Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
|Mal di testa|
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
La somministrazione di posaconazolo e midazolam deve essere evitata.
aumento della concentrazione di midazolam, sedazione aumentata e prolungataMeccanismo: Midazolam è metabolizzato dal CYP3A4. Gli antimicotici azolici sono inibitori del CYP3A4, che possono inibire la degradazione del midazolam e provocare un aumento delle concentrazioni di benzodiazepine.
Effetto: studi hanno dimostrato che sotto la combinazione, l'AUC di midazolam è aumentata fino a 6 volte, con un'emivita che è stata anche fino a 2,6 volte più lunga. Gli effetti possono essere intensificati e prolungati (ad es. Aumento della sedazione, sonnolenza, atassia, disartria, nistagmo).
Misure: evitare la combinazione. È preferibile un ipnotico alternativo. Deve essere utilizzato un ipnotico non metabolizzato dagli enzimi CYP (come le benzodiazepine lorazepam o oxazepam).
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. Non abbiamo rilevato alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla cimetidina. Attualmente non è possibile stimare l'influenza di midazolam e posaconazolo. L'esposizione alla midazolam aumenta al 923%, se combinato con cimetidina (157%) e posaconazolo (871%). Questo può portare a un aumento degli effetti collaterali. Non ci aspettiamo alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla posaconazolo, se combinato con cimetidina (100%). Al momento non possiamo stimare l'influenza della midazolam.
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La cimetidina ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 65%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 1.6333333 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 19% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 91 litri. Il metabolismo non avviene tramite i comuni citocromi e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite BCRP e PGP.
La midazolam ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 29%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 4.1 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 94.3% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 147 litri, ecco perché, con una velocità di estrazione epatica media di 0,9, sono rilevanti sia il flusso sanguigno epatico [Q] che una variazione del legame proteico [Pb]. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP3A4 e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare tramite UGT1A4.
La posaconazolo ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 50%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto lunga a 35 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti solo dopo più di 140 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 98.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 887 litri, Il metabolismo non avviene tramite i comuni citocromi e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite PGP e UGT1A1.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la cimetidina, midazolam né la posaconazolo aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø||Ø|
Raccomandazione: A scopo precauzionale, occorre prestare attenzione ai sintomi anticolinergici, soprattutto dopo aver aumentato la dose ea dosi nel range terapeutico superiore.
Valutazione: La cimetidina ha solo un lieve effetto sul sistema anticolinergico. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica con questo farmaco è piuttosto basso se il dosaggio è nel range usuale. Secondo i nostri risultati, la posaconazolo non aumenta l'attività anticolinergica. L'effetto anticolinergico della midazolam non è rilevante.
Estensione di tempo QT
Valutazione: In combinazione, cimetidina e posaconazolo possono potenzialmente innescare aritmie ventricolari di tipo torsione di punta. Non conosciamo alcun potenziale di prolungamento dell'intervallo QT per la midazolam.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||cim||mid||pos|
|Mal di testa||7.9 %||n.a.||7.0↑||+|
|Disturbo del gusto||1.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||+|
|Reazioni allergiche della pelle||1.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||+|
Effetto hangover: midazolam
Cognizione alterata: midazolam
Epatite colestatica: posaconazolo
Fosfatasi alcalina aumentata: posaconazolo
GGT elevato: posaconazolo
Aumente delle transaminasi: posaconazolo
Insufficienza epatica: posaconazolo
Insufficienza renale: posaconazolo
Comportamento aggressivo: midazolam
Insufficienza cardiaca: midazolam
Depressione respiratoria: midazolam
