Avvisi di avvertenza
Estensione di tempo QT
Effetti avversi del farmaco
|Dolore al petto|
Varianti ✨Per la valutazione computazionalmente intensiva delle varianti, scegli l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Aree di applicazione
Spiegazioni per i pazienti
Avvisi di avvertenza
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la combinazione di ciprofloxacina, propafenone e caffeina. Si prega di consultare anche le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
|Propafenone||1.2 [0.45,14.47] 1||1.2||1.01|
I cambiamenti nell'esposizione menzionati si riferiscono ai cambiamenti nella curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [AUC]. Non abbiamo rilevato alcun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla ciprofloxacina. Attualmente non è possibile stimare l'influenza di propafenone e caffeina. L'esposizione alla caffeina aumenta al 509%, se combinato con ciprofloxacina (350%) e propafenone (162%). Questo può portare a un aumento degli effetti collaterali. L'esposizione alla propafenone aumenta al 120%, se combinato con ciprofloxacina (120%) e caffeina (101%). L'AUC è compresa tra 45% e 1447% a seconda del
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per il calcolo delle singole variazioni di esposizione dovute alle interazioni.
La ciprofloxacina ha una biodisponibilità orale media [ F ] del 70%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 3.5 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 30%. Circa il 55.0% di una dose somministrata viene escreta immodificata attraverso i reni e questa proporzione è raramente modificata dalle interazioni. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP1A2 e il trasporto attivo avviene in parte tramite BCRP, OATP1A2 e PGP.
La propafenone ha una bassa biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 30%, motivo per cui il livello plasmatico massimo [Cmax] tende a cambiare fortemente con un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è piuttosto breve a 3.7 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti rapidamente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 94.3% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande a 175 litri. ecco perché, con una velocità di estrazione epatica media di 0,9, sono rilevanti sia il flusso sanguigno epatico [Q] che una variazione del legame proteico [Pb]. Il metabolismo avviene tramite CYP1A2, CYP2D6 e CYP3A4, tra gli altri.
La caffeina ha un'elevata biodisponibilità orale [ F ] del 92%, motivo per cui i livelli plasmatici massimi [Cmax] tendono a cambiare poco durante un'interazione. L'emivita terminale [ t12 ] è di 11.91 ore e i livelli plasmatici costanti [ Css ] vengono raggiunti dopo circa 47.64 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è piuttosto debole al 30.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è di 36 litri nell'intervallo medio. Poiché la sostanza ha una bassa velocità di estrazione epatica di 0,9, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può aumentare l'esposizione. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente tramite CYP1A2.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo le nostre conoscenze, né la ciprofloxacina, propafenone né la caffeina aumentano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Secondo i nostri risultati, né la ciprofloxacina, propafenone né la caffeina aumentano l'attività anticolinergica.
Estensione di tempo QT
Valutazione: In combinazione, ciprofloxacina e propafenone possono potenzialmente innescare aritmie ventricolari di tipo torsione di punta. Non conosciamo alcun potenziale di prolungamento dell'intervallo QT per la caffeina.
