Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
|Dolore al petto|
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la combinazione di propafenone, propranololo e cimetidina. Si prega di consultare anche le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
|Propafenone||1.53 [0.45,11.65] 1||n.a.||1.53|
|Propranololo||6.72 [0.9,6.72] 1||2.06||1.62|
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. L'esposizione alla propranololo aumenta al 672%, se combinato con propafenone (206%) e cimetidina (162%). L'AUC è compresa tra 90% e 672% a seconda del
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La propafenone ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 30%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 3.7 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 94.3% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 175 litri. ecco perché, con una velocità di estrazione epatica media di 0,9, sono rilevanti sia il flusso sanguigno epatico [Q] che una variazione del legame proteico [Pb]. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP1A2, CYP2D6 e CYP3A4, tra gli altri.
La propranololo ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 27%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 3.7 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 90.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 296 litri, tuttavia, poiché la sostanza ha un'elevata velocità di estrazione epatica pari a 0,9, sono rilevanti solo i cambiamenti nel flusso sanguigno epatico [Q]. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP1A2, CYP2C19 e CYP2D6, tra gli altri.
La cimetidina ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 65%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 1.6333333 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 19% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 91 litri. Il metabolismo non avviene tramite i comuni citocromi e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite BCRP e PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la propafenone, propranololo né la cimetidina aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||Ø||+|
Raccomandazione: A scopo precauzionale, occorre prestare attenzione ai sintomi anticolinergici, soprattutto dopo aver aumentato la dose ea dosi nel range terapeutico superiore.
Valutazione: La cimetidina ha solo un lieve effetto sul sistema anticolinergico. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica con questo farmaco è piuttosto basso se il dosaggio è nel range usuale. Secondo i nostri risultati, né la propafenone né la propranololo aumentano l'attività anticolinergica.
Estensione di tempo QT
Valutazione: In combinazione, propafenone e cimetidina possono potenzialmente innescare aritmie ventricolari di tipo torsione di punta. Non conosciamo alcun potenziale di prolungamento dell'intervallo QT per la propranololo.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||pro||pro||cim|
|Dolore al petto||5.0 %||5.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|Disturbo del gusto||5.0 %||5.0||n.a.||n.a.|
Ginecomastia (4%): cimetidina
Diabete mellito: propranololo
Vomito (3%): propafenone, propranololo
Dolore addominale: propafenone
Blocco atrioventricolare (2%): propafenone
Bradicardia (2%): propafenone, propranololo
Tachicardia ventricolare: propafenone
Angina pectoris: propranololo
Insonnia (2%): propafenone, propranololo
Mal di testa: propafenone
Reazioni allergiche della pelle: propafenone, propranololo
Lupus eritematoso sistemico: propafenone
Visione offuscata: propafenone
Malattia di Raynaud: propranololo
Trombocitopenia: propafenone, propranololo
Porpora trombotica trombocitopenica: propranololo
Epatite colestatica: propafenone
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: Propranolol is completely absorbed after oral administration and widely distributed throughout tissues. Elimination occurs almost wholly by metabolic transformation in the liver and excretion of the resultant products in the urine. An active metabolite, 4-hydroxypropranolol and possibly other active compounds have been identified; the former only after oral administration. After intravenous administration, hepatic extraction is so efficient that drug clearance is dependent on liver blood flow. After oral administration, propranolol kinetics depend on both dose and duration of therapy, but hepatic extraction remains relatively high and leads in presystemic ('first-pass') elimination and low systemic availability. During continued administration, plasma concentrations vary quite widely due to genetic differences superimposed on which are certain constitutional factors, such as age, and environmental factors such as smoking, other drugs, and perhaps diet. Hepatic, renal, thyroid and some gastrointestinal diseases as well as hypertension, malnutrition and hypothermia may be associated with alterations in propranolol disposition, all of which are consistent with the pathophysiology of these diseases.