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: Midazolam is a short-acting water-soluble benzodiazepine (at pH less than 4), a member of a new class of imidazobenzodiazepine derivatives. At physiological pH the drug becomes much more lipid soluble. Water solubility minimises pain on injection and venous thrombosis compared with diazepam administered in organic solvent. Midazolam is a hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and marked amnestic properties. To date it has been used mostly by the intravenous route, for sedation in dentistry and endoscopic procedures and as an adjunct to local anaesthetic techniques. It has proved less reliable than thiopentone, but preferable to diazepam, as an intravenous induction agent and is unlikely to replace the other well established drugs. However, due to the cardiorespiratory stability following its administration, midazolam is useful for anaesthetic induction in poor-risk, elderly and cardiac patients. The short elimination half-life (1.5-3.5h) and the absence of clinically important long acting metabolites make midazolam suitable for long term infusion as a sedative and amnestic for intensive care, but clinical trials have yet to be completed. Thus, a combination of properties make midazolam a useful addition to the benzodiazepine group.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of midazolam. METHODS: Eight healthy male subjects participated in this open crossover study. Intravenous (5 mg) or oral (15 mg) midazolam was administered after pretreatment with water or grapefruit juice. We measured the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (reaction time, Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], general impression judged by the investigators, and drug effect judged by the subjects) of midazolam and the pharmacokinetics of alpha-hydroxymidazolam. RESULTS: In comparison to water, pretreatment with grapefruit juice did not change the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of intravenous midazolam. After oral administration, pretreatment with grapefruit juice led to a 56% increase in peak plasma concentration (Cmax), a 79% increase in time to reach Cmax (tmax), and a 52% increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of midazolam, which was associated with an increase in the bioavailability from 24% +/- 3% (water) to 35% +/- 3% (Grapefruit juice; mean +/- SEM, p < 0.01) After oral administration of midazolam, pretreatment with grapefruit juice was associated with a 105% increase in tmax and with a 30% increase in the AUC of alpha-hydroxymidazolam. For oral midazolam, pretreatment with grapefruit juice led to significant increases in tmax for all dynamic parameters and in the AUC values for the reaction time and DSST, whereas the maximal dynamic effects remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with grapefruit juice is associated with increased bioavailability and changes in the pharmacodynamics of midazolam that may be clinically important, particularly in patients with other causes for increased midazolam bioavailability such as advanced age, cirrhosis of the liver, and administration of other inhibitors of cytochrome P450.
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: We studied the interaction of azole antimycotics with intravenous (IV) and oral midazolam using a cross-over design in 12 volunteers, who ingested placebo, itraconazole, or fluconazole for 6 days. A 7.5-mg dose of midazolam was ingested on the first day, 0.05 mg/kg was administered IV on the fourth day, and 7.5 mg orally on the sixth day. Itraconazole reduced the clearance of IV midazolam by 69% and fluconazole reduced the clearance of IV midazolam by 51% (P < 0.001). A single dose of itraconazole and fluconazole increased the area under the oral midazolam concentration-time curve [AUC(0-infinity)] 3.5-fold (P < 0.001) and the peak concentration two-fold (P < 0.05) compared to placebo. On the sixth day the AUC(0-infinity) of oral midazolam was almost seven times greater with itraconazole (P < 0.001) and 3.6 times greater with fluconazole (P < 0.001) than without the antimycotics. The psychomotor effects of midazolam were also profoundly increased (P < 0.001). The psychomotor tests demonstrated only a weak interaction between the antimycotics and IV midazolam. When bolus doses of midazolam are given for short- time sedation, the effect of midazolam is not increased to a clinically significant degree by itraconazole and fluconazole, and it can be used in normal doses. However, the use of large doses of IV midazolam increases the risk of clinically significant interactions also after IV midazolam. Use of oral midazolam with itraconazole and fluconazole should be avoided.
