Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
|Mal di testa|
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la combinazione di cimetidina e ranolazina. Si prega di consultare anche le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. Non abbiamo rilevato alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla cimetidina. Al momento non possiamo stimare l'influenza della ranolazina. L'esposizione alla ranolazina aumenta al 132%, se combinato con cimetidina (132%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La cimetidina ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 65%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 1.6333333 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 19% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 91 litri. Il metabolismo non avviene tramite i comuni citocromi e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite BCRP e PGP.
La ranolazina ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 43%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 1.65 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è piuttosto debole al 62.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 133 litri, Poiché la sostanza ha una bassa velocità di estrazione epatica di 0,9, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può aumentare l'esposizione. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP2D6 e CYP3A4, tra gli altri e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare tramite PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la cimetidina né la ranolazina aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Raccomandazione: A scopo precauzionale, occorre prestare attenzione ai sintomi anticolinergici, soprattutto dopo aver aumentato la dose ea dosi nel range terapeutico superiore.
Valutazione: La cimetidina ha solo un lieve effetto sul sistema anticolinergico. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica con questo farmaco è piuttosto basso se il dosaggio è nel range usuale. Secondo i nostri risultati, la ranolazina non aumenta l'attività anticolinergica.
Estensione di tempo QT
Valutazione: In combinazione, cimetidina e ranolazina possono potenzialmente innescare aritmie ventricolari di tipo torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||cim||ran|
|Mal di testa||5.5 %||n.a.||5.5|
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: The metabolism of ranolazine (RS-43285) or (+)N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4[2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-propyl]-1- piperazine acetamide dihydrochloride was investigated in man using plasma samples obtained from four different clinical studies. The metabolite profiles following single and multiple doses of 342 mg instant release (IR) ranolazine, following multiple doses of 1000 mg sustained release (SR) ranolazine and following dosing with both ranolazine (IR) and a potentially co-administered drug, diltiazem, were compared. Metabolism of ranolazine in man was shown by LC/MS analysis to be extensive with up to seven primary routes of metabolism identified. N-dealkylation by hydrolysis at the piperazine ring produced three metabolites whilst O-demethylation and O-dearylation at the methoxyphenoxy moiety produced a further two compounds. Additionally, hydrolysis of the amide group formed one other species. Oxygenation at various points in the molecule produced a further four metabolites. Direct conjugation of ranolazine with glucuronic acid and with an uncharacterized adduct were also identified as a route of elimination. Ten other biotransformation products were formed as a result of multiple metabolic steps. Conjugation was also associated with the desmethyl metabolite (glucuronide and unidentified conjugates) of hydroxylated ranolazine. In a previous publication (Journal of Chromatography, 1995, accepted for publication) semi-quantitative analyses of pooled plasma from the study where ranolazine was dosed at 1000 mg twice daily showed that of the twelve metabolites studied only four accounted for AUC's in excess of 10% of the ranolazine AUC.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Ranolazine is a novel compound under development as an antianginal agent. The multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of extended-release ranolazine and 3 major metabolites was investigated in healthy subjects (N = 8) and subjects with mild to severe renal impairment (N = 21). The ranolazine AUC(0-12) (area under the concentration-time curve between 0 and 12 hours after dosing) geometric mean ratio versus healthy subjects at steady state was 1.72 (90% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.76) in subjects with mild impairment, 1.80 (90% CI, 1.13-2.89) in those with moderate impairment, and 1.97 (90% CI, 1.23-3.16) in those with severe renal impairment. Creatinine clearance was negatively correlated with AUC(0-12) and the maximum observed concentration for ranolazine and the O-dearylated metabolite (P < .05 for all variables), as well as the N-dealkylated metabolite (P < .001), but not for the O-demethylated metabolite. Less than 7% of the administered dose was excreted unchanged in all groups, indicating that factors other than reduced glomerular filtration rate contributed to the increase in ranolazine concentrations in renal impairment. No serious adverse events were observed in the study.