Abstract: Propafenone is a class 1C antiarrhythmic agent which is administered as a racemate of S(+)- and R(-)-enantiomers. It is well absorbed and is predominantly bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the plasma. The enantiomers display stereoselective disposition characteristics, the R-enantiomer being cleared more quickly. The hepatic metabolism of propafenone is polymorphic and genetically determined: about 10% of Caucasians have a reduced capacity to hydroxylate the drug. This polymorphic metabolism accounts for the marked interindividual variability in the relationships between dose and concentration, and between concentration and pharmacodynamic effects. During long term administration, the metabolism is saturable in patients with the 'extensive metaboliser' phenotype, leading to accumulation of the parent compound. Propafenone blocks fast inward sodium channels in a frequency-dependent manner, and also has moderate beta-blocking effects. Both the enantiomers and the 5-OH metabolite have a potency to block sodium channels comparable with that of the parent compound. The S-enantiomer is a more potent beta-antagonist than the R-enantiomer. Propafenone typically slows conduction markedly but only modestly prolongs refractoriness. These cardiac effects are determined by the extent of its myocardial accumulation. The drug should be used with caution in patients with serious structural heart disease, as it may cause or aggravate life-threatening arrhythmias. Significant interactions occur when propafenone is coadministered with other drugs. It increases the plasma concentrations of digoxin, warfarin, metoprolol and propranolol as well as enhancing their respective pharmacodynamic effects. Doses of these drugs should therefore be decreased if they are coadministered with propafenone.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of oral and i.v. propafenone and its major metabolites have been investigated in 8 healthy subjects. The total body clearance of propafenone was 963 ml/min, the terminal half-life 198 min and its absolute bioavailability was 15.5%. The two active metabolites (5-hydroxypropafenone and N-depropylpropafenone) showed non-linear kinetics in that both the dose-corrected area under the serum concentration-time curve and the amount excreted in the urine were larger after oral dosing. This resulted in considerably higher serum concentrations of the metabolites despite comparable serum concentrations of the parent compound. Thus, the concentration-effect relationship in the same patient may differ after oral and intravenous doses if concentrations of the active metabolite(s) are not taken into consideration. Although the mechanism of the nonlinearity is not clear, the data indicate that it may be due to saturable biliary excretion of the metabolites.
Abstract: A recent study, identifying several sulfate conjugates, appears to have led to a full qualitative account of propranolol metabolism in man. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the quantitative fate of propranolol, including the relationship between the primary metabolic pathways, i.e. glucuronidation, side-chain oxidation and ring oxidation. Single 80-mg oral doses of propranolol together with [3H]propranolol were administered to seven normal subjects. Urinary metabolites were determined by HPLC with radiometric detection after hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and fractionation by solvent extraction. About 90% of the dose was recovered in urine. Twelve metabolites accounted for 91% of the recovered dose. When examining the metabolites based on the primary metabolic pathways, 17% of the dose (range, 10-25%) was going through glucuronidation, 41% (range, 32-50%) through side-chain oxidation, and 42% (range, 27-59%) through ring oxidation. These data show that the net elimination of propranolol is largely due to oxidative metabolism. The relative contribution of the primary pathways is well reflected by the four major propranolol metabolites, i.e. propranolol glucuronide, naphthoxylactic acid, and the glucuronic acid and sulfate conjugates of 4'-hydroxypropranolol. These observations should greatly facilitate future studies of the biochemical mechanisms of propranolol disposition.
Abstract: 1 This study aimed (1) to measure the whole blood to plasma (WB:P) and red blood cell to plasma (RBC:P) concentration ratios of propranolol in healthy volunteers and two types of patients, and (2) to compare the concentration ratios of the lipophilic drug propranolol with moderately lipophilic pindolol and hydrophilic atenolol. 2 There was no significant difference between the WB:P and RBC:P ratios of propranolol concentration in healthy volunteers and neurological patients compared with hypertensive patients. The mean +/- s.d. WB:P ratios of propranolol concentration in the three groups were 0.74 +/- 0.03, 0.71 +/- 0.05, and 0.76 +/- 0.08 respectively. The mean RBC:P ratios were 0.39 +/- 0.08, 0.36 +/- 0.11, and 0.47 +/- 0.15 respectively. WB:P and RBC:P concentration ratios of propranolol were linearly correlated with the free fraction of drug in plasma. Propranolol was 90% bound in plasma. 3 The mean WB:P and RBC:P ratios of pindolol in seven volunteers were 0.69 +/- 0.08 and 0.37 +/- 0.14 respectively. Pindolol was 71.4 +/- 8.6% bound to plasma proteins. The concentration of pindolol in the RBC was linearly correlated with that unbound in plasma. 4 In four healthy volunteers, the mean WB:P concentration ratio of atenolol was 1.07 +/- 0.25 and the mean RBC:P ratio was 1.15 +/- 0.55. 5 The similarity of the RBC:free plasma drug concentration ratios for all three drugs suggests that the use of organic solvent partition coefficients for the prediction of in vivo distribution may be unreliable.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of propranolol after the administration of 40, 80, and 120 mg p.o. and 10 mg i.v. was studied in nine healthy male volunteers. Propranolol was analyzed after extraction and derivatization by gas-liquid chromatography. A multiexponential curve-stripping program was used for the pharmacokinetic analysis. The volume of distribution was about 6 liters . kg-1, bioavailability around 25%, with a mean terminal half-life of 6 hr. There was no evidence of either dose dependent disposition kinetics or an oral threshold dose. A slight increase in urine volume was observed after propranolol administration.