Abstract: We have examined the effect of fentanyl on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Thirty patients were allocated randomly to receive fentanyl 200 micrograms and midazolam 0.2 mg kg-1 (fentanyl group, n = 15) or placebo and midazolam 0.2 mg kg-1 (placebo group, n = 15) in a double-blind manner for induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and isoflurane. Systemic clearance of midazolam was decreased by 30% (P = 0.002) and elimination half-time was prolonged by 50% (P = 0.04) in the fentanyl group compared with the placebo group. There were no differences in the distribution half-time or volume of distribution at steady state between the two groups. These findings indicate that elimination of midazolam was inhibited by fentanyl during general anaesthesia.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor saquinavir on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral and intravenous midazolam. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, two-phase crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers (six men and six women; age range, 21 to 32 years) received oral doses of either 1200 mg saquinavir (Fortovase soft-gel capsule formulation) or placebo three times a day for 5 days. On day 3, six subjects were given 7.5 mg oral midazolam and the other six subjects received 0.05 mg/kg intravenous midazolam. On day 5, the subjects who had received oral midazolam on day 3 received intravenously midazolam and vice versa. Plasma concentrations of midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam, and saquinavir were determined for 18 hours after midazolam administration, and midazolam effects were measured up to 7 hours by six psychomotor tests. RESULTS: Saquinavir increased the bioavailability of oral midazolam from 41% to 90% (P < .005), the peak midazolam plasma concentration more than twofold, and the area under plasma concentration-time curve more than fivefold (P < .001). During saquinavir treatment, five of the six psychomotor tests revealed impaired skills and increased sedative effects after midazolam ingestion (P < .05). Saquinavir decreased the clearance of intravenous midazolam by 56% (P < .001) and increased its elimination half-life from 4.1 to 9.5 hours (P < .01). After intravenous midazolam, only the subjective feeling of drug effect was increased significantly (P < .05) by saquinavir. CONCLUSION: The dose of oral midazolam should be greatly reduced or avoided with saquinavir, but bolus doses of intravenous midazolam can probably be used quite safely. During a prolonged midazolam infusion, an initial dose reduction of 50% followed by careful titration is recommended to counteract the reduced clearance caused by saquinavir.
Abstract: Understanding drug interactions between antiretrovirals and opiate therapies may decrease toxicities and enhance adherence, with improved HIV outcomes in injection drug users. We report results of a clinical pharmacology study designed to examine the interaction of the protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, with methadone and LAAM (N = 48). Nelfinavir decreased methadone exposure, but no withdrawal was observed over the five day study period. LAAM and dinorLAAM concentrations were decreased, while norLAAM concentrations were increased, with minimal overall change in LAAM/metabolite exposure. Methadone and LAAM did not affect nelfinavir concentrations, but methadone decreased M8 metabolite exposure. While no toxicities were observed, clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug interactions when patients require treatment with nelfinavir and these opiate medications.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: This investigation determined the ability of alfentanil miosis and single-point concentrations to detect various degrees of CYP3A inhibition. Results were compared with those for midazolam, an alternative CYP3A probe. Twelve volunteers were studied in a randomized 4-way crossover, targeting 12%, 25%, and 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A. They received 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg oral fluconazole, followed 1 hour later by 1 mg intravenous midazolam and then 15 microg/kg intravenous alfentanil 1 hour later. The next day, they received fluconazole, followed by 3 mg oral midazolam and 40 microg/kg oral alfentanil. Dark-adapted pupil diameters were measured coincident with blood sampling. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios (fluconazole/control) after 100, 200, and 400 mg fluconazole were (geometric mean) 1.3*, 1.4*, and 2.0* for intravenous midazolam and 1.2*, 1.6*, and 2.2* for intravenous alfentanil (*significantly different from control), indicating 16% to 21%, 31% to 36%, and 43% to 53% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A. Single-point concentration ratios were 1.5*, 1.8*, and 2.4* for intravenous midazolam (at 5 hours) and 1.2*, 1.6*, and 2.2* for intravenous alfentanil (at 4 hours). Pupil miosis AUC ratios were 0.9, 1.0, and 1.2*. After oral dosing, plasma AUC ratios were 2.3*, 3.6*, and 5.3* for midazolam and 1.8*, 2.9*, and 4.9* for alfentanil; plasma single-point ratios were 2.4*, 4.5*, and 6.9* for midazolam and 1.8*, 2.9*, and 4.9* for alfentanil, and alfentanil miosis ratios were 1.1, 1.9*, and 2.7*. Plasma concentration AUC ratios of alfentanil and midazolam were equivalent for detecting hepatic and first-pass CYP3A inhibition. Single-point concentrations were an acceptable surrogate for formal AUC determinations and as sensitive as AUCs for detecting CYP3A inhibition. Alfentanil miosis could detect 50% to 70% inhibition of CYP3A activity, but was less sensitive than plasma AUCs. Further refinements are needed to increase the sensitivity of alfentanil miosis for detecting small CYP3A changes.