Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
|Mal di testa|
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di claritromicina, clopidogrel e repaglinide. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
|Clopidogrel||1.07 [0.77,3.05] 1||1.07||1|
|Repaglinide||5.62 [5.62,9.89] 2||1.53||3.41|
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. L'esposizione alla repaglinide è aumentata del 562%, quando è co-somministrata con la claritromicina (153%) e la clopidogrel (341%). Questo può portare ad un aumento del tasso di incidenza di effetti indesiderati L'esposizione alla clopidogrel è aumentata del 107%, quando è co-somministrata con la claritromicina (107%) e la repaglinide (100%). L' AUC è compreso tra lo 77% e il 305% in base al
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La claritromicina ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 53%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto breve in 4.6 ore e lo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge molto velocemente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è piuttosto debole al 70% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 176 litri. Poiché la sostanza ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatica di 0.13, lo spostamento dal legame proteico [Pb] nel contesto di un'interazione può portare a un aumento dell'esposizione. Circa il 27.5% della dose somministrata è escreta inalterata attraverso le urine e in seguito alle varie interazioni farmacologiche questo valore raramente cambia. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente attraverso l'enzima CYP3A4 e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
La clopidogrel ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 50%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 7.3 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 29.2 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 98% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 350 litri. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP1A2, CYP2B6 e CYP2C19. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
La repaglinide ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 56%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto breve in 1.3 ore e lo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge molto velocemente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97.6% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è medio in 30 litri, Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2C8 e CYP3A4. e il trasporto attivo avviene parzialmente attraverso i trasportatori OATP1B1, OATP1B3 e PGP.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la claritromicina, clopidogrel né la repaglinide potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la claritromicina, clopidogrel né la repaglinide causano un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La claritromicina potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta. Non è noto se la clopidogrel e la repaglinide siano in grado di prolungare l'intervallo QT
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||cla||clo||rep|
|Mal di testa||19.0 %||9.0||n.a.||11.0↑|
|Infezione delle vie respiratorie superiori||16.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||16.0↑|
|Disturbo del gusto||13.5 %||13.5||n.a.||n.a.|
|Dolore addominale||5.5 %||4.5||n.a.||+|
Emorragia gastrointestinale (2%): clopidogrel
Pancreatite: repaglinide, claritromicina
Diarrea da Clostridium difficile: claritromicina
Anemia aplastica: clopidogrel
Tempo di sanguinamento prolungato: clopidogrel
Porpora trombotica trombocitopenica: clopidogrel
Angina pectoris: repaglinide
Dolore al petto: repaglinide
Mal di schiena: repaglinide
Emorragia intracranica: clopidogrel
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson: clopidogrel, repaglinide, claritromicina
Insufficienza epatica: clopidogrel
Epatite colestatica: claritromicina
Sindrome DRESS: clopidogrel
Necrolisi epidermica tossica: clopidogrel, claritromicina
Reazioni allergiche della pelle: repaglinide
Reazione anafilattica: claritromicina
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: Erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin are clinically effective for the treatment of common respiratory and skin/skin-structure infections. Erythromycin and azithromycin are also effective for treatment of nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis. Compared with erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin offer improved tolerability. Clarithromycin, however, is more similar to erythromycin in pharmacokinetic measures such as half-life, tissue distribution, and drug interactions. Misunderstandings about differences among the macrolides (erythromycin and clarithromycin) and the azalide (azithromycin) in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, spectrum of activity, safety, and cost are common. The uptake and release of these compounds by white blood cells and fibroblasts account for differences in tissue half-life, volume of distribution, intracellular:extracellular ratio, and in vivo potency. Although microbiologic studies reveal that gram-positive pathogens are equally susceptible to these agents, significantly more isolates of Haemophilus influenzae are susceptible to azithromycin than to erythromycin or clarithromycin. Concentrations achieved at the infection site and duration above the minimum inhibitory concentration are as important as in vitro activity in determining in vivo activity against bacterial pathogens. Analysis of safety data indicates differences among these agents in drug interactions and use in pregnancy. Analysis of safety data reveals pharmacokinetic drug interactions for erythromycin and clarithromycin with theophylline, terfenadine, and carbamazepine that are not found with azithromycin. Both erythromycin and azithromycin are pregnancy category B drugs; clarithromycin is a category C drug. The numerous differences in pharmacokinetics, microbiology, safety, and costs among erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin can be used in the judicious selection of treatment for indicated infections.
