Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la combinazione di rilpivirina e cimetidina. Si prega di consultare anche le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. L'esposizione alla rilpivirina aumenta al 115%, se combinato con cimetidina (115%). Non abbiamo rilevato alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla cimetidina. Al momento non possiamo stimare l'influenza della rilpivirina.
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La rilpivirina ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 24%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto lunga a 38 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti solo dopo più di 152 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 99.7% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 96 litri, Poiché la sostanza ha una bassa velocità di estrazione epatica di 0,9, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può aumentare l'esposizione. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP3A4.
La cimetidina ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 65%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 1.6333333 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 19% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 91 litri. Il metabolismo non avviene tramite i comuni citocromi e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite BCRP e PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la rilpivirina né la cimetidina aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Raccomandazione: A scopo precauzionale, occorre prestare attenzione ai sintomi anticolinergici, soprattutto dopo aver aumentato la dose ea dosi nel range terapeutico superiore.
Valutazione: La cimetidina ha solo un lieve effetto sul sistema anticolinergico. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica con questo farmaco è piuttosto basso se il dosaggio è nel range usuale. Secondo i nostri risultati, la rilpivirina non aumenta l'attività anticolinergica.
Estensione di tempo QT
Valutazione: In combinazione, rilpivirina e cimetidina possono potenzialmente innescare aritmie ventricolari di tipo torsione di punta.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||ril||cim|
|Eruzione cutanea||3.0 %||3.0||n.a.|
|Mal di testa||3.0 %||3.0||n.a.|
|ALT aumentata||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|AST aumentata||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
Reazione di ipersensibilità: rilpivirina
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: Rilpivirine is a potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with high efficacy in the treatment of HIV infection in treatment-naïve patients. This drug is active against both wild-type HIV-1 and a wide variety of first-generation NNRTI. Rilpivirine has a highly favorable pharmacokinetics profile, but, because its absorption depends on gastric pH, it should be administered with food to ensure correct absorption. Rilpivirine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and consequently potential interactions should be considered when it is administered with P450 (CYP) 3A inducers or inhibitors. Although higher doses can behave as enzyme inducers, at a dose of 25mg/day, rilpivirine is unlikely to alter the concentrations of other drugs metabolized through this pathway. Because of its prolonged half-life, rilpivirine can be administered orally once daily.
Abstract: Rilpivirine (RPV), the latest nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor active against HIV-1, is prescribed in a standard dosage of 25 mg once a day in combination with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The aim of this observational study was to characterize the RPV pharmacokinetic profile, to quantify interpatient variability, and to identify potential factors that could influence drug exposure. RPV concentration data were collected from HIV-infected patients as part of routine therapeutic drug monitoring performed in our center (Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology). A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with NONMEM by comparing various structural models. The influence of demographic and clinical covariates, as well as frequent genetic polymorphisms in 5 genes (CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*17, UGT1A1*28, and UGT1A4*2), on RPV elimination was explored. A total of 325 plasma concentration measurements were obtained from 249 HIV-positive patients. Plasma concentrations ranged from 12 to 255 ng/ml. A one-compartment model with zero-order absorption best characterized RPV pharmacokinetics. The average RPV clearance (CL) was 11.7 liters/h, the average volume of distribution was 401 liters, and the mean absorption time was 4 h. The interinterindividual variability (IIV) for CL was estimated to be 33%. None of the available demographic or genetic covariates showed any influence on RPV pharmacokinetics, but 29% of the patients were predicted to present minimal concentrations below the recently identified target cutoff value of 50 ng/ml. The variability in RPV pharmacokinetics appears to be lower than that for most other antiretroviral drugs. However, under the standard regimen of 25 mg daily, a significant number of patients might be underdosed. It remains to be investigated whether the underexposure has an impact on the development of resistance while patients are on maintenance therapy.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Rilpivirine, prescribed for the treatment of HIV infection, presents an important inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. We aimed to determine population pharmacokinetic parameters of rilpivirine in adult HIV-infected patients and quantify their inter-individual variability. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, and observational study in patients treated with the once-daily rilpivirine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine regimen. As part of routine therapeutic drug monitoring, rilpivirine concentrations were measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. Once the compartmental and random effects models were selected, covariates were tested to explain the inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The final model qualification was performed by both statistical and graphical methods. RESULTS: We included 379 patients, resulting in the analysis of 779 rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Of the observed trough individual plasma concentrations, 24.4% were below the 50 ng/ml minimal effective concentration. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the data. The estimated fixed effect for plasma apparent clearance and distribution volume were 9 L/h and 321 L, respectively, resulting in a half-life of 25.2 h. The common inter-individual variability for both parameters was 34.1% at both the first and the second occasions. The inter-individual variability of clearance was 30.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a terminal half-life lower than reported and a high proportion of patients with suboptimal rilpivirine concentrations, which highlights the interest of using therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical practice. The population analysis performed with data from "real-life" conditions resulted in reliable post hoc estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters, suitable for individualization of dosing regimen.