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||cip||pro||caf|
|Dolore al petto||5.0 %||n.a.||5.0||n.a.|
|Disturbo del gusto||5.0 %||n.a.||5.0||n.a.|
Vertigini (4%): propafenone
Mal di testa (4%): propafenone, ciprofloxacina
Insonnia (2%): propafenone, caffeina
Convulsioni: propafenone, ciprofloxacina
Disturbo dell'attenzione: ciprofloxacina
Sindrome di Guillain-Barré: ciprofloxacina
Compromissione della memoria: ciprofloxacina
Neuropatia periferica: ciprofloxacina
Pseudotumor cerebri: ciprofloxacina
Aumento della pressione intracranica: ciprofloxacina
Vomito (3.5%): propafenone, ciprofloxacina
Dolore addominale: propafenone
Diarrea da Clostridium difficile: ciprofloxacina
Emorragia gastrointestinale: ciprofloxacina
Secrezione nasale (3%): ciprofloxacina
Blocco atrioventricolare (2%): propafenone
Tachicardia: propafenone, caffeina
Infarto miocardico: ciprofloxacina
Tachicardia ventricolare: propafenone
Eruzione cutanea (1.8%): ciprofloxacina
Necrolisi epidermica tossica: ciprofloxacina
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson: ciprofloxacina
Epatotossicità: propafenone, ciprofloxacina
Insufficienza epatica: ciprofloxacina
Epatite colestatica: propafenone
Visione offuscata: propafenone
Reazione di ipersensibilità: ciprofloxacina
Reazioni allergiche della pelle: propafenone
Lupus eritematoso sistemico: propafenone
Cistite emorragica: ciprofloxacina
Insufficienza renale: ciprofloxacina
Nefrite tubulointerstiziale: ciprofloxacina
Agranulocitosi: propafenone, ciprofloxacina
Trombocitopenia: propafenone, ciprofloxacina
Anemia aplastica: ciprofloxacina
Anemia emolitica: ciprofloxacina
Miastenia grave: ciprofloxacina
Rottura del tendine: ciprofloxacina
Aneurisma aortico: ciprofloxacina
Sulla base delle vostre
Abstract: Propafenone is a class 1C antiarrhythmic agent which is administered as a racemate of S(+)- and R(-)-enantiomers. It is well absorbed and is predominantly bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the plasma. The enantiomers display stereoselective disposition characteristics, the R-enantiomer being cleared more quickly. The hepatic metabolism of propafenone is polymorphic and genetically determined: about 10% of Caucasians have a reduced capacity to hydroxylate the drug. This polymorphic metabolism accounts for the marked interindividual variability in the relationships between dose and concentration, and between concentration and pharmacodynamic effects. During long term administration, the metabolism is saturable in patients with the 'extensive metaboliser' phenotype, leading to accumulation of the parent compound. Propafenone blocks fast inward sodium channels in a frequency-dependent manner, and also has moderate beta-blocking effects. Both the enantiomers and the 5-OH metabolite have a potency to block sodium channels comparable with that of the parent compound. The S-enantiomer is a more potent beta-antagonist than the R-enantiomer. Propafenone typically slows conduction markedly but only modestly prolongs refractoriness. These cardiac effects are determined by the extent of its myocardial accumulation. The drug should be used with caution in patients with serious structural heart disease, as it may cause or aggravate life-threatening arrhythmias. Significant interactions occur when propafenone is coadministered with other drugs. It increases the plasma concentrations of digoxin, warfarin, metoprolol and propranolol as well as enhancing their respective pharmacodynamic effects. Doses of these drugs should therefore be decreased if they are coadministered with propafenone.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of oral and i.v. propafenone and its major metabolites have been investigated in 8 healthy subjects. The total body clearance of propafenone was 963 ml/min, the terminal half-life 198 min and its absolute bioavailability was 15.5%. The two active metabolites (5-hydroxypropafenone and N-depropylpropafenone) showed non-linear kinetics in that both the dose-corrected area under the serum concentration-time curve and the amount excreted in the urine were larger after oral dosing. This resulted in considerably higher serum concentrations of the metabolites despite comparable serum concentrations of the parent compound. Thus, the concentration-effect relationship in the same patient may differ after oral and intravenous doses if concentrations of the active metabolite(s) are not taken into consideration. Although the mechanism of the nonlinearity is not clear, the data indicate that it may be due to saturable biliary excretion of the metabolites.
Abstract: Six healthy volunteers received a single caffeine dose after pretreatment with norfloxacin, pipemidic acid, or placebo in a crossover, randomized, single-blind clinical trial. Quinolones altered the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, with a significant increase in the AUCs and a decrease in plasma clearance. The elimination half-life increased significantly with pipemidic acid. The apparent volume of distribution, mean renal clearance, and time to reach maximum caffeine concentrations remained unaltered. There was a decline in caffeine metabolite levels in the 24-hour urine samples for both quinolone treatments, suggesting that pipemidic acid and, to a lesser degree, norfloxacin inhibit metabolism of the N-demethylation pathways of caffeine. The practical consequence of this observation could be caffeine accumulation during repeated intake of coffee. In two additional healthy volunteers under a controlled multiple-dose regimen of caffeine ingestion, administration of pipemidic acid for 2 days caused a fourfold increase in the plasma concentrations of caffeine.
