Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
|Mal di testa|
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la combinazione di nisoldipina e cimetidina. Si prega di consultare anche le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. L'esposizione alla nisoldipina aumenta al 141%, se combinato con cimetidina (141%). Non abbiamo rilevato alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla cimetidina. Al momento non possiamo stimare l'influenza della nisoldipina.
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La nisoldipina ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 4%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 4 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 99.6% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 123 litri. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP3A4.
La cimetidina ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 65%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 1.6333333 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 19% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 91 litri. Il metabolismo non avviene tramite i comuni citocromi e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite BCRP e PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la nisoldipina né la cimetidina aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Raccomandazione: A scopo precauzionale, occorre prestare attenzione ai sintomi anticolinergici, soprattutto dopo aver aumentato la dose ea dosi nel range terapeutico superiore.
Valutazione: La cimetidina ha solo un lieve effetto sul sistema anticolinergico. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica con questo farmaco è piuttosto basso se il dosaggio è nel range usuale. Secondo i nostri risultati, la nisoldipina non aumenta l'attività anticolinergica.
Estensione di tempo QT
Raccomandazione: Assicurati che i fattori di rischio influenzabili siano ridotti al minimo. Disturbi elettrolitici come bassi livelli di calcio, potassio e magnesio devono essere compensati. Deve essere utilizzata la dose minima efficace di cimetidina.
Valutazione: La cimetidina può potenzialmente prolungare il tempo dell'intervallo QT e in presenza di fattori di rischio, possono essere preferite le aritmie di tipo torsioni di punta. Non conosciamo alcun potenziale di prolungamento dell'intervallo QT per la nisoldipina.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||nis||cim|
|Edema periferico||22.0 %||22.0||n.a.|
|Mal di testa||22.0 %||22.0||n.a.|
|Sensazione di caldo e arrossamento della pelle||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Infarto miocardico||0.0 %||0.0||n.a.|
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: Pharmacokinetics, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate after oral and intravenous nisoldipine were studied in eight healthy subjects without and with cotreatment of cimetidine in a four-way crossover design. After intravenous infusion, elimination half-life (t1/2) was 4.0 +/- 2.3 hours, systemic clearance (CL) was 0.83 +/- 0.17 L/min, and volume of distribution was 1.6 +/- 0.6 L/kg. After oral nisoldipine, t1/2 was 3.8 +/- 1.3 hours and systemic availability was 3.9% +/- 3.5%. During cimetidine, t1/2 and CL were not different. Systemic availability increased to 5.7% +/- 2.8%. After all nisoldipine treatments a significant decrease in supine diastolic blood pressure (mean 10% to 16%) and increase in heart rate (mean 22% to 44%) were observed. Hemodynamic effects until 2 hours after nisoldipine administration could be fitted to a sigmoidal Emax model. At times after 2 hours a second effect peak was observed. Cimetidine inhibits the metabolism of nisoldipine but has no significant influence on hemodynamic parameters.
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: Understanding the mechanism of action and the pharmacokinetic properties of vasodilatory drugs facilitates optimal use in clinical practice. It should be kept in mind that a drug belongs to a class but is a distinct entity, sometimes derived from a prototype to achieve a specific effect. The most common pharmacokinetic drug improvement is the development of a drug with a half-life sufficiently long to allow an adequate once-daily dosage. Developing a controlled release preparation can increase the apparent half-life of a drug. Altering the molecular structure may also increase the half-life of a prototype drug. Another desirable improvement is increasing the specificity of a drug, which may result in fewer adverse effects, or more efficacy at the target site. This is especially important for vasodilatory drugs which may be administered over decades for the treatment of hypertension, which usually does not interfere with subjective well-being. Compliance is greatly increased with once-daily dosing. Vasodilatory agents cause relaxation by either a decrease in cytoplasmic calcium, an increase in nitric oxide (NO) or by inhibiting myosin light chain kinase. They are divided into 9 classes: calcium antagonists, potassium channel openers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, alpha-adrenergic and imidazole receptor antagonists, beta 1-adrenergic agonist, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, eicosanoids and NO donors. Despite chemical differences, the pharmacokinetic properties of calcium antagonists are similar. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is high, with all substances undergoing considerable first-pass metabolism by the liver, resulting in low bioavailability and pronounced individual variation in pharmacokinetics. Renal impairment has little effect on pharmacokinetics since renal elimination of these agents is minimal. Except for the newer drugs of the dihydropyridine type, amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, nilvadipine, nisoldipine and nitrendipine, the half-life of calcium antagonists is short. Maintaining an effective drug concentration for the remainder of these agents requires multiple daily dosing, in some cases even with controlled release formulations. However, a coat-core preparation of nifedipine has been developed to allow once-daily administration. Adverse effects are directly correlated to the potency of the individual calcium antagonists. Treatment with the potassium channel opener minoxidil is reserved for patients with moderately severe to severe hypertension which is refractory to other treatment. Diazoxide and hydralazine are chiefly used to treat severe hypertensive emergencies, primary pulmonary and malignant hypertension and in severe preeclampsia. ACE inhibitors prevent conversion of angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II and are most effective when renin production is increased. Since ACE is identical to kininase-II, which inactivates the potent endogenous vasodilator bradykinin, ACE inhibition causes a reduction in bradykinin degradation. ACE inhibitors exert cardioprotective and cardioreparative effects by preventing and reversing cardiac fibrosis and ventricular hypertrophy in animal models. The predominant elimination pathway of most ACE inhibitors is via renal excretion. Therefore, renal impairment is associated with reduced elimination and a dosage reduction of 25 to 50% is recommended in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. Separating angiotensin-II inhibition from bradykinin potentiation has been the goal in developing angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. The incidence of adverse effects of such an agent, losartan, is comparable to that encountered with placebo treatment, and the troublesome cough associated with ACE inhibitors is absent.
