolico: aloperidolo
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: A 48-year-old woman developed QT prolongation and episodes of life-threatening ventricular tachycardia (torsades de pointes) after intentional overdose of haloperidol and orphenadrine. The arrhythmia did not respond to conventional anti-arrhythmic therapy but was suppressed by atrial overdrive pacing. A literature review identified haloperidol as the most likely cause of the torsades de pointes.
Abstract: This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Skin biopsies of normal hand skin showed focal parakeratosis and moderately dense dermal infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis and in the superficial dermis and a mononuclear dermal infiltrate consisting of peripheral T lymphocytes with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5-6/1. Biopsies of the immediate vesicular reactions induced by foods showed spongiotic vesicles within the epidermis and a moderate to dense mononuclear dermal perivascular infiltrate. The immunohistochemical features were similar to those described in apparently normal skin. The mechanism of this immediate vesicular reaction requires further research. The rapid appearance of the lesions (after 20-30 min) probably excludes an immunological cell-mediated pathogenesis. A non-immunological mechanism due to direct liberation of mediators by foods is more readily conceivable than an immediate immunological type of contact reaction.
Abstract: A patient had torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia related to psychotherapy with haloperidol in conventional doses. The QT interval was prolonged, and shortened after the cessation of the medication and infusion of isoproterenol. Concomitantly, torsades de pointes bursts disappeared. The observation might contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of sudden death of patients during pharmacologic psychotherapy.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Nine psychotic patients under continuous oral treatment with haloperidol were randomly given a test dose of 1.5-5 mg haloperidol orally and/or intravenously. Serum levels of haloperidol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and serum concentration data obtained were submitted to pharmacokinetic analysis. The steady state concentration ratio between blood and plasma was determined and found to be 0.79 +/- 0.03. The blood clearance was then calculated to be 550 +/- 133 ml/min. The mean hepatic extraction ratio was intermediate (0.37). Consequently, for a drug mainly eliminated by hepatic metabolism like haloperidol, the total blood clearance and the extent of oral bioavailability can be affected by changes in hepatic blood flow, hepatic enzyme activities and drug binding. During continuous oral treatment with haloperidol, however, it can be shown that changes in the total metabolic capacity of the liver due to hepatic enzyme induction or inhibition should be important for the therapeutic effects of haloperidol. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) was large (7.9 +/- 2.5 l/kg). The terminal half-life was 18.8 h after intravenous and 18.1 h after oral administration. The oral bioavailability (0.60 +/- 0.18) were in accordance with previous results in healthy subjects. A mean lag time after oral dose was 1.3 +/- 1.1 h and a longer absorption half-life (1.9 +/- 1.4 h) was found in the patients compared with healthy volunteers.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: Haloperidol kinetics were determined after oral and intravenous drug doses in 15 men. Mean elimination t1/2 for the subjects was 17.9 +/- 6.4 (SD) hr. After 0.125 mg/kg IV, mean distribution t1/2s in six subjects were 0.19 +/- 0.07 and 2 +/- 1 hr, and in 12 subjects mean clearance was 11.8 +/- 2.9 ml/kg/min and mean steady-state volume of distribution was 17.8 +/- 6.5 l/kg. After 0.50-mg/kg oral doses in eight subjects, mean lag time before drug absorption was 0.82 +/- 0.25 hr. Mean absorption t1/2 was 0.37 +/- 0.18 hr and mean distribution t1/2 was 0.96 +/- 0.20 hr. Bioavailability was 0.65 +/- 0.14 after oral doses. In 14 kinetic studies in nine subjects, data was analyzed by both model-dependent (open two- and three-compartment models using nonlinear regression) and model-independent (AUC and first moment curve) approaches. Results of the two were found to be in close agreement. The long elimination t1/2 of haloperidol is explained by the drug's extensive tissue distribution.