Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
La somministrazione di paroxetina e tramadolo deve essere evitata.
Rischio di tossicità da serotoni - riduzione dell'analgesiaMeccanismo: la paroxetina è un potente inibitore del CYP2D6 e può quindi inibire la degradazione del tramadolo nel metabolita attivo M1. Inoltre, entrambe le sostanze hanno un effetto sul sistema serotoninergico.
Effetto: esistono segnalazioni di casi in cui viene descritta la comparsa di una sindrome serotoninergica nella combinazione di tramadolo e paroxetina e vi è un aumento dell'effetto nervoso centrale dovuto all'accumulo della sostanza originaria (affaticamento, depressione respiratoria, aumento del rischio di convulsioni in pazienti predisposti, sindrome serotoninergica).
Misure: la combinazione dovrebbe essere evitata. Se ciò è assolutamente necessario, monitorare attentamente i pazienti per un'adeguata analgesia e segni di tossicità da serotonina (inclusi iperreflessia, sintomi del SNC, mioclono, aumento della sudorazione). Usa il dosaggio più basso possibile di paroxetina.
|Tramadolo||1.58 [0.89,3.86] 1,2||1.18||1.48|
|Paroxetina||1.52 [0.47,8.42] 1||1||1.52|
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. L'esposizione alla tramadolo aumenta al 158%, se combinato con cimetidina (118%) e paroxetina (148%). L'AUC è compresa tra 89% e 386% a seconda del
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La tramadolo ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 66%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 4.5 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 20% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 238 litri. Poiché la sostanza ha una bassa velocità di estrazione epatica di 0,9, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può aumentare l'esposizione. Circa il 30.0% di una dose somministrata viene escreta immodificata attraverso i reni e questa proporzione è raramente modificata dalle interazioni. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP2B6, CYP2D6 e CYP3A4, tra gli altri e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare tramite UGT1A1.
La cimetidina ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 65%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 1.6333333 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 19% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 91 litri. Il metabolismo non avviene tramite i comuni citocromi e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite BCRP e PGP.
La paroxetina ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 40%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è di 16 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti dopo circa 64 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 94% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 274 litri, ecco perché, con una velocità di estrazione epatica media di 0,9, sono rilevanti sia il flusso sanguigno epatico [Q] che una variazione del legame proteico [Pb]. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 e CYP3A4, tra gli altri e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare tramite PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||4||++||Ø||++|
Il rischio di una sindrome serotoninergica è aumentato, ma senza una
Valutazione: La tramadolo e la paroxetina modulano il sistema serotoninergico in misura moderata. Secondo le nostre conoscenze, la cimetidina non aumenta l'attività serotonergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||+||+||+|
Raccomandazione: Il rischio di effetti collaterali anticolinergici come visione offuscata, confusione e tremore aumenta con questa terapia. Se possibile, la terapia deve essere modificata o il paziente deve essere attentamente monitorato per altri sintomi come Vengono monitorati costipazione, midriasi e ridotta vigilanza.
Valutazione: Insieme, la tramadolo (blando), cimetidina (blando) e la paroxetina (blando) aumentano l'attività anticolinergica.
Estensione di tempo QT
Valutazione: In combinazione, tramadolo, cimetidina e paroxetina possono potenzialmente innescare aritmie ventricolari di tipo torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||tra||cim||par|
|Mal di testa||22.8 %||+||n.a.||22.0|
|Eiaculazione anormale||20.5 %||n.a.||n.a.||20.5|
Sensazione di caldo e arrossamento della pelle (11.8%): tramadolo
Diaforesi (9.5%): paroxetina
Prurito (7.4%): tramadolo
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson: paroxetina
Necrolisi epidermica tossica: paroxetina
Vomito (10%): tramadolo
Perdita di appetito (6.5%): paroxetina
Pancreatite: cimetidina, tramadolo
Emorragia gastrointestinale: paroxetina
Tremore (7.5%): paroxetina
Disturbo da sogno: paroxetina
Convulsioni: tramadolo, paroxetina
Riduzione della libido (7.5%): paroxetina
Disfunzione erettile (6%): paroxetina
Disturbo dell'orgasmo (6%): paroxetina
Visione offuscata (5%): paroxetina
Dispnea (4.9%): tramadolo
Depressione respiratoria: tramadolo
Ginecomastia (4%): cimetidina
Reazione di ipersensibilità: tramadolo
Reazione anafilattica: paroxetina
Tempo di sanguinamento prolungato: paroxetina
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: The relationship between the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine and the sparteine oxidation polymorphism was investigated in a combined single-dose (30 mg) and steady-state (30 mg/day for 2 weeks) study including a panel of nine extensive metabolizers and eight poor metabolizers of sparteine. The median area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) after the first paroxetine dose was about seven times higher in poor metabolizers than in extensive metabolizers (3910 versus 550 nmol.hr/L), whereas at steady state the median AUCss tau interphenotype difference was only twofold (4410 versus 2550 nmol.hr/L). Plasma half-life and steady-state plasma concentration were significantly longer and higher, respectively, in poor metabolizers than in extensive metabolizers (41 versus 16 hours and 151 versus 81 nmol/L). Paroxetine pharmacokinetics were linear in poor metabolizers and nonlinear only in extensive metabolizers. Sparteine metabolic ratio (MR = 12 hour urinary ratio of sparteine/dehydrosparteine), increased during treatment with paroxetine in subjects who were extensive metabolizers, and after 14 days treatment two extensive metabolizers were phenotyped as poor metabolizers and the remaining extensive metabolizers were changed into extremely slow extensive metabolizers with sparteine MRs of 5.7 to 16.5. The inhibition of sparteine metabolism was rapidly reversed after cessation of paroxetine administration. In the poor metabolizers there were no significant changes in MRs during the study. It is concluded that paroxetine and sparteine metabolism cosegregates, but the interphenotype difference in metabolism was less prominent at steady state than after a single dose, presumably because of saturation of the sparteine oxygenase (CYP2D6) in subjects who were extensive metabolizers. Paroxetine is a potent inhibitor of sparteine oxidation by CYP2D6 in vivo.