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effect of the antimycotic voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral and intravenous midazolam. METHODS: We used a randomized, crossover study design. Ten healthy male volunteers were given either no pretreatment (control phase) or voriconazole (voriconazole phase) orally, 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily on the second day. Midazolam was given, either 0.05 mg/kg intravenously or 7.5 mg orally, 1 hour after the last dose of voriconazole and during the control phase. Plasma concentrations of midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam, and voriconazole were determined for 24 hours and pharmacodynamic variables measured for 12 hours. RESULTS: Voriconazole reduced the clearance of intravenous midazolam by 72% (P < .001) and increased its elimination half-life from 2.8 to 8.3 hours (P < .001). Voriconazole increased the peak concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of oral midazolam by 3.8- and 10.3-fold, respectively (P < .001). The bioavailability of oral midazolam was increased from 31% to 84% (P < .001). Voriconazole profoundly increased the psychomotor effects of oral midazolam (P < .001) but only weakly increased the effects of intravenous midazolam. CONCLUSION: When midazolam is given as small intravenous bolus doses, its effect is not increased to a clinically significant degree by voriconazole. The use of large midazolam doses increases the risk of clinically significant interactions also after its intravenous administration. The use of oral midazolam with voriconazole should be avoided, or substantially lower doses should be used.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Armodafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent, is the pure R-enantiomer of racemic modafinil. The objective of this article is to summarize the results of three clinical drug-interaction studies assessing the potential for drug interactions of armodafinil with agents metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes 1A2, 3A4 and 2C19. Study 1 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to induce the activity of CYP1A2 using oral caffeine as the probe substrate. Study 2 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to induce gastrointestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 activity using intravenous and oral midazolam as the probe substrate. Study 3 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to inhibit the activity of CYP2C19 using oral omeprazole as the probe substrate. METHODS: Healthy men and nonpregnant women aged 18-45 years with a body mass index of </=30 kg/m(2) each participated in one of three open-label studies. Studies 1 and 2 were sequential design studies in which caffeine (oral 200 mg) or midazolam (2 mg intravenously followed by 5 mg orally) was administered before initiation of oral armodafinil administration and again after at least 22 days of oral armodafinil administration at 250 mg/day. Study 3 was a two-way crossover study in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers to whom omeprazole (oral 40 mg) was administered alone or with oral administration of armodafinil 400 mg 2 hours before the omeprazole dose. Pharmacokinetic samples were obtained for caffeine, midazolam and omeprazole for up to 48 hours postdose. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters included the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(infinity)) and the maximum observed drug plasma concentration (C(max)). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 77 healthy subjects participated in the three studies (study 1, n = 29; study 2, n = 24; study 3, n = 24). Prolonged armodafinil administration had no effect on the C(max) or the AUC of oral caffeine compared with administration of caffeine alone. However, prolonged administration of armodafinil reduced the AUC of midazolam after intravenous and oral doses by approximately 17% and 32%, respectively, and decreased the C(max) of oral midazolam by approximately 19% compared with administration of midazolam alone. Armodafinil coadministration increased the AUC of oral omeprazole by approximately 38% compared with administration of omeprazole alone. Armodafinil alone or in combination with each of the three probe substrates was well tolerated, with headache and dizziness being the most commonly reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Armodafinil did not induce CYP1A2 but was a moderate inducer of CYP3A4 and a moderate inhibitor of CYP2C19 in healthy subjects. Armodafinil was generally well tolerated when administered with caffeine, midazolam or omeprazole. Dosage adjustments may be required for drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 (e.g. ciclosporin, triazolam) and CYP2C19 enzymes (e.g. diazepam, phenytoin) when administered with armodafinil.