Abstract: Ranolazine is a compound that is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris in combination with amlodipine, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists or nitrates, in patients who have not achieved an adequate response with other anti-anginals. The anti-anginal effect of ranolazine does not depend on changes in heart rate or blood pressure. It acts through different pharmacological mechanisms where inhibition of the late inward sodium current (reducing calcium overload and thereby left ventricular diastolic tension) is one plausible mechanism of reduced oxygen consumption. Initial studies used an oral solution or an immediate-release (IR) capsule, but subsequently an extended-release (ER) formulation was developed to allow for twice-daily administration with maintained efficacy. Following administration of an oral solution or IR capsule, peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) are observed within 1 hour. After administration of radiolabelled ranolazine, 73% of the dose was excreted in urine, and unchanged ranolazine accounted for <5% of radioactivity in both urine and faeces. The absolute bioavailability ranges from 35% to 50%. Food has no effect on rate or extent of absorption from the ER formulation. Ranolazine protein binding is about 61-64% over the therapeutic concentration range. Volume of distribution at steady state ranges from 85 to 180 L. Ranolazine is extensively metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes and, to a lesser extent, by CYP2D6, with approximately 5% excreted renally unchanged. Elimination half-life of ranolazine is 1.4-1.9 hours but is apparently prolonged, on average, to 7 hours for the ER formulation as a result of extended absorption (flip-flop kinetics). Elimination occurs through parallel linear and saturable elimination pathways, where the saturable pathway is related to CYP2D6, which is partly inhibited by ranolazine. Oral plasma clearance diminishes with dose from, on average, 45 L/h at 500 mg twice daily to 33 L/h at 1000 mg twice daily. The departure from dose proportionality for this dose range is modest, with increases in steady-state C(max) and area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 12 hours of 2.5- and 2.7-fold, respectively. Ranolazine pharmacokinetics are unaffected by sex, congestive heart failure and diabetes mellitus. AUC increases up to 2-fold with advancing degree of renal impairment. Ranolazine is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A, and increases AUC and C(max) for simvastatin, its metabolites and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor activity <2-fold. Digoxin AUC is increased 40-60% by ranolazine through P-glycoprotein inhibition. Ranolazine AUC is increased by CYP3A inhibitors ranging from 1.5-fold for diltiazem 180 mg once daily to 3.9-fold for ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily. Verapamil increases ranolazine exposure approximately 2-fold. CYP2D6 inhibition has a negligible effect on ranolazine exposure.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: (1) Betablockers such as atenolol are the first-line symptomatic treatment for stable angina. Calcium channel blockers such as verapamil and amlodipine are second-line alternatives; (2) Ranolazine is now authorized for symptomatic adjuvant treatment of angina in patients who are poorly controlled by a betablocker and/or a calcium channel blocker. Its mechanism of action is poorly understood; (3) In two randomised double-blind trials in respectively 565 and 823 patients treated for 7 and 12 weeks, ranolazine (500 mg to 1000 mg twice a day), added to ongoing amlodipine therapy only provided a limited benefit, preventing less than one angina attack per week; (4) Comparative trials failed to show whether ranolazine has a clear-cut impact on mortality; (5) Ranolazine prolongs the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner and thus exposes patients to the risk of torsades de pointes. It is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders (constipation, nausea, vomiting) and dizziness; (6) Ranolazine is metabolised by the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP 3A4 and CYP 2D6 and is also a P-glycoprotein substrate. There is therefore a high risk of pharmacokinetic interactions. There is also a risk of pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs that prolong the QT interval; (7) In practice, the efficacy of ranolazine in the prevention of angina attacks does not outweigh the risk of severe adverse effects.
Abstract: AIMS: Clinical utility of QTc prolongation as a predictor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) has not been definitely established. Ranolazine causes modest QTc prolongation, yet it shows antiarrhythmic properties. We aimed to determine the association between prolonged QTc and risk of SCD, and the effect of ranolazine on this relationship. METHODS AND RESULTS: The relationship between baseline QTc and SCD was studied in 6492 patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) randomized to placebo or ranolazine in the MERLIN-TIMI 36 trial. In the placebo group, an abnormal QTc interval (≥450 ms in men, ≥470 ms in women) was associated with a two-fold increased risk of SCD (hazard ratio, HR, 2.3, P = 0.005) after adjustment for other risk factors (age ≥75 years, NYHA class III/IV, high TIMI risk score, ventricular tachycardia ≥8 beats, digitalis, and antiarrhythmics). In the ranolazine group, the association between abnormal QTc and SCD was similar to placebo, but not significant (HR 1.8, P = 0.074). There was no significant difference between placebo and ranolazine in the risk for SCD in patients with abnormal QTc (HR 0.78, P = 0.48). When QTc was used as a continuous variable, for every 10 ms increase in QTc, hazard rate for SCD increased significantly by 8% (P = 0.007) in the placebo group, and only by 2.9% (P = 0.412; P for interaction=0.25) in the ranolazine group. CONCLUSION: In NSTEACS patients treated with placebo, prolonged QTc was a significant independent predictor for SCD. Ranolazine, compared with placebo, was not associated with increased risk for SCD in patients with prolonged QTc.
Abstract: A case of unstable angina developed slow junctional rhythm with QTc prolongation and transient Torsades de pointes following simultaneous use of Ivabradine, Diltiazem and Ranolazine. Effect of Diltiazem on hepatic isoenzyme CYP 3A could be responsible. Such a combination should be avoided.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.