Abstract: Paroxetine is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and appears to undergo first-pass metabolism which is partially saturable. Consistent with its lipophilic amine character, paroxetine is extensively distributed into tissues. Its plasma protein binding at therapeutically relevant concentrations is about 95%. Paroxetine is eliminated by metabolism involving oxidation, methylation, and conjugation. All of these factors lead to wide interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. Renal clearance of the compound is negligible. The major metabolites of paroxetine are conjugates which do not compromise its selectivity nor contribute to the clinical response. Ascending single-dose studies reveal that the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine are non-linear to a limited extent in most subjects and to a marked degree in only a few. Also, steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters are not predictable from single-dose data. In many subjects, daily administration of 20-50 mg of paroxetine leads to little or no disproportionality in plasma levels with dose, although in a few subjects this phenomenon is evident. Steady-state plasma concentrations are generally achieved within 7 to 14 days. The terminal half-life is about one day, although there is a wide intersubject variability (e.g. with 30 mg, a range of 7-65 hours was observed in a group of 28 healthy young subjects). In elderly subjects there is wide interindividual variation in steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters, with statistically significantly higher plasma concentrations and slower elimination than in younger subjects, although there is a large degree of overlap in the ranges of corresponding parameters. In severe renal impairment higher plasma levels of paroxetine are achieved than in healthy individuals after single dose. In moderate hepatic impairment the pharmacokinetics after single doses are similar to those of normal subjects. Paroxetine is not a general inducer or inhibitor of hepatic oxidation processes, and has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics of other drugs examined. Its metabolism and pharmacokinetics are to some degree affected by the induction or inhibition of drug metabolizing enzyme(s). From a pharmacokinetic standpoint, drug interactions involving paroxetine are considered unlikely to be a frequent occurrence. Data available have failed to reveal any correlation between plasma concentrations of paroxetine and its clinical effects (either efficacy or adverse events).
Abstract: Paroxetine is a trans-isomeric phenylpiperidine with antidepressant properties induced by selective inhibition of the neuronal high affinity uptake of serotonin. In comparison with other selective serotonin uptake inhibitors paroxetine is 2 to 23 times more potent. With the exception of a low affinity to muscarinic receptors, which is not relevant for therapeutic effects, it does not interact directly with monoamine neurotransmitter receptors. Paroxetine is applied orally at single daily doses of 20 to 50 mg and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It undergoes a partially saturated first pass metabolism which reduces the bioavailability at therapeutic doses to about 30-60%. Maximal blood levels are reached 2 to 8 hours after oral administration. In the plasma 95% of the drug are bound to protein. Paroxetine is eliminated after transformation in the liver into pharmacologically inactive metabolites. High affinity to the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6 indicates that interferences occur with other drugs which are metabolized via the same isoenzyme. Although clinical practice has not reported problematic drug interactions so far, comedications with tricyclic antidepressants should be avoided. The most frequent side effects of paroxetine concern nausea and somnolescence. Since cardiotoxicity or other toxic side effects are much less frequent than under tricyclic antidepressants paroxetine seems advantageous in elderly patients. The onset of antidepressant effects requires several weeks as known for all currently available antidepressants. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of paroxetine taken together indicate that this selective serotonin uptake inhibitor seems advantageous to other antidepressant agents because of its high selectivity and poor toxicity.