Abstract: To investigate whether grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolism of clarithromycin, 12 healthy subjects were given water or grapefruit juice before and after a clarithromycin dose of 500 mg in a randomized crossover study. Administration of grapefruit juice increased the time to peak concentration of both clarithromycin (82 +/- 35 versus 148 +/- 83 min; P = 0.02) and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (84 +/- 38 min versus 173 +/- 85; P = 0.01) but did not affect other pharmacokinetic parameters.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to assess the disposition of (14)C-repaglinide in whole blood, plasma, urine and faeces, and to measure the total recovery of drug-related material in urine and faeces after a single 2-mg oral dose of (14)C-repaglinide during multiple dosing. METHODS: In this single-centre, open-label, phase-I trial, six healthy male volunteers received 2 mg of the prandial glucose regulator, repaglinide, four times daily for 13 days, 15 min before meals. On the morning of day 7, breakfast was omitted and the dose was given as an oral solution containing 2 mg of (14)C-repaglinide. RESULTS: After oral dosing, a mean peak plasma concentration of repaglinide of 27.74 ng. ml(-1) (range: 16.84-36.65 ng. ml(-1)) was observed with a time to peak concentration of 0.5 h. Approximately 20% of repaglinide and its associated metabolites were distributed into red blood cells. No measurable (14)C-radioactivity was present in whole blood samples 6 h after dosing. Within 96 h of dosing with (14)C-repaglinide, 90% of the administered dose appeared in the faeces and 8% was excreted in urine. In the plasma, the major compound was repaglinide (61%). In the urine, the major metabolites were unidentified polar compounds, the aromatic amine (M(1)) (24%), and the dicarboxylic acid (M(2)) (22%). In the faeces, the major metabolite was M(2) (66% of administered dose). Therefore, repaglinide was excreted predominantly as metabolites and the major in vivo metabolite of repaglinide in humans was M(2). During regular dosing for 6 days, the morning plasma trough levels of repaglinide were, with very few exceptions, almost always too low to measure, indicating the absence of accumulation at this dose of 2 mg four times daily. Repaglinide was well tolerated, and there were no episodes of hypoglycaemia. CONCLUSION: After oral dosing with repaglinide, the mean peak plasma concentration was rapidly attained and, thereafter, plasma concentrations decreased promptly. The major route of excretion was via the faeces. These properties make repaglinide a suitable insulin secretagogue for all patients with type-2 diabetes who retain sufficient beta-cell function.
Abstract: Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibacterial that differs in chemical structure from erythromycin by the methylation of the hydroxyl group at position 6 on the lactone ring. The pharmacokinetic advantages that clarithromycin has over erythromycin include increased oral bioavailability (52 to 55%), increased plasma concentrations (mean maximum concentrations ranged from 1.01 to 1.52 mg/L and 2.41 to 2.85 mg/L after multiple 250 and 500 mg doses, respectively), and a longer elimination half-life (3.3 to 4.9 hours) to allow twice daily administration. In addition, clarithromycin has extensive diffusion into saliva, sputum, lung tissue, epithelial lining fluid, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, tonsils, nasal mucosa and middle ear fluid. Clarithromycin is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A isozymes and has an active metabolite, 14-hydroxyclarithromycin. The reported mean values of total body clearance and renal clearance in adults have ranged from 29.2 to 58.1 L/h and 6.7 to 12.8 L/h, respectively. In patients with severe renal impairment, increased plasma concentrations and a prolonged elimination half-life for clarithromycin and its metabolite have been reported. A dosage adjustment for clarithromycin should be considered in patients with a creatinine clearance < 1.8 L/h. The recommended goal for dosage regimens of clarithromycin is to ensure that the time that unbound drug concentrations in the blood remains above the minimum inhibitory concentration is at least 40 to 60% of the dosage interval. However, the concentrations and in vitro activity of 14-hydroxyclarithromycin must be considered for pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, clarithromycin achieves significantly higher drug concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages, the potential sites of extracellular and intracellular respiratory tract pathogens, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of these concentrations of clarithromycin at the site of infection. Clarithromycin can increase the steady-state concentrations of drugs that are primarily depend upon CYP3A metabolism (e.g., astemidole, cisapride, pimozide, midazolam and triazolam). This can be clinically important for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index, such as carbamazepine, cyclosporin, digoxin, theophylline and warfarin. Potent inhibitors of CYP3A (e.g., omeprazole and ritonavir) may also alter the metabolism of clarithromycin and its metabolites. Rifampicin (rifampin) and rifabutin are potent enzyme inducers and several small studies have suggested that these agents may significantly decrease serum clarithromycin concentrations. Overall, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies suggest that fewer serious drug interactions occur with clarithromycin compared with older macrolides such as erythromycin and troleandomycin.
