Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di astemizolo e midostaurina. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla astemizolo, quando è co-somministrata con la midostaurina (100%). Non è stato possibile rilevare nessun tipo di cambiamento nell'esposizione alla midostaurina. Allo stato attuale non è possibile valutare come influisce la astemizolo.
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La astemizolo ha una bassa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale, perciò nel corso di un interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima (Cmax) tende fortemente a cambiare. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 22 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 88 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97%. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2D6 e CYP3A4..
La midostaurina ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 63%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 21 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 84 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 99.8% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 95 litri. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente attraverso l'enzima CYP3A4.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la astemizolo né la midostaurina potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la astemizolo né la midostaurina causano un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di astemizolo e midostaurina potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||ast||mid|
|Edema periferico||40.0 %||n.a.||40.0|
|Mal di testa||36.0 %||n.a.||36.0|
|Dolore addominale||34.0 %||n.a.||34.0|
|Dolore muscoloscheletrico||34.0 %||n.a.||34.0|
Febbre (27%): midostaurina
Infezione delle vie respiratorie superiori (25%): midostaurina
Dispnea (23%): midostaurina
Epistassi (20%): midostaurina
Polmonite (6%): midostaurina
Malattia polmonare interstiziale: midostaurina
Iperglicemia (20%): midostaurina
Emorragia gastrointestinale (14%): midostaurina
Insufficienza renale (11.5%): midostaurina
Insufficienza cardiaca (6%): midostaurina
Versamento pericardico (4%): midostaurina
Infarto miocardico: midostaurina
Reazione di ipersensibilità (4%): midostaurina
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: Midostaurin is a novel potent inhibitor of both protein kinase C and the major receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor involved in angiogenesis, presenting a rationale for its use in diabetic retinopathy. This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of midostaurin following multiple oral doses of midostaurin for 28 days at 4 dose levels (25 mg bid, 50 mg bid, 75 mg bid, 75 mg tid), as well as a single oral 100-mg dose in patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 9-13 per dose cohort). Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined on days 1 and 28 based on the plasma concentrations of midostaurin and its metabolites, CGP62221 and CGP52421. The plasma exposures (C(max) and AUC(0-tau)) of midostaurin and metabolites increased less than proportionally over the dose range of 25 to 100 mg, showing a 2.2-fold increase after the first dose. Midostaurin concentrations increased during the first 3 to 6 days of dosing, then declined with time (by 30%-50%) until a steady state was achieved, representing an average accumulation factor (R) of 1.7. CGP62221 showed a similar concentration-time pattern as midostaurin (R = 2.5), but CGP52421 accumulated significantly (R = 18.8). A high-fat meal was found to significantly increase the C(max) and AUC(0-12 h) of midostaurin by 1.5-fold (P = .04) and 1.8-fold (P = .01), respectively, compared with taking the drug after an overnight fast. Midostaurin administered at 50 to 225 mg/day appeared to be generally safe in this group of patients. The most common treatment-related adverse events (eg, loose stools, nausea, vomiting, and headache) were found to be dose related, and the frequency increased markedly above the 150-mg/day dose level.
Abstract: Midostaurin (PKC412) is being investigated for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and advanced systemic mastocytosis (advSM). It is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 to form two major active metabolites, CGP52421 and CGP62221. In vitro and clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies indicated that midostaurin and its metabolites are substrates, reversible and time-dependent inhibitors, and inducers of CYP3A4. A simultaneous pharmacokinetic model of parent and active metabolites was initially developed by incorporating data from in vitro, preclinical, and clinical pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers and in patients with AML or advSM. The model reasonably predicted changes in midostaurin exposure after single-dose administration with ketoconazole (a 5.8-fold predicted versus 6.1-fold observed increase) and rifampicin (90% predicted versus 94% observed reduction) as well as changes in midazolam exposure (1.0 predicted versus 1.2 observed ratio) after daily dosing of midostaurin for 4 days. The qualified model was then applied to predict the DDI effect with other CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers and the DDI potential with midazolam under steady-state conditions. The simulated midazolam area under the curve ratio of 0.54 and an accompanying observed 1.9-fold increase in the CYP3A4 activity of biomarker 4-hydroxycholesterol indicated a weak-to-moderate CYP3A4 induction by midostaurin and its metabolites at steady state in patients with advSM. In conclusion, a simultaneous parent-and-active-metabolite modeling approach allowed predictions under steady-state conditions that were not possible to achieve in healthy subjects. Furthermore, endogenous biomarker data enabled evaluation of the net effect of midostaurin and its metabolites on CYP3A4 activity at steady state and increased confidence in DDI predictions.