Abstract: Oxidative metabolic pathways of propranolol consist of naphthalene ring-hydroxylations (at the 4-, 5-, and 7-positions) and side-chain N-desisopropylation in mammals. We characterized cytochrome P450 isozymes responsible for propranolol metabolism, especially N-desisopropylation and 5-hydroxylation, in human liver microsomes. 4-Hydroxy, 5-hydroxy-, and N-desisopropylpropranolol were detected as primary metabolites, whereas 7-hydroxypropranolol was in trace amounts. Good correlations were obtained for activities of propranolol 4- and 5-hydroxylases with immunochemically determined CYP2D6 content, whereas correlations of these activities with CYP1A2, CYP2C, or CYP3A4 content were relatively low. The activities also correlated highly with debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, compared with other metabolic activities such as phenacetin O-deethylase, hexobarbital 3'-hydroxylase, and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase, which are typical reactions for CYP1A2, CYP2C, and CYP3A4, respectively. Propranolol N-desisopropylase activity in the samples highly correlated with CYP1A2 content and phenacetin O-deethylase activity, but not with the other P450 isozyme contents or metabolic activities. Quinidine, a specific inhibitor of CYP2D6, inhibited propranolol 4- and 5-hydroxylase activities selectively and in a concentration-dependent manner. alpha-Naphthoflavone, a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2, inhibited all of the propranolol oxidation activities, and the IC50 value for N-desisopropylase activity was much smaller than the values for ring-hydroxylase activities. Antibody directed to CYP2D inhibited propranolol 4- and 5-hydroxylase activities by 70% at an antibody/microsomal protein ratio of 1.0. Anti-CYP2C9 antibody did not inhibit any activity determined. These results indicate that propranolol 5-hydroxylation, as well as 4-hydroxylation, is mainly catalyzed by CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: We conducted an open-label study to determine the impact of cytochrome P-4502D6 (CYP2D6) on propranolol pharmacokinetics and response in 12 healthy men with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer (EM) phenotype and 3 healthy men with CYP2D6 poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype. Subjects received R,S-propranolol hydrochloride 80 mg every 8 hours for 16 doses. After the sixteenth dose, blood and urine samples were collected for 24 hours, and serum propranolol and urine metabolite concentrations were determined by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. Heart rate response to treadmill exercise was measured serially over 24 hours. Apparent oral clearance of propranolol and partial metabolic clearance values of propranolol to 4-hydroxypropranolol (HOP), propranolol glucuronide, and naphloxylactic acid (NLA) were estimated. Apparent oral clearance and elimination half-life of propranolol were not different between EMs and PMs. Partial metabolic clearance of propranolol to HOP was significantly higher and to NLA was significantly lower in EMs than in PMs. No differences in percentage reductions in exercise heart rate were observed between EMs and PMs. The CYP2D6 PM phenotype has no effect on propranolol blood concentrations and does not alter response to propranolol. Our data also suggest that CYP2D6 mediates approximately 65% and 70% of S- and R-propranolol's 4-hydroxylation, respectively.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: The bioavailability of propranolol depends on the degree of liver metabolism. Orally but not intravenously administered propranolol is heavily metabolized. In the present study we assessed the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sublingual propranolol. Fourteen severely hypertensive patients (diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 115 mmHg), aged 40 to 66 years, were randomly chosen to receive a single dose of 40 mg propranolol hydrochloride by sublingual or peroral administration. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, heart rate (HR) for pharmacodynamics and blood samples for noncompartmental pharmacokinetics were obtained at baseline and at 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min after the single dose. Significant reductions in BP and HR were obtained, but differences in these parameters were not observed when sublingual and peroral administrations were compared as follows: SBP (17 vs 18%, P = NS), DBP (14 vs 8%, P = NS) and HR (22 vs 28%, P = NS), respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained after sublingual or peroral drug administration were: peak plasma concentration (CMAX): 147 +/- 72 vs 41 +/- 12 ng/ml, P < 0.05; time to reach CMAX (TMAX): 34 +/- 18 vs 52 +/- 11 min, P < 0.05; biological half-life (t1/2b): 0.91 +/- 0.54 vs 2.41 +/- 1.16 h, P < 0.05; area under the curve (AUCT): 245 +/- 134 vs 79 +/- 54 ng h-1 ml-1, P < 0.05; total body clearance (CLT/F): 44 +/- 23 vs 26 +/- 12 ml min-1 kg-1, P = NS. Systemic availability measured by the AUCT ratio indicates that extension of bioavailability was increased 3 times by the sublingual route. Mouth paresthesia was the main adverse effect observed after sublingual administration. Sublingual propranolol administration showed a better pharmacokinetic profile and this route of administration may be an alternative for intravenous or oral administration.
Abstract: Twenty-nine drugs of disparate structures and physicochemical properties were used in an examination of the capability of human liver microsomal lability data ("in vitro T(1/2)" approach) to be useful in the prediction of human clearance. Additionally, the potential importance of nonspecific binding to microsomes in the in vitro incubation milieu for the accurate prediction of human clearance was investigated. The compounds examined demonstrated a wide range of microsomal metabolic labilities with scaled intrinsic clearance values ranging from less than 0.5 ml/min/kg to 189 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding was determined at microsomal protein concentrations used in the lability incubations. For the 29 compounds studied, unbound fractions in microsomes ranged from 0.11 to 1.0. Generally, basic compounds demonstrated the greatest extent of binding and neutral and acidic compounds the least extent of binding. In the projection of human clearance values, basic and neutral compounds were well predicted when all binding considerations (blood and microsome) were disregarded, however, including both binding considerations also yielded reasonable predictions. Including only blood binding yielded very poor projections of human clearance for these two types of compounds. However, for acidic compounds, disregarding all binding considerations yielded poor predictions of human clearance. It was generally most difficult to accurately predict clearance for this class of compounds; however the accuracy was best when all binding considerations were included. Overall, inclusion of both blood and microsome binding values gave the best agreement between in vivo clearance values and clearance values projected from in vitro intrinsic clearance data.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: A clinical study on enzyme induction in elderly subjects was performed by investigation of the effect of rifampin (INN, rifampicin) on propafenone disposition. Propafenone was chosen as a model drug because of its complex metabolism that permits the simultaneous in vivo assessment of induction of phase 1 and phase 2 pathways. METHODS: Six extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 (age, 70.5 +/- 3.5 years) ingested 600 mg rifampin once daily for 9 consecutive days. One day before the first rifampin dose and on the day of the last rifampin dose, each elderly individual received a single intravenous infusion of 70 mg unlabeled propafenone and received a single oral dose of 300 mg deuterated propafenone 2 hours later. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propafenone were compared before and during induction. RESULTS: Maximum QRS prolongation after oral propafenone was decreased significantly by rifampin (18% +/- 5% versus 6% +/- 3%; P < .01). There were no substantial differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous propafenone during induction. However, bioavailability of propafenone dropped from 30% +/- 24% to 4% +/- 3% (P < .05). After oral propafenone was administered, clearances through N-dealkylation (6 +/- 3 mL/min versus 26 +/- 16 mL/min; P < .05) and glucuronidation (178 +/- 75 mL/min versus 739 +/- 533 mL/min; P < .05), but not 5-hydroxylation, were increased by rifampin, indicating substantial enzyme induction. CONCLUSIONS: Both phase 1 and phase 2 pathways of propafenone metabolism were induced by rifampin in elderly subjects, resulting in a clinically relevant drug interaction.