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: (+/-)-Tramadol is a synthetic 4-phenyl-piperidine analogue of codeine. It is a central analgesic with a low affinity for opioid receptors. Its selectivity for mu receptors has recently been demonstrated, and the M1 metabolite of tramadol, produced by liver O-demethylation, shows a higher affinity for opioid receptors than the parent drug. The rate of production of this M1 derivative (O-demethyl tramadol), is influenced by a polymorphic isoenzyme of the debrisoquine-type, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Nevertheless, this affinity for mu receptors of the CNS remains low, being 6000 times lower than that of morphine. Moreover, and in contrast to other opioids, the analgesic action of tramadol is only partially inhibited by the opioid antagonist naloxone, which suggests the existence of another mechanism of action. This was demonstrated by the discovery of a monoaminergic activity that inhibits noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake, making a significant contribution to the analgesic action by blocking nociceptive impulses at the spinal level. (+/-)-Tramadol is a racemic mixture of 2 enantiomers, each one displaying differing affinities for various receptors. (+/-)-Tramadol is a selective agonist of mu receptors and preferentially inhibits serotonin reuptake, whereas (-)-tramadol mainly inhibits noradrenaline reuptake. The action of these 2 enantiomers is both complementary and synergistic and results in the analgesic effect of (+/-)-tramadol. After oral administration, tramadol demonstrates 68% bioavailability, with peak serum concentrations reached within 2 hours. The elimination kinetics can be described as 2-compartmental, with a half-life of 5.1 hours for tramadol and 9 hours for the M1 derivative after a single oral dose of 100mg. This explains the approximately 2-fold accumulation of the parent drug and its M1 derivative that is observed during multiple dose treatment with tramadol. The recommended daily dose of tramadol is between 50 and 100mg every 4 to 6 hours, with a maximum dose of 400 mg/day; the duration of the analgesic effect after a single oral dose of tramadol 100mg is about 6 hours. Adverse effects, and nausea in particular, are dose-dependent and therefore considerably more likely to appear if the loading dose is high. The reduction of this dose during the first days of treatment is an important factor in improving tolerability. Other adverse effects are generally similar to those of opioids, although they are usually less severe, and can include respiratory depression, dysphoria and constipation. Tramadol can be administered concomitantly with other analgesics, particularly those with peripheral action, while drugs that depress CNS function may enhance the sedative effect of tramadol. Tramadol should not be administered to patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and administration with tricyclic antidepressant drugs should also be avoided. Tramadol has pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties that are highly unlikely to lead to dependence. This was confirmed by various controlled studies and postmarketing surveillance studies, which reported an extremely small number of patients developing tolerance or instances of tramadol abuse. Tramadol is a central acting analgesic which has been shown to be effective and well tolerated, and likely to be of value for treating several pain conditions (step II of the World Health Organization ladder) where treatment with strong opioids is not required.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: We report on a case of serotonin syndrome associated to the use of the paroxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor drug. Serotonin syndrome related to this drug not combined with other drugs had not yet been described in literature.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of serotonin syndrome due to paroxetine and ethanol. CASE SUMMARY: A 57-year-old white man was brought to the emergency department one day after ingesting paroxetine 3600 mg and a pint of hard liquor. He denied the use of any other drug or herbal products and regular use of alcohol. Upon arrival to the hospital, vital signs were blood pressure 188/103 mm Hg, heart rate 114 beats/min, respiratory rate 28 breaths/min, temperature 36.8 degrees C, and O2 saturation 96% on room air. Findings on physical examination included dilated pupils, facial flushing, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonic jerks, tremors, and hyperreflexia. A tentative diagnosis of serotonin syndrome was made. Initially, cyproheptadine 8 mg was administered orally with no observable effect. An additional 12 mg was given in 3 doses over 24 hours. Symptoms abated slowly over the next 6 days, during which a thorough evaluation failed to reveal any other potential causes for the patient's condition. Serum paroxetine concentrations at 27.5 and 40 hours after ingestion were 1800 and 1600 ng/mL, respectively (normal 20-200 ng/mL). DISCUSSION: Serotonin syndrome is rarely reported in patients taking only one serotonergic medication. Although serum paroxetine concentrations have not been shown to correlate with efficacy or toxicity, our patient's serum paroxetine concentration was 9 times the upper end of the therapeutic range. Cyproheptadine, which has been suggested as a therapy, did not appear beneficial in this patient. Use of the Naranjo probability scale indicated a probable relationship between the serotonin syndrome and the overdose of paroxetine taken by this patient. CONCLUSIONS: More studies are needed to better assess the role of cyproheptadine and other serotonin antagonists in the management of the serotonin syndrome. Regardless of the use of cyproheptadine or other agents, attention should be paid to fluid status, decontamination, and management of hyperthermia, agitation, and seizures.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic structurally related to codeine and morphine, consists of two enantiomers, both of which contribute to analgesic activity via different mechanisms. (+)-Tramadol and the metabolite (+)-O-desmethyl-tramadol (M1) are agonists of the mu opioid receptor. (+)-Tramadol inhibits serotonin reuptake and (-)-tramadol inhibits norepinephrine reuptake, enhancing inhibitory effects on pain transmission in the spinal cord. The complementary and synergistic actions of the two enantiomers improve the analgesic efficacy and tolerability profile of the racemate. Tramadol is available as drops, capsules and sustained-release formulations for oral use, suppositories for rectal use and solution for intramuscular, intravenous and subcutaneous injection. After oral administration, tramadol is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. Sustained-release tablets release the active ingredient over a period of 12 hours, reach peak concentrations after 4.9 hours and have a bioavailability of 87-95% compared with capsules. Tramadol is rapidly distributed in the body; plasma protein binding is about 20%. Tramadol is mainly metabolised by O- and N-demethylation and by conjugation reactions forming glucuronides and sulfates. Tramadol and its metabolites are mainly excreted via the kidneys. The mean elimination half-life is about 6 hours. The O-demethylation of tramadol to M1, the main analgesic effective metabolite, is catalysed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, whereas N-demethylation to M2 is catalysed by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. The wide variability in the pharmacokinetic properties of tramadol can partly be ascribed to CYP polymorphism. O- and N-demethylation of tramadol as well as renal elimination are stereoselective. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic characterisation of tramadol is difficult because of differences between tramadol concentrations in plasma and at the site of action, and because of pharmacodynamic interactions between the two enantiomers of tramadol and its active metabolites. The analgesic potency of tramadol is about 10% of that of morphine following parenteral administration. Tramadol provides postoperative pain relief comparable with that of pethidine, and the analgesic efficacy of tramadol can further be improved by combination with a non-opioid analgesic. Tramadol may prove particularly useful in patients with a risk of poor cardiopulmonary function, after surgery of the thorax or upper abdomen and when non-opioid analgesics are contraindicated. Tramadol is an effective and well tolerated agent to reduce pain resulting from trauma, renal or biliary colic and labour, and also for the management of chronic pain of malignant or nonmalignant origin, particularly neuropathic pain. Tramadol appears to produce less constipation and dependence than equianalgesic doses of strong opioids.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Tramadol hydrochloride (INN, tramadol) exerts its antinociceptive action through a monoaminergic effect mediated by the parent compound and an opioid effect mediated mainly by the O-demethylated metabolite (+)-M1. O-demethylation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6. Paroxetine is a very potent inhibitor of CYP2D6. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of paroxetine pretreatment on the biotransformation and the hypoalgesic effect of tramadol. METHODS: With and without paroxetine pretreatment (20 mg daily for 3 consecutive days), the formation of M1 and the analgesic effect of 150 mg of tramadol were studied in 16 healthy extensive metabolizers of sparteine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover study by use of experimental pain models. RESULTS: With paroxetine pretreatment, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of (+)- and (-)-tramadol was increased (37% [P = .001] and 32% [P = .002], respectively), and the corresponding AUCs of(+)- and (-)-M1 were decreased (67% [P = .0004] and 40% [P = .0008], respectively). (+)-M1 and (-)-M1 could be determined in all subjects throughout the study period regardless of paroxetine pretreatment. The sums of differences between postmedication and premedication values of pain measures differed between the placebo/tramadol and the placebo/placebo combination, with median values as follows: pressure pain tolerance threshold, 390 kPa (95% confidence interval [CI], 211 to 637 kPa) versus -84 kPa (95% CI, - 492 to -32 kPa) (P = .001); single sural nerve stimulation pain tolerance threshold, 25.8 mA (95% CI, 15.3 to 29.8 mA) versus 9.0 mA (95% CI, 1.5 to 14.8 mA) (P = .005); pain summation threshold, 10.7 mA (95% CI, 5.2 to 17.6 mA) versus 5.0 mA (95% CI, 2.8 to 11.2 mA) (P = .066); cold pressor pain, -4.2 cm x s (95% CI, -6.8 to -1.9 cm x s) versus -0.4 cm x s (-1.4 to 1.4 cm x s) (P = .002); and discomfort, -4.7 cm (95% CI, -10.6 to -2.8 cm) versus 0.5 cm (-0.1 to 1.4 cm) (P = .002). The sums of differences of the paroxetine/tramadol combination also differed from placebo/tramadol for some of the measures, with median values as follows: cold pressor pain, -2.2 cm x s (95% CI, -3.7 to -0.4 cm x s) (P = .036, compared with placebo/tramadol); and discomfort, -2.0 cm (95% CI, -5.6 to -1.2 cm) (P = .056). For the other measures, the hypoalgesic effect was retained on the paroxetine/tramadol combination, with median values as follows: pressure pain tolerance threshold, 389 kPa (95% CI, 141 to 715 kPa) (P = .278, compared with placebo/tramadol); single sural nerve stimulation pain tolerance threshold, 12.5 mA (95% CI, 6.2 to 28.3 mA) (P = .278); and pain summation threshold, 8.2 mA (95% CI, 4.4 to 14.6 mA) (P = .179). Paroxetine in combination with placebo showed no analgesic effect. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that paroxetine at a dosage of 20 mg once daily for 3 consecutive days significantly inhibits the metabolism of tramadol to its active metabolite M1 and reduces but does not abolish the hypoalgesic effect of tramadol in human experimental pain models, particularly in opioid-sensitive tests.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Paroxetine is believed to be a substrate of CYP2D6. However, no information was available indicating drug interaction between paroxetine and inhibitors of CYP2D6. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of terbinafine, a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6, on pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. METHODS: Two 6-day courses of either a daily 150-mg of terbinafine or a placebo, with at least a 4-week washout period, were conducted. Twelve volunteers took a single oral 20-mg dose of paroxetine on day 6 of both courses. Plasma concentrations of paroxetine were monitored up to 48 h after dosing. RESULTS: Compared with the placebo, terbinafine treatment significantly increased the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of paroxetine, by 1.9-fold (6.4 +/- 2.4 versus 12.1 +/- 2.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001), and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 48 h [AUC (0-48)] of paroxetine by 2.5-fold (127 +/- 67 vs 318 +/- 102 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Elimination half-life differed significantly (15.3 +/- 2.4 vs 22.7 +/- 8.8 h, p < 0.05), although the magnitude of alteration (1.4-fold) was smaller than C(max )or AUC. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the metabolism of paroxetine after a single oral dose was inhibited by terbinafine, suggesting that inhibition of CYP2D6 activity may lead to a change in the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. However, further study is required to confirm this phenomenon at steady state.