Abstract: In an acute experiment in healthy volunteers and in patients under long-term treatment for cardiac arrhythmias, mexiletine inhibits caffeine elimination by about 50%. The clearance of mexiletine is not influenced by caffeine. Some side effects of mexiletine may possibly at least partially be attributable to a retention of caffeine.
Abstract: Five subjects who participated in an earlier study (Lelo et al., 1986b) of the comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA) and its primary monodemethylated metabolites paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were administered CA to steady-state. Using areas under the plasma concentration-time curves for each of the dimethylxanthines derived from CA in the steady-state study and individual plasma clearances of PX, TB and TP determined in the previous study, the fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP and the individual partial clearances of CA have been defined. The mean (+/- s.d.) fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP was 79.6 +/- 21.0%, 10.8 +/- 2.4% and 3.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. When only demethylation pathways are considered PX, TB and TP accounted for 83.9 +/- 5.4%, 12.1 +/- 4.1% and 4.0 +/- 1.4%, respectively of the CA demethylations. The mean partial clearance of CA to PX was approximately 8-fold and 23-fold greater than those to TB and TP respectively. These data confirm earlier reports that PX is the major metabolite of CA in humans but suggest that PX formation is quantitatively more important than previously believed.
Abstract: The disposition of caffeine and its metabolites was studied in six healthy subjects by use of sensitive and specific assays. The primary degradation of caffeine in man was found to be N-demethylation and/or ring oxidation to theophylline, paraxanthine, theobromine and 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid. These compounds were further degraded to dimethylated uric acids, monomethylxanthines and monomethyluric acids. About 3 and 6% of the drug was converted to theophylline and theobromine, respectively. The elimination of paraxanthine after its formation did not follow linear kinetics. A large urine recovery of 1-methylxanthine after caffeine administration in comparison with the amount recovered after administration of theophylline suggests an inhibitory effect on the degradation of this metabolite by either caffeine itself or another metabolite of caffeine. Caffeine and its primary metabolites, dimethylxanthines, were extensively reabsorbed in the renal tubule. Their renal clearances were highly urine flow-dependent and their urinary excretion varied with urine output during the study. About 70% of the dose was recovered in the urine. Postulated degradation pathways of caffeine are discussed.
Abstract: In a controlled clinical trial, the elimination of caffeine was examined in 20 healthy women prior to and during one cycle of treatment with either of two oral contraceptive formulations, one containing 0.075 mg gestodene and 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol and one containing 0.125 mg levonorgestrel and 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol. In addition, caffeine clearance was determined 1 month after the last intake of the oral contraceptives. Compared with pretreatment values, the clearance of caffeine was reduced by about 54% and 55% after one treatment cycle with gestodene- and the levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptive, respectively. Other pharmacokinetic parameters of caffeine, such as tmax and Cmax, were not affected. Clearance values returned to pretreatment values 1 month after the last administration of the oral contraceptives. There was no difference in the reduction of caffeine clearance between contraceptive formulations. A small, but significant difference in the AUC(0-24 h) values of ethinylestradiol was noted between both preparations. There was no correlation between the AUC(model) values of caffeine and the AUC(0-24 h) values of ethinylestradiol. In the present study, a somewhat more pronounced effect on the elimination of caffeine was observed than in previous investigations, where several contraceptive steroids were administered only for a period of 2 weeks.