Abstract: Nisoldipine, a calcium antagonist of the dihydropyridine type, is the active ingredient of the controlled release nisoldipine coat-core (CC) formulation. In humans, the absorption from nisoldipine CC occurs across the entire gastrointestinal tract with an increase in bioavailability in the colon because of the lower concentrations of metabolising enzymes in the distal gut wall. Although nisoldipine is almost completely absorbed, its absolute bioavailability from the CC tablet is only 5.5%, as a result of significant first-pass metabolism in the gut and liver. Nisoldipine is a high-clearance drug with substantial interindividual and relatively lower intraindividual variability in pharmacokinetics, dependent on liver blood flow. Nisoldipine is highly (> 99%) protein bound. Its elimination is almost exclusively via the metabolic route and renal excretion of metabolites dominates over excretion in the faeces. Although nisoldipine is administered as a racemic mixture, its plasma concentrations are almost entirely caused by the eutomer as a result of highly stereoselective intrinsic clearance. Nisoldipine CC demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics in the therapeutic dose range and its steady-state pharmacokinetics are predictable from single dose data. Steady-state is reached with the second dose when the drug is given once daily and the peak-trough fluctuations in plasma concentration is minimal. Plasma-concentrations of nisoldipine increase with age. Careful dose titration according to individual clinical response is recommended in the elderly. Nisoldipine CC should not be used in patients with liver cirrhosis, though dosage adjustments in patients with renal impairment are not necessary. Inter-ethnic differences in its pharmacokinetics are not evident. Owing to inhibition of metabolising enzymes, a small dosage adjustment decrement for nisoldipine CC may be required when it is given in combination with cimetidine. Concomitant ingestion of nisoldipine with grapefruit juice should be avoided. Inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, e.g. rifampicin (rifampin) and phenytoin should not be combined with nisoldipine CC, as they may reduce its bioavailability and result in a loss of efficacy. The concomitant use of other drugs which may produce marked induction or inhibition of CYP3A4 is contraindicated. Concomitant intake of the CC tablet with high fat, high calorie foods resulted in an increase in the maximum plasma concentrations of nisoldipine. The 'food-effect' can be avoided by administration of the CC tablet up to 30 minutes before the intake of food [corrected]. Plasma concentrations of nisoldipine are related to its antihypertensive effect via a maximum effect model. Nisoldipine CC once daily produce reductions in blood pressure which are maintained over 24 hours in the absence of relevant effects on heart rate.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence has shown that diabetes mellitus may affect the pharmacokinetics of some drugs, leading to alteration of pharmacodynamics and/or toxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a novel physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for predicting drug pharmacokinetics in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus quantitatively. METHODS: Contributions of diabetes-induced alteration of physiological parameters including gastric emptying rates, intestinal transit time, drug metabolism in liver and kidney functions were incorporated into the model. Plasma concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters of seven drugs (antipyrine, nisoldipine, repaglinide, glibenclamide, glimepiride, chlorzoxazone, and metformin) in non-diabetic and diabetic patients were predicted using the developed model. The PBPK model coupled with a Monte-Carlo simulation was also used to predict the means and variability of pharmacokinetic parameters. RESULTS: The predicted area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum (peak) concentration (C max) were reasonably consistent (<2-fold errors) with the reported values. Sensitivity analysis showed that gut transit time, hepatic enzyme activity, and renal function affected the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these drugs. Shortened gut transit time only decreased the AUC of controlled-released drugs and drugs with low absorption rates. Impairment of renal function markedly altered pharmacokinetics of drugs mainly eliminated via the kidneys. CONCLUSION: All of these results indicate that the developed PBPK model can quantitatively predict pharmacokinetic alterations induced by diabetes.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.