Abstract: A recent in vitro study has shown that paroxetine is a substrate of P-glycoprotein. However, there was no in vivo information indicating the involvement of P-glycoprotein on the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of itraconazole, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. Two 6 day courses of either 200 mg itraconazole daily or placebo with at least a 4 week washout period were conducted. Thirteen volunteers took a single oral 20 mg dose of paroxetine on day 6 of both courses. Plasma concentrations of paroxetine were monitored up to 48 hours after the dosing. Compared with placebo, itraconazole treatment significantly increased the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of paroxetine by 1.3 fold (6.7 +/- 2.5 versus 9.0 +/- 3.3 ng/mL, P < 0.05) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 48 hours [AUC (0-48)] of paroxetine by 1.5 fold (137 +/- 73 versus 199 +/- 91 ng*h/mL, P < 0.01). Although elimination half-life differed significantly (16.1 +/- 3.4 versus 18.8 +/- 5.9 hours, P < 0.05), the alteration was small (1.1 fold). The present study demonstrated that the bioavailability of paroxetine was increased by itraconazole, suggesting a possible involvement of P-glycoprotein in the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients have an increased risk for depression. Despite the high potential for drug-drug interactions, limited data on the combined use of antidepressants and antiretrovirals are available. Theoretically, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors may inhibit CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of paroxetine. We wanted to determine the effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir on paroxetine pharmacokinetics and vice versa and to evaluate the safety of the combination. Group A started with 20 mg paroxetine every day for 10 days; after a wash-out period of 16 days, subjects received paroxetine (20 mg every day) plus fosamprenavir-ritonavir (700/100 mg twice a day) from days 28 to 37. Group B received the regimens in reverse order. On days 10 and 37, pharmacokinetic curves were recorded. Twenty-six healthy subjects (18 females, 8 males) were included. Median (range) age and weight were 44.4 (18.2 to 64.3) years and 68.8 (51.0 to 89.4) kg. Three subjects were excluded (two because of adverse events; one for nonadherence). Addition of fosamprenavir-ritonavir to paroxetine resulted in a significant decrease in paroxetine exposure: the geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) of paroxetine plus fosamprenavir-ritonavir to paroxetine alone were 0.45 (0.41 to 0.49) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24)), 0.49 (0.45 to 0.53) for the maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max)), and 0.75 (0.71 to 0.80) for the apparent elimination half-life (t(1/2)). The free fraction of paroxetine showed a median (interquartile range) increase of 30% (18 to 42%) after the addition of fosamprenavir-ritonavir. The AUC(0-12), C(max), C(min), and t(1/2) of amprenavir and ritonavir were similar to those of historical controls. No serious adverse events occurred. Fosamprenavir-ritonavir reduced total paroxetine exposure by 55%. This is partly explained by protein displacement of paroxetine. We think that this interaction is clinically relevant and that titration to a higher dose of paroxetine may be necessary to accomplish the needed antidepressant effect.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: During recent years some opioids have been associated with prolonged QT and torsade de pointes (TdP). In vitro testing has shown that most opioids can block the cardiac potassium channels. This indicates that QT prolongation and TdP could be a more general problem associated with the use of these drugs. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: This study is the first to show that oxycodone dose is associated with QT prolongation and in vitro blockade of hERG channels expressed in HEK293. Neither morphine nor tramadol doses are associated with the QT interval length. AIMS: During recent years some opioids have been associated with prolonged QT interval and torsade de pointes (TdP). In vitro patch clamp testing has shown that most opioids can block human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) channels that are known to underlie cardiac repolarizing I(Kr) current. This indicates that QT prolongation and TdP could be a more general problem associated with the use of these drugs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between different opioids and the QTc among patients and measure hERG activity under influence by opioids in vitro. METHODS: One hundred chronic nonmalignant pain patients treated with methadone, oxycodone, morphine or tramadol were recruited in a cross-sectional study. The QTc was estimated from a 12-lead ECG. To examine hERG activity in the presence of oxycodone, electrophysiological testing was conducted using Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells expressing hERG channels. RESULTS: There were no differences in gender distribution or age between the treatment groups. The known association between methadone dose and QTc was confirmed (R(2) = 0.09; P = 0.02). Higher oxycodone dose was also associated with longer QTc (R(2) = 0.21; P = 0.02). A 100 mg higher oxycodone dose was associated with a 10 ms(1/2) (95% CI 2-19) longer QTc. Neither morphine nor tramadol dose was associated with the QTc. Electrophysiological testing revealed low-affinity inhibition of the potassium current through hERG channels expressed in HEK293 cells (IC(50) = 171 microM oxycodone). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients treated with methadone or oxycodone, higher doses were associated with longer QTc. Oxycodone is capable of inhibiting hERG channels in vitro.