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: Haloperidol is commonly used in the therapy of patients with acute and chronic schizophrenia. The enzymes involved in the biotransformation of haloperidol include cytochrome P450 (CYP), carbonyl reductase and uridine diphosphoglucose glucuronosyltransferase. The greatest proportion of the intrinsic hepatic clearance of haloperidol is by glucuronidation, followed by the reduction of haloperidol to reduced haloperidol and by CYP-mediated oxidation. In studies of CYP-mediated disposition in vitro, CYP3A4 appears to be the major isoform responsible for the metabolism of haloperidol in humans. The intrinsic clearances of the back-oxidation of reduced haloperidol to the parent compound, oxidative N-dealkylation and pyridinium formation are of the same order of magnitude, suggesting that the same enzyme system is responsible for the 3 reactions. Large variation in the catalytic activity was observed in the CYP-mediated reactions, whereas there appeared to be only small variations in the glucuronidation and carbonyl reduction pathways. Haloperidol is a substrate of CYP3A4 and an inhibitor, as well as a stimulator, of CYP2D6. Reduced haloperidol is also a substrate of CYP3A4 and inhibitor of CYP2D6. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur between haloperidol and various drugs given concomitantly, for example, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, nefazodone, venlafaxine, buspirone, alprazolam, rifampicin (rifampin), quinidine and carteolol. Overall, drug interaction studies have suggested that CYP3A4 is involved in the biotransformation of haloperidol in humans. Interactions of haloperidol with most drugs lead to only small changes in plasma haloperidol concentrations, suggesting that the interactions have little clinical significance. On the other hand, the coadministration of carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampicin or quinidine affects the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol to an extent that alterations in clinical consequences would be expected. In vivo pharmacogenetic studies have indicated that the metabolism and disposition of haloperidol may be regulated by genetically determined polymorphic CYP2D6 activity. However, these findings appear to contradict those from studies in vitro with human liver microsomes and from studies of drug interactions in vivo. Interethnic and pharmacogenetic differences in haloperidol metabolism may explain these observations.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: This study was to evaluate the combined effects of the CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole and the CYP2D6*10 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of haloperidol, a substrate of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, in healthy subjects. Nineteen healthy volunteers whose CYP2D6 genotypes were predetermined were enrolled (9 for CYP2D6*1/*1 and 10 for CYP2D6*10/*10). Four subjects (1 for CYP2D6*1/*1 and 3 for CYP2D6*10/*10) did not complete the study because of adverse events. The pharmacokinetics of haloperidol and its pharmacodynamic effects measured for QTc prolongation and neurologic side effects were evaluated after a single dose of 5 mg haloperidol following a pretreatment of placebo or itraconazole at 200 mg/d for 10 days in a randomized crossover manner. Itraconazole pretreatment increased the mean area under the time-concentration curves (AUCs) of haloperidol by 55% compared to placebo pretreatment (21.7 +/- 11.3 vs 33.5 +/- 29.3 ng h/mL). The subjects with CYP2D6*10/*10 genotype showed 81% higher AUC compared to that of subjects with CYP2D6*1/*1 genotype (27.6 +/- 22.2 vs 50.2 +/- 47.1 ng h/mL). In the presence of itraconazole, subjects with CYP2D6*10/*10 showed 3-fold higher AUC of haloperidol compared to that of placebo pretreated subjects with CYP2D6*1/*1 genotype (21.7 +/- 11.3 vs 66.7 +/- 62.1 ng h/mL; P < 0.05). The CYP2D6*10 genotype and itraconazole pretreatment decreased the oral clearance of haloperidol by 24% and 25%, respectively, but without a statistical significance. In the subjects with both CYP2D6*10 genotype and itraconazole pretreatment, however, the oral clearance was significantly decreased to 42% of subjects with wild genotype in the placebo pretreatment (4.7 +/- 3.6 vs 2.0 +/- 1.9 L/h/kg; P < 0.05). Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) of subjects with CYP2D6*10/*10 in the presence of itraconazole pretreatment was significantly higher than that of subjects with CYP2D6*1/*1 genotype in the period of placebo pretreatment. Except for this, all other pharmacodynamic estimations did not reach to statistical significance although each CYP2D6*10 genotype and itraconazole pretreatment caused higher value of UKU side effect and BARS scores. The moderate effect of CYP2D6*10 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of haloperidol seems to be augmented by the presence of itraconazole pretreatment.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.