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pefloxacin is reported to cause clinically relevant inhibition of theophylline metabolism in vivo, but in vitro pefloxacin was only a weak inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, mediating main theophylline biotransformation. We therefore further characterized the interaction between pefloxacin and CYP1A2. METHODS: A randomized 3-period change-over study was conducted in 12 healthy young volunteers on the steady-state interactions between pefloxacin or enoxacin (400 mg twice a day) with caffeine (183 mg once daily), a validated marker of CYP1A2. Caffeine pharmacokinetics were estimated after its fifth dose. Studies in human liver microsomes were carried out to measure the effect of pefloxacin and norfloxacin on caffeine 3-demethylation, an in vitro CYP1A2 probe, and to identify the enzyme(s) that mediate pefloxacin N-4'-demethylation with selective inhibitors. RESULTS: For the in vivo study, ANOVA-based point estimates (90% confidence intervals [CI]) for the ratios of caffeine pharmacokinetics with and without pefloxacin coadministration were 1.11 for maximal steadystate plasma concentrations (Cmax,ss; 90% CI, 0.99 to 1.26), 0.53 for total clearance (CLt,ss; 90% CI, 0.49 to 0.58), and 1.04 for the beta-phase distribution volume (Vdbeta; 90% CI, 0.96 to 1.13). The values for enoxacin were 1.99 for Cmax,ss (90% CI, 1.77 to 2.23), 0.17 for CLt,ss (90% CI, 0.16 to 0.19), and 1.01 for Vdbeta (90% CI, 0.90 to 1.13). Thus pefloxacin caused a 2-fold decrease in caffeine clearance, and enoxacin caused a 6-fold decrease in caffeine clearance. In vitro, norfloxacin and pefloxacin competitively inhibited CYP1A2, with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 0.1 and 1 mmol/L, respectively, and CYP1A2 was the only enzyme with a relevant contribution (approximately 50%) to pefloxacin N-4'-demethylation. CONCLUSIONS: Enoxacin and to a lesser extent pefloxacin may cause clinically relevant interactions with further CYP1A2 substrates. The data suggest that the pefloxacin interaction is partly mediated by its major metabolite norfloxacin.
Abstract: Twenty-nine drugs of disparate structures and physicochemical properties were used in an examination of the capability of human liver microsomal lability data ("in vitro T(1/2)" approach) to be useful in the prediction of human clearance. Additionally, the potential importance of nonspecific binding to microsomes in the in vitro incubation milieu for the accurate prediction of human clearance was investigated. The compounds examined demonstrated a wide range of microsomal metabolic labilities with scaled intrinsic clearance values ranging from less than 0.5 ml/min/kg to 189 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding was determined at microsomal protein concentrations used in the lability incubations. For the 29 compounds studied, unbound fractions in microsomes ranged from 0.11 to 1.0. Generally, basic compounds demonstrated the greatest extent of binding and neutral and acidic compounds the least extent of binding. In the projection of human clearance values, basic and neutral compounds were well predicted when all binding considerations (blood and microsome) were disregarded, however, including both binding considerations also yielded reasonable predictions. Including only blood binding yielded very poor projections of human clearance for these two types of compounds. However, for acidic compounds, disregarding all binding considerations yielded poor predictions of human clearance. It was generally most difficult to accurately predict clearance for this class of compounds; however the accuracy was best when all binding considerations were included. Overall, inclusion of both blood and microsome binding values gave the best agreement between in vivo clearance values and clearance values projected from in vitro intrinsic clearance data.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: A clinical study on enzyme induction in elderly subjects was performed by investigation of the effect of rifampin (INN, rifampicin) on propafenone disposition. Propafenone was chosen as a model drug because of its complex metabolism that permits the simultaneous in vivo assessment of induction of phase 1 and phase 2 pathways. METHODS: Six extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 (age, 70.5 +/- 3.5 years) ingested 600 mg rifampin once daily for 9 consecutive days. One day before the first rifampin dose and on the day of the last rifampin dose, each elderly individual received a single intravenous infusion of 70 mg unlabeled propafenone and received a single oral dose of 300 mg deuterated propafenone 2 hours later. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propafenone were compared before and during induction. RESULTS: Maximum QRS prolongation after oral propafenone was decreased significantly by rifampin (18% +/- 5% versus 6% +/- 3%; P < .01). There were no substantial differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous propafenone during induction. However, bioavailability of propafenone dropped from 30% +/- 24% to 4% +/- 3% (P < .05). After oral propafenone was administered, clearances through N-dealkylation (6 +/- 3 mL/min versus 26 +/- 16 mL/min; P < .05) and glucuronidation (178 +/- 75 mL/min versus 739 +/- 533 mL/min; P < .05), but not 5-hydroxylation, were increased by rifampin, indicating substantial enzyme induction. CONCLUSIONS: Both phase 1 and phase 2 pathways of propafenone metabolism were induced by rifampin in elderly subjects, resulting in a clinically relevant drug interaction.