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: We identify here for the first time the low-affinity cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms that metabolize paroxetine, using cDNA-expressed human P450s measuring substrate depletion and paroxetine-catechol (product) formation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were identified as paroxetine-catechol-forming P450 isoforms, and CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 were identified as metabolizing P450 isoforms by substrate depletion. Michaelis-Menten constants K(m) and V(max) were determined by product formation and substrate depletion. Using selective inhibitory studies and a relative activity factor approach for pooled and single-donor human liver microsomes, we confirmed involvement of the identified P450 isoforms for paroxetine-catechol formation at 1 and 20 muM paroxetine. In addition, we used the population-based simulator Simcyp to estimate the importance of the identified paroxetine-metabolizing P450 isoforms for human metabolism, taking mechanism-based inhibition into account. The amount of active hepatic CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 (not inactivated by mechanism-based inhibition) was also estimated by Simcyp. For extensive and poor metabolizers of CYP2D6, Simcyp-estimated pharmacokinetic profiles were in good agreement with those reported in published in vivo studies. Considering the kinetic parameters, inhibition results, relative activity factor calculations, and Simcyp simulations, CYP2D6 (high affinity) and CYP3A4 (low affinity) are most likely to be the major contributors to paroxetine metabolism in humans. For some individuals CYP1A2 could be of importance for paroxetine metabolism, whereas the importance of CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 is probably limited.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Many psychotropic drugs can delay cardiac repolarization and thereby prolong the rate-corrected QT interval (QTc). A prolonged QTc often arouses concern in clinical practice, as it can be followed, in rare cases, by the life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmia called torsade de pointes (TdP). METHOD: We searched PubMed for pertinent literature on the risk of QTc prolongation and/or TdP associated with commonly used psychotropic drugs. RESULTS: Thioridazine and ziprasidone confer the highest risk of QTc prolongation and/or TdP. There is also a clinically significant risk associated with haloperidol given intravenously in high doses. TdP has been reported in a few cases in association with the use of newer antipsychotic drugs (mainly quetiapine and amisulpride), most of the tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants, and the selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and venlafaxine. As a rule, however, QTc prolongation and/or TdP occur only in the presence of multiple additional risk factors, such as age over 65 years, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, bradycardia, female sex, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, a supratherapeutic or toxic serum concentration, or the simultaneous administration of other drugs that delay repolarization or interfere with drug metabolism. CONCLUSION: Before prescribing a psychotropic drug, the physician should carefully assess its risks and benefits to avoid this type of adverse reaction, particularly when additional risk factors are present. The ECG and electrolytes should be regularly monitored in patients taking psychotropic drugs.
Abstract: PURPOSE: We assessed possible drug interactions of tramadol given concomitantly with the potent CYP2B6 inhibitor ticlopidine, alone or together with the potent CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibitor itraconazole. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study, 12 healthy subjects ingested 50 mg of tramadol after 4 days of pretreatment with either placebo, ticlopidine (250 mg twice daily) or ticlopidine plus itraconazole (200 mg once daily). Plasma and urine concentrations of tramadol and its active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) were monitored over 48 h and 24 h, respectively. RESULTS: Ticlopidine increased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) of tramadol by 2.0-fold (90 % confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.4; p < 0.001) and Cmax by 1.4-fold (p < 0.001), and reduced its oral and renal clearance (p < 0.01). Ticlopidine reduced the AUC0-3 of M1 (p < 0.001) and the ratio of the AUC0-∞ of M1 to that of tramadol, but did not influence the AUC0-∞ of M1. Tramadol or M1 pharmacokinetics did not differ between the ticlopidine alone and ticlopidine plus itraconazole phases. CONCLUSIONS: Ticlopidine increased exposure to tramadol, reduced its renal clearance and inhibited the formation of M1, most likely via inhibition of CYP2B6 and/or CYP2D6. The addition of itraconazole to ticlopidine did not modify the outcome of the drug interaction. Concomitant clinical use of ticlopidine and tramadol may enhance the risk of serotonergic effects, especially when higher doses of tramadol are used.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Tramadol is mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enzyme induction with rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral and intravenous tramadol. METHODS: This was a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study design with 12 healthy subjects. After pretreatment for 5 days with rifampicin (600 mg once daily) or placebo, subjects were given tramadol either 50 mg intravenously or 100 mg orally. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its active main metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) were determined over 48 h. Analgesic and behavioral effects and whole blood 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were measured. RESULTS: Rifampicin reduced the mean area under the time-concentration curve (AUC0-∞) of intravenously administered tramadol by 43 % and that of M1 by 58 % (P < 0.001); it reduced the AUC0-∞ of oral tramadol by 59 % and that of M1 by 54 % (P < 0.001). Rifampicin increased the clearance of intravenous tramadol by 67 % (P < 0.001). Bioavailability of oral tramadol was reduced by rifampicin from 66 to 49 % (P = 0.002). The pharmacological effects of tramadol or whole blood serotonin concentrations were not influenced by pretreatment with rifampicin. CONCLUSIONS: Rifampicin markedly decreased the exposure to tramadol and M1 after both oral and intravenous administration. Therefore, rifampicin and other potent enzyme inducers may have a clinically important interaction with tramadol regardless of the route of its administration.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report QT prolongation potential in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in order to advise clinicians on safe use of SSRIs other than citalopram in light of citalopram warnings. DATA SOURCES: Primary literature and case reports were identified through a systematic search. Data from drug manufacturers, package inserts, and the ArizonaCERT database were also utilized. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language studies and case reports were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: Studies demonstrate possible dose-related clinically significant QT prolongation with escitalopram. Fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline at traditional doses demonstrate a lack of clinically significant increases in QTc in the majority of studies. Further, paroxetine monotherapy shows a lack of clinically significant QTc prolongation in all studies. However, case reports or reporting tools still link these SSRIs with QTc prolongation. Fluoxetine, escitalopram, and sertraline used in post-acute coronary syndrome patients did not demonstrate risk of QTc prolongation. CONCLUSION: For clinicians who choose not to use citalopram due to recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations, other antidepressants within this class may be considered. When citalopram is not utilized based on risk factors for TdP, use of escitalopram is not likely the safest alternative. Based on current literature, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline appear to have similar, low risk for QT prolongation, and paroxetine appears to have the lowest risk. However, there are significant limitations in interpreting the studies, including varying definitions of significant QT prolongation. Therefore, choice of an alternative SSRI should be based on individual risk factors for arrhythmias and other patient-specific factors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tramadol hydrochloride is used worldwide as an analgesic drug with a unique dual function. The metabolic enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2D6 and the various transporters [adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette B1/multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein, organic cation transporter 1, serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET)] and receptor genes (opioid receptor μ 1 gene) give possible genetic differences that might affect the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of tramadol. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present a systematic walkthrough of all possible genetic factors involved in the pharmacology of tramadol. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE involving all metabolic enzymes, drug transporters and receptors, as well as SERT and NET that are involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol. An additional search on population pharmacokinetics with genetic factors as covariates was performed separately. RESULTS: A total of 56 studies (45 cohort and case-control studies, three case reports, six in vitro studies, and two animal studies) were included. CONCLUSION: In this systematic review, the current knowledge on all possible genetic factors that might influence the metabolism or clinical efficacy of tramadol has been collected and summarized. Only the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the metabolism of tramadol and the consequent effect on pain relief has been thoroughly studied and sufficiently established as clinically relevant.
Abstract: UNLABELLED: In recent years, several cases of torsade de pointes have been associated with many opioids. However, to present no cases have been reported with tramadol. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tramadol on QT-interval in the clinical setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Medical history and comorbidities predisposing to QT interval prolongation were registered for patients requiring medical assistance that involved tramadol administration. Ionograms and ECGs were performed at baseline and intratreatment; QT interval was analyzed after correction with Bazzet, Fridericia, Framinghan and Hogdes formula. RESULTS: 115 patients were studied (50.4% males) All patients had received tramadol 150-400 mg/day during 3.0-5.0 days at the moment of intratreatment control. Plasma concentrations of tramadol were 201-1613 ng/mL. Intratreatment electrocardiographic control, as mean ± SD (range), showed QTcB 372±32 (305 to 433), QTcFri 356±37 (281 to 429), QTcFra 363±33 (299 to 429), QTcH 362±30 (304 to 427), ΔQTcB 26±40 (-73 to 110), ΔQTcFri 24±48 (-97 to 121), ΔQTcFra 22±42 (-81 to 109) and .QTcH 22±38 (-68 to 110) ms. QTc interval presents high correlation with plasma tramadol concentrations (for .QTc, R>0.77). Renal failure was associated with a relative risk for ΔQTc > 30 ms of 1.90 (IC95% 1.31-2.74) and for ΔQTc > 60 ms of 4.74 (IC95% 2.57-8.74). No patient had evidence of arrhythmia during the present study. CONCLUSION: Tramadol produces QTc interval prolongation in good correlation with plasma drug concentrations; renal failure is a risk factor for higher concentration and QT prolongation by tramadol.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of tramadol hydrochloride on the corrected QT (QTc) interval in healthy adults (aged 18-55 years) in a randomized, phase I, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, multiple-dose, 4-way crossover study. Participants were randomized to receive 1 of 4 treatments (A-D), 1 each in 4 treatment periods (1-4), separated by a washout period (7-15 days). Treatment A comprised tramadol 400 mg (therapeutic dose) on days 1 through 3, tramadol 100 mg and moxifloxacin-matched placebo on day 4, and placebo on all 4 days. Treatment B comprised tramadol 600 mg (supratherapeutic dose) on days 1 through 3, and tramadol 150 mg and moxifloxacin-matched placebo on day 4. Treatment C comprised placebo on days 1 through 4 and moxifloxacin-matched placebo on day 4. Treatment D comprised placebo on days 1 through 4 and moxifloxacin 400 mg on day 4. Of 68 participants enrolled, 57 (83.8%) completed the study. Both therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of tramadol were shown to be noninferior to placebo regarding their effect on QTc prolongation. Sixty-one of 68 (89.7%) participants reported at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (mild); nausea was the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse event. Summarizing, tramadol at doses up to 600 mg/day did not cause clinically relevant QTc interval prolongation in healthy adults.