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: AIMS: To compare midazolam kinetics between plasma and saliva and to find out whether saliva is suitable for CYP3A phenotyping. METHODS: This was a two way cross-over study in eight subjects treated with 2 mg midazolam IV or 7.5 mg orally under basal conditions and after CYP3A induction with rifampicin. RESULTS: Under basal conditions and IV administration, midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam (plasma, saliva), 4-hydroxymidazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam-glucuronide (plasma) were detectable. After rifampicin, the AUC of midazolam [mean differences plasma 53.7 (95% CI 4.6, 102.9) and saliva 0.83 (95% CI 0.52, 1.14) ng ml(-1) h] and 1'-hydroxymidazolam [mean difference plasma 11.8 (95% CI 7.9 , 15.7) ng ml(-1) h] had decreased significantly. There was a significant correlation between the midazolam concentrations in plasma and saliva (basal conditions: r = 0.864, P < 0.0001; after rifampicin: r = 0.842, P < 0.0001). After oral administration and basal conditions, midazolam, 1'-hydroxymidazolam and 4-hydroxymidazolam were detectable in plasma and saliva. After treatment with rifampicin, the AUC of midazolam [mean difference plasma 104.5 (95% CI 74.1, 134.9) ng ml(-1) h] and 1'-hydroxymidazolam [mean differences plasma 51.9 (95% CI 34.8, 69.1) and saliva 2.3 (95% CI 1.9, 2.7) ng ml(-1) h] had decreased significantly. The parameters separating best between basal conditions and post-rifampicin were: (1'-hydroxymidazolam + 1'-hydroxymidazolam-glucuronide)/midazolam at 20-30 min (plasma) and the AUC of midazolam (saliva) after IV, and the AUC of midazolam (plasma) and of 1'-hydroxymidazolam (plasma and saliva) after oral administration. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva appears to be a suitable matrix for non-invasive CYP3A phenotyping using midazolam as a probe drug, but sensitive analytical methods are required.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Like itraconazole and ketoconazole, posaconazole, a broad-spectrum oral triazole antifungal, inhibits the activity of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozyme 3A4. Midazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine, is metabolized by CYP3A4. Potential drug interactions can be expected in patients who are concurrently receiving inhibitors and substrates of CYP3A4 (eg, ketoconazole, posaconazole) and benzodiazepines (eg, midazolam). Because of the potential for drug interactions, it is important to determine the effects of posaconazole on the pharmacokinetic properties of midazolam. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral administration of posaconazole versus ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetic properties of orally and intravenously administered midazolam. METHODS: This Phase I, randomized, open-label, crossover study was conducted at Swiss Pharma Contract Ltd., Allschwil, Switzerland. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment arms. Arm 1 received posaconazole 200 mg BID for 7 days, posaconazole 400 mg BID for 7 days, no drugs during a 28-day washout, and ketoconazole 400 mg once daily for 7 days. Arm 2 received posaconazole and ketoconazole in the reverse order, with a 28-day washout between treatments. An oral/IV midazolam sequence (oral midazolam 2 mg and IV midazolam 0.4 mg) was administered on days -2/-1, 6/7, 13/14 (arm 1), 36/17 (arm 2), 43/44, and 50/51 in both treatment arms. Blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after midazolam administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including C(max), C(min) (before azole administration), terminal-phase t(1/2) (t(1/2z)), and AUC to final measurable sampling time (AUC(tf)), were calculated using noncompartmental methods, and drug interactions were evaluated using analysis of variance. Adverse events were collected using physical examination, including vital sign measurements; clinical laboratory analysis; electrocardiography; and direct questioning at predefined time points throughout the study to assess tolerability. RESULTS: A total of 12 subjects were enrolled (11 men, 1 woman; all white; mean age, 42.8 years [range, 28-53 years]; mean weight, 80.6 kg; and mean body mass index, 25.6 kg/m(2)). All of the subjects completed the study. Based on point estimates of logarithm-transformed data, posaconazole 200 and 400 mg BID were associated with significant increases in midazolam C(max) (up to 1.3- and 2.4-fold) and AUC(tf) values (up to 4.6- and 6.2-fold), respectively. Ketoconazole 400 mg once daily was associated with significantly increased midazolam C(max) and AUC(tf) (up to 2.8- and 8.2-fold, respectively). When midazolam was concurrently administered with either azole, t(1/2z) was prolonged. Seven of 12 (58%) subjects reported > or =1 adverse event during the study (5 with posaconazole alone and 4 with posaconazole + midazolam). The most common adverse events were diarrhea (3 subjects [25%] with posaconazole alone, 2 [17%] with ketoconazole alone, and 1 [8%] with posaconazole + midazolam) and flatulence (1 [8%] with posaconazole alone and 1 [8%] with midazolam alone). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study in a small, all-white population of healthy volunteers suggest that posaconazole was a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, but to a lesser extent than was ketoconazole. Monitoring patients for adverse events, the need for dose adjustments, or both during coadministration with posaconazole may be warranted in patients being treated with benzodiazepines that are predominantly metabolized through CYP3A4 (eg, midazolam).