Abstract: Caffeine from dietary sources (mainly coffee, tea and soft drinks) is the most frequently and widely consumed CNS stimulant in the world today. Because of its enormous popularity, the consumption of caffeine is generally thought to be safe and long term caffeine intake may be disregarded as a medical problem. However, it is clear that this compound has many of the features usually associated with a drug of abuse. Furthermore, physicians should be aware of the possible contribution of dietary caffeine to the presenting signs and symptoms of patients. The toxic effects of caffeine are extensions of their pharmacological effects. The most serious caffeine-related CNS effects include seizures and delirium. Other symptoms affecting the cardiovascular system range from moderate increases in heart rate to more severe cardiac arrhythmia. Although tolerance develops to many of the pharmacological effects of caffeine, tolerance may be overwhelmed by the nonlinear accumulation of caffeine when its metabolism becomes saturated. This might occur with high levels of consumption or as the result of a pharmacokinetic interaction between caffeine and over-the-counter or prescription medications. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 participates in the metabolism of caffeine as well as of a number of clinically important drugs. A number of drugs, including certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (particularly fluvoxamine), antiarrhythmics (mexiletine), antipsychotics (clozapine), psoralens, idrocilamide and phenylpropanolamine, bronchodilators (furafylline and theophylline) and quinolones (enoxacin), have been reported to be potent inhibitors of this isoenzyme. This has important clinical implications, since drugs that are metabolised by, or bind to, the same CYP enzyme have a high potential for pharmacokinetic interactions due to inhibition of drug metabolism. Thus, pharmacokinetic interactions at the CYP1A2 enzyme level may cause toxic effects during concomitant administration of caffeine and certain drugs used for cardiovascular, CNS (an excessive dietary intake of caffeine has also been observed in psychiatric patients), gastrointestinal, infectious, respiratory and skin disorders. Unless a lack of interaction has already been demonstrated for the potentially interacting drug, dietary caffeine intake should be considered when planning, or assessing response to, drug therapy. Some of the reported interactions of caffeine, irrespective of clinical relevance, might inadvertently cause athletes to exceed the urinary caffeine concentration limit set by sports authorities at 12 mg/L. Finally, caffeine is a useful and reliable probe drug for the assessment of CYP1A2 activity, which is of considerable interest for metabolic studies in human populations.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Oltipraz is currently undergoing clinical evaluation as a cancer chemopreventive agent, especially with respect to aflatoxin-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. The agent's ability to induce phase II xenobiotic enzymes that detoxify the ultimate carcinogen formed in vivo is thought to be an important mechanism by which disease risk may be attenuated. However, an additional mechanism could be a reduction in the activation of environmental procarcinogens by certain cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. This hypothesis was tested with respect to CYP1A2, by using the clearance of caffeine by N-demethylation as a phenotypic trait measurement of the isoform's catalytic activity. METHODS: Subjects received a single oral dose of caffeine (200 mg) on five separate occasions: on the day prior to oltipraz administration (day 0), 2 h after the first (day 1) of eight daily oral doses of oltipraz (125 mg) and 2 h after the last dose (day 8). In addition, CYP1A2 activity was also measured 2 and 14 days (days 10 and 22, respectively) after discontinuation of oltipraz administration. Plasma concentrations of caffeine and its N-demethylated metabolite, paraxanthine, over 24 h after drug administration, were determined by HPLC. RESULTS: A single 125-mg dose of oltipraz markedly reduced CYP1A2 activity by 75 +/- 13% in nine healthy subjects, resulting in a higher caffeine plasma level and prolongation of the in vivo probe's elimination half-life. Daily administration of 125 mg oltipraz for 8 days resulted in further inhibition so that only 19 +/- 13% of the original baseline level of activity was present. However, 2 days after discontinuation of oltipraz treatment, CYP1A2 activity had returned to 66 +/- 33% of its original level and complete recovery was achieved within 14 days of the chemopreventive agent being stopped. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that oltipraz is a potent, in vivo inhibitor of CYP1A2 in humans and, because this isoform is importantly involved in procarcinogen activation, they also indicate that such inhibition probably contributes to oltipraz's cancer-chemopreventive effect. In addition, the findings also suggest the likelihood of significant drug interactions between oltipraz and drugs whose metabolism is mediated by CYP1A2.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: Children's risks can differ from those in adults for numerous reasons, one being differences in the pharmacokinetic handling of chemicals. Immature metabolism and a variety of other factors in neonates can affect chemical disposition and clearance. These factors can be incorporated into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that simulate the fate of environmental toxicants in both children and adults. PBPK models are most informative when supported by empirical data, but typically pediatric pharmacokinetic data for toxicants are not available. In contrast, pharmacokinetic data in children are readily available for therapeutic drugs. The current analysis utilizes data for caffeine and theophylline, closely related xanthines that are both cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A2 substrates, in developing PBPK models for neonates and adults. Model development involved scale-up of in vitro metabolic parameters to whole liver and adjusting metabolic function for the ontological pattern of CYP1A2 and other CYPs. Model runs were able to simulate the large differences in half-life and clearance between neonates and adults. Further, the models were able to reproduce the faster metabolic clearance of theophylline relative to caffeine in neonates. This differential between xanthines was found to be due primarily to an extra metabolic pathway available to theophylline, back-methylation to caffeine, that is not available to caffeine itself. This pathway is not observed in adults exemplifying the importance of secondary or novel routes of metabolism in the immature liver. Greater CYP2E1 metabolism of theophylline relative to caffeine in neonates also occurs. Neonatal PBPK models developed for these drugs may be adapted to other CYP1A2 substrates (e.g., arylamine toxicants). A stepwise approach for modeling environmental toxicants in children is proposed.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the likelihood of artemisinin and thiabendazole causing pharmacokinetic interactions involving cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2) in humans given their potent inhibitory effects on the isoform in vitro. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers received caffeine (136.5 mg), and after a washout period of 48 h, the volunteers were given a caffeine tablet (136.5 mg) together with thiabendazole (500 mg). After an additional 14 days, the volunteers received caffeine together with artemisinin (500 mg). After each treatment, plasma was obtained up to 24 h post-dose. The plasma concentrations of the drugs were measured by HPLC with UV and MS detection. RESULTS: Using the ratio of paraxanthine to caffeine after 4 h as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity, thiabendazole and artemisinin inhibited 92 and 66%, respectively, of the enzyme activity in vivo. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine were altered in the presence of the drugs; increases in AUC(0-24) of 1.6-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.3-fold of caffeine in the presence of thiabendazole and artemisinin respectively were measured. The use of in vitro data to predict the effects of thiabendazole on the formation of paraxanthine yielded good results and underestimated the effects of artemisinin when total plasma concentrations were used. Corrections for protein binding resulted in underestimation of inhibitory effects on CYP1A2. CONCLUSIONS: Co-administration of thiabendazole or artemisinin with CYP1A2 substrates could result in clinically significant effects. Our results highlight the validity of in vitro data in predicting in vivo CYP inhibition. The formation of paraxanthine seems to be a better indicator of in vivo CYP1A2 activity than caffeine levels.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.