Abstract: In pediatric PBPK models, age-related changes in the body are known to occur. Given the sparsity of and the variability associated with relevant physiological parameters, different PBPK software providers may vary in their system's data. In this work, three commercially available PBPK software packages (PK-Sim®, Simcyp®, and Gastroplus®) were investigated regarding their differences in system-related information, possibly affecting clearance prediction. Three retrograde PBPK clearance models were set up to enable prediction of pediatric tramadol clearance. These models were qualified in terms of total, CYP2D6, and renal clearance in adults. Tramadol pediatric clearance predictions from PBPK were compared with a pooled popPK model covering clearance ranging from neonates to adults. Fold prediction errors were used to evaluate the results. Marked differences in liver clearance prediction between PBPK models were observed. In general, the prediction bias of total clearance was greatest at the youngest population and decreased with age. Regarding CYP2D6 and renal clearance, important differences exist between PBPK software tools. Interestingly, the PBPK model with the shortest CYP2D6 maturation half-life (PK-Sim) agreed best with the in vivo CYP2D6 maturation model. Marked differences in physiological data explain the observed differences in hepatic clearance prediction in early life between the various PBPK software providers tested. Consensus on the most suited pediatric data to use should harmonize and optimize pediatric clearance predictions. Moreover, the combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, using a convenient probe substrate, has the potential to update system-related parameters in order to better represent pediatric physiology.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of prolonged opioid use in patients receiving tramadol compared with other short acting opioids. DESIGN: Observational study of administrative claims data. SETTING: United States commercial and Medicare Advantage insurance claims (OptumLabs Data Warehouse) January 1, 2009 through June 30, 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Opioid-naive patients undergoing elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Risk of persistent opioid use after discharge for patients treated with tramadol alone compared with other short acting opioids, using three commonly used definitions of prolonged opioid use from the literature: additional opioid use (defined as at least one opioid fill 90-180 days after surgery); persistent opioid use (any span of opioid use starting in the 180 days after surgery and lasting ≥90 days); and CONSORT definition (an opioid use episode starting in the 180 days after surgery that spans ≥90 days and includes either ≥10 opioid fills or ≥120 days' supply of opioids). RESULTS: Of 444 764 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 357 884 filled a discharge prescription for one or more opioids associated with one of 20 included operations. The most commonly prescribed post-surgery opioid was hydrocodone (53.0% of those filling a single opioid), followed by short acting oxycodone (37.5%) and tramadol (4.0%). The unadjusted risk of prolonged opioid use after surgery was 7.1% (n=31 431) with additional opioid use, 1.0% (n=4457) with persistent opioid use, and 0.5% (n=2027) meeting the CONSORT definition. Receipt of tramadol alone was associated with a 6% increase in the risk of additional opioid use relative to people receiving other short acting opioids (incidence rate ratio 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.13; risk difference 0.5 percentage points; P=0.049), 47% increase in the adjusted risk of persistent opioid use (1.25 to 1.69; 0.5 percentage points; P<0.001), and 41% increase in the adjusted risk of a CONSORT chronic opioid use episode (1.08 to 1.75; 0.2 percentage points; P=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: People receiving tramadol alone after surgery had similar to somewhat higher risks of prolonged opioid use compared with those receiving other short acting opioids. Federal governing bodies should consider reclassifying tramadol, and providers should use as much caution when prescribing tramadol in the setting of acute pain as for other short acting opioids.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to predict the extent of Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6)-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in different CYP2D6 genotypes using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Following the development of a new duloxetine model and optimization of a paroxetine model, the effect of genetic polymorphisms on CYP2D6-mediated intrinsic clearances of dextromethorphan, duloxetine, and paroxetine was estimated from rich pharmacokinetic profiles in activity score (AS)1 and AS2 subjects. We obtained good predictions for the dextromethorphan-duloxetine interaction (Ratio of predicted over observed area under the curve (AUC) ratio (R) 1.38-1.43). Similarly, the effect of genotype was well predicted, with an increase of area under the curve ratio of 28% in AS2 subjects when compared with AS1 (observed, 33%). Despite an approximately twofold underprediction of the dextromethorphan-paroxetine interaction, an Rof 0.71 was obtained for the effect of genotype on the area under the curve ratio. Therefore, PBPK modeling can be successfully used to predict gene-drug-drug interactions (GDDIs). Based on these promising results, a workflow is suggested for the generic evaluation of GDDIs and DDIs that can be applied in other situations.
Abstract: Genetic variants in the hepatic uptake transporter OCT1, observed in 9% of Europeans and white Americans, are known to affect pharmacokinetics and efficacy of tramadol, morphine, and codeine. Here, we report further opioids to be substrates and inhibitors of OCT1. Methylnaltrexone, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and meptazinol were identified as OCT1 substrates. Methylnaltrexone is the strongest OCT1 substrate currently reported. It showed 86-fold higher accumulation in OCT1-overexpressing cells compared to control cells. We observed substantial differences in the inhibitory potency among structurally highly similar morphinan opioids (ICranged from 6.4 μM for dextrorphan to 2 mM for oxycodone). The ether linkage of C4-C5 in the morphinan ring leads to a strong reduction of inhibitory potency. In conclusion, although polyspecific, OCT1 possesses a strong selectivity for its ligands. In contrast to methylnaltrexone and hydromorphone, oxycodone and hydrocodone do not interact with OCT1 and may be safer for use in individuals with genetic OCT1 deficiency.