Abstract: AIMS: Midazolam (MDZ) is a benzodiazepine used as a CYP3A4 probe in clinical and in vitro studies. A glucuronide metabolite of MDZ has been identified in vitro in human liver microsome (HLM) incubations. The primary aim of this study was to understand the in vivo relevance of this pathway. METHODS: An authentic standard of N-glucuronide was generated from microsomal incubations and isolated using solid-phase extraction. The structure was confirmed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (1)H-(13)C long range correlation experiments. The metabolite was quantified in vivo in human urine samples. Enzyme kinetic behaviour of the pathway was investigated in HLM and recombinant UGT (rUGT) enzymes. Additionally, preliminary experiments were performed with 1'-OH midazolam (1'-OH MDZ) and 4-OH-midazolam (4-OH MDZ) to investigate N-glucuronidation. RESULTS: NMR data confirmed conjugation of midazolam N-glucuronide (MDZG) standard to be on the alpha-nitrogen of the imidazole ring. In vivo, MDZG in the urine accounted for 1-2% of the administered dose. In vitro incubations confirmed UGT1A4 as the enzyme of interest. The pathway exhibited atypical kinetics and a substrate inhibitory cooperative binding model was applied to determine K(m) (46 microM, 64 microM), V(max) (445 pmol min(-1) mg(-1), 427 pmol min(-1) mg(-1)) and K(i) (58 microM, 79 microM) in HLM and rUGT1A4, respectively. From incubations with HLM and rUGT enzymes, N-glucuronidation of 1'-OH MDZ and 4-OH MDZ is also inferred. CONCLUSIONS: A more complete picture of MDZ metabolism and the enzymes involved has been elucidated. Direct N-glucuronidation of MDZ occurs in vivo. Pharmacokinetic modelling using Simcyp illustrates an increased role for UGT1A4 under CYP3A inhibited conditions.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to determine the effect of posaconazole , an extended-spectrum triazole, on the pharmacokinetics of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, simvastatin. METHODS: This randomized, fixed-sequence, parallel-group, single-center, open-label study was conducted in 35 healthy volunteers randomly assigned to receive one of three doses of oral posaconazole: 50, 100 or 200 mg. All subjects received single doses of the reference drug midazolam (2 mg oral) alone on day -9; simvastatin (40 mg oral) alone on day -6; posaconazole (50, 100 or 200 mg) on days 1 - 7 once daily (q.d.); posaconazole plus midazolam (day 8); posaconazole alone (days 9 - 10); posaconazole plus simvastatin (day 11) and posaconazole alone (days 12 - 13). RESULTS: Relative to simvastatin alone, posaconazole (50, 100 and 200 mg q.d.) significantly increased the C(max) and AUC of simvastatin (5- to 11-fold increase in AUC) and simvastatin acid (5- to 8-fold increase in AUC) during co-administration. Relative to midazolam alone, posaconazole (50, 100 and 200 mg q.d.) significantly inhibited CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of midazolam (three to sixfold increase in AUC). CONCLUSION: These findings support the classification of posaconazole as a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Simvastatin, or other statins predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4, should not be co-administered with posaconazole. Other statins, whose metabolism/elimination is not affected by CYP3A4 inhibition, should be considered for co-administration.