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be substrates of organic cation transporters in kidney and lung. In this study we examined the transport of the beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists propranolol and metoprolol, in renal LLC-PK(1) cell monolayers. Experiments with BCECF (2', 7'-bis(2carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein) loaded LLC-PK(1) cell monolayers demonstrated that metoprolol and propranolol flux across the basolateral membrane was consistent with non-ionic diffusion. Flux across the apical membrane consisted of both non-ionic diffusion and the uptake of the cationic form of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Uptake of the cationic form of metoprolol across the apical membrane was Na(+)-independent, electrogenic and sensitive to external pH. Furthermore, uptake was sensitive to inhibition by Decynium-22 and the organic cations TEA (tetraethylammonium) and MPP(+) (1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium). These results, allied with the apical location of the uptake mechanism suggest that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be substrates for the organic cation transporter, OCT2. To confirm beta-adrenoceptor antagonists as substrates for OCT2, we demonstrate, in cells transiently transfected with an epitope tagged version of hOCT2 (hOCT2-V5):(1) Decynium-22 sensitive [(14)C]-propranolol uptake, (2) cis-inhibition of OCT2 by a range of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and (3) metoprolol induced intracellular acidification.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Propranolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker used as a racemic mixture in the treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and angina pectoris. For study of the stereoselective glucuronidation of this drug, the two propranolol glucuronide diastereomers were biosynthesized, purified, and characterized. A screen of 15 recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) indicated that only a few isoforms catalyze propranolol glucuronidation. Analysis of UGT2B4 and UGT2B7 revealed no significant stereoselectivity, but these two enzymes differed in glucuronidation kinetics. The glucuronidation kinetics of R-propranolol by UGT2B4 exhibited a sigmoid curve, whereas the glucuronidation of the same substrate by UGT2B7 was inhibited by substrate concentrations above 1 mM. Among the UGTs of subfamily 1A, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 displayed high and, surprisingly, opposite stereoselectivity in the glucuronidation of propranolol enantiomers. UGT1A9 glucuronidated S-propranolol much faster than R-propranolol, whereas UGT1A10 exhibited the opposite enantiomer preference. Nonetheless, the Km values for the two enantiomers, both for UGT1A9 and for UGT1A10, were in the same range, suggesting similar affinities for the two enantiomers. Unlike UGT1A9, the expression of UGT1A10 is extrahepatic. Hence, the reverse stereoselectivity of these two UGTs may signify specific differences in the glucuronidation of propranolol enantiomers between intestine and liver microsomes. Subsequent experiments confirmed this hypothesis: human liver microsomes glucuronidated S-propranolol faster than R-propranolol, whereas human intestine microsomes glucuronidated S-propranolol faster. These findings suggest a contribution of intestinal UGTs to drug metabolism, at least for UGT1A10 substrates.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: We examined the metabolic kinetics of propranolol, constructed from saturable and non-saturable components, using liver microsomes. The metabolic activity in rat microsomes was much higher than that in human microsomes within the clinically observed plasma range. Using the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating the obtained metabolic parameters, the plasma kinetics of propranolol was well correlated with reported values, and then used to analyze the effect of hepatic first-pass metabolism on propranolol plasma pharmacokinetics in clinical doses. The simulated plasma concentrations and AUC values of propranolol increased proportionally to its dose; these levels were almost equivalent to intrinsic clearance (CLint1), presumed to be non-saturable. When Michaelis-Menten parameters were decreased to one twentieth, plasma concentrations slightly increased after 160 mg dosing. A similar result was obtained with steady-state plasma levels after repeated administration. On the other hand, the first-order absorption rate constant of propranolol did not affect AUC values. The dose-normalized AUC value started to increase about 10(3)mg dosing. When the dose exceed 10(6)mg dose, the CLint1 component hardly contributed to propranolol pharmacokinetics. Accordingly, under the conditions of the PBPK model, propranolol pharmacokinetics was considered to be dose-independent within the clinical dose range.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.