Abstract: This report describes the phase 1 trials that evaluated the metabolism of the novel triazole antifungal isavuconazole by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and isavuconazole's effects on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism in healthy adults. Coadministration of oral isavuconazole (100 mg once daily) with oral rifampin (600 mg once daily; CYP3A4 inducer) decreased isavuconazole area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) during a dosing interval by 90% and maximum concentration (C) by 75%. Conversely, coadministration of isavuconazole (200 mg single dose) with oral ketoconazole (200 mg twice daily; CYP3A4 inhibitor) increased isavuconazole AUC from time 0 to infinity (AUC) and Cby 422% and 9%, respectively. Isavuconazole was coadministered (200 mg 3 times daily for 2 days, then 200 mg once daily) with single doses of oral midazolam (3 mg; CYP3A4 substrate) or ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone (35 μg/1 mg; CYP3A4 substrate). Following coadministration, AUCincreased 103% for midazolam, 8% for ethinyl estradiol, and 16% for norethindrone; Cincreased by 72%, 14%, and 6%, respectively. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity; there were no deaths, and serious adverse events and adverse events leading to study discontinuation were rare. These results indicate that isavuconazole is a sensitive substrate and moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: Objectives: The association of posaconazole serum concentrations and toxicity is unclear. An assessment of whether levels obtained with the delayed-release tablet (DRT) formulation are correlated with abnormal liver function test (LFT) results and/or QTc prolongation was undertaken. Methods: This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study of adult patients with cancer between 26 November 2013 and 14 November 2014. Patients were included if they received posaconazole DRT with a posaconazole level obtained between days 5 and 14. Clinical data, including demographics, hepatotoxic medications, posaconazole levels, LFTs and QTc intervals, were obtained. Association of factors with changes in LFTs and QTc prolongation was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Results: One hundred and sixty-six study patients were included. The median posaconazole level was 1250 (range 110-4220) ng/mL and the median time until level was 6 (range 5-14) days. There was a statistically significant increase in AST ( P < 0.001), ALT ( P < 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (ALK) ( P < 0.001), total bilirubin (TBILI) ( P < 0.001) and QTc ( P = 0.05) from baseline. Posaconazole levels were not associated with increases in AST [β (SE) = -0.33 (2.2), P = 0.88], log ALT [β (SE) = -0.02 (0.03), P = 0.63], ALK [β (SE) = 2.2 (2.9), P = 0.46] and TBILI [β (SE) = -0.01 (0.04), P = 0.88]. For each additional hepatotoxic medication, there was a mean change in TBILI of 0.13 mg/dL ( P = 0.02) and ALK of 7.1 U/L ( P = 0.09). No statistically significant association between posaconazole level and QTc interval prolongation was found. Conclusions: We did not identify an association between posaconazole serum concentrations and LFT elevations or QTc prolongation. However, some LFTs were found to increase with more hepatotoxic medications administered.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) dissolution, supersaturation, and precipitation of posaconazole, formulated as an acidified (pH 1.6) and neutral (pH 7.1) suspension. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation tool was applied to simulate GI and systemic concentration-time profiles of posaconazole, which were directly compared with intraluminal and systemic data measured in humans. The Advanced Dissolution Absorption and Metabolism (ADAM) model of the Simcyp Simulator correctly simulated incomplete gastric dissolution and saturated duodenal concentrations of posaconazole in the duodenal fluids following administration of the neutral suspension. In contrast, gastric dissolution was approximately 2-fold higher after administration of the acidified suspension, which resulted in supersaturated concentrations of posaconazole upon transfer to the upper small intestine. The precipitation kinetics of posaconazole were described by two precipitation rate constants, extracted by semimechanistic modeling of a two-stage medium change in vitro dissolution test. The 2-fold difference in exposure in the duodenal compartment for the two formulations corresponded with a 2-fold difference in systemic exposure. This study demonstrated for the first time predictive in silico simulations of GI dissolution, supersaturation, and precipitation for a weakly basic compound in part informed by modeling of in vitro dissolution experiments and validated via clinical measurements in both GI fluids and plasma. Sensitivity analysis with the PBPK model indicated that the critical supersaturation ratio (CSR) and second precipitation rate constant (sPRC) are important parameters of the model. Due to the limitations of the two-stage medium change experiment the CSR was extracted directly from the clinical data. However, in vitro experiments with the BioGIT transfer system performed after completion of the in silico modeling provided an almost identical CSR to the clinical study value; this had no significant impact on the PBPK model predictions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.