Abstract: Two cases of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) are presented. The patients had been taking clarithromycin (400 mg/day) for respiratory disease. Although erythromycin is reportedly associated with TdP, this is the first report of clarithromycin associated with TdP in the absence of other drugs already known to produce QT prolongation.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study the effects of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repaglinide, a novel short-acting antidiabetic drug. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, 2-phase crossover study, 9 healthy volunteers were treated for 4 days with 250 mg oral clarithromycin or placebo twice daily. On day 5 they received a single dose of 250 mg clarithromycin or placebo, and 1 hour later a single dose of 0.25 mg repaglinide was given orally. Plasma repaglinide, serum insulin, and blood glucose concentrations were measured up to 7 hours. RESULTS: Clarithromycin increased the mean total area under the concentration-time curve of repaglinide by 40% (P <.0001) and the peak plasma concentration by 67% (P <.005) compared with placebo. The mean elimination half-life of repaglinide was prolonged from 1.4 to 1.7 hours (P <.05) by clarithromycin. Clarithromycin increased the mean incremental area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 3 hours of serum insulin by 51% (P <.05) and the maximum increase in the serum insulin concentration by 61% (P <.01) compared with placebo. No statistically significant differences were found in the blood glucose concentrations between the placebo and clarithromycin phases. CONCLUSIONS: Even low doses of the cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitor clarithromycin increase the plasma concentrations and effects of repaglinide. Concomitant use of clarithromycin or other potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 with repaglinide may enhance its blood glucose-lowering effect and increase the risk of hypoglycemia.
Abstract: Repaglinide is a novel, fast-acting prandial oral hypoglycaemic agent developed for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes whose disease cannot be controlled by diet and exercise alone. Although repaglinide binds to the sulphonylurea binding sites on pancreatic beta-cells and has a similar mechanism of action, repaglinide exhibits distinct pharmacological properties compared with these agents. Following administration, repaglinide is absorbed rapidly and has a fast onset of dose-dependent blood-glucose lowering effect. The drug is eliminated rapidly via the biliary route, without accumulation in the plasma after multiple doses. Repaglinide is well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes, including elderly patients and patients with hepatic or renal impairment. The pharmacokinetic profile of repaglinide and the improvements in post-prandial hyperglycaemia and overall glycaemic control make repaglinide suitable for administration preprandially, with the opportunity for flexible meal arrangements, including skipped meals, without the risk of hypoglycaemia.
Abstract: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to investigate possible interactions of gemfibrozil, itraconazole, and their combination with repaglinide. METHODS: In a randomised crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers received twice daily for 3 days either 600 mg gemfibrozil, 100 mg itraconazole (first dose 200 mg), both gemfibrozil and itraconazole, or placebo. On day 3 they ingested a 0.25 mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma drug and blood glucose concentrations were followed for 7 h and serum insulin and C-peptide concentrations for 3 h postdose. RESULTS: Gemfibrozil raised the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of repaglinide 8.1-fold (range 5.5- to 15.0-fold; p<0.001) and prolonged its half-life (t(1/2)) from 1.3 to 3.7 h (p<0.001). Although itraconazole alone raised repaglinide AUC only 1.4-fold (1.1- to 1.9-fold; p<0.001), the gemfibrozil-itraconazole combination raised it 19.4-fold (12.9- to 24.7-fold) and prolonged the t(1/2) of repaglinide to 6.1 h (p<0.001). Plasma repaglinide concentration at 7 h was increased 28.6-fold by gemfibrozil and 70.4-fold by the gemfibrozil-itraconazole combination (p<0.001). Gemfibrozil alone and in combination with itraconazole considerably enhanced and prolonged the blood glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide; i.e., repaglinide became a long-acting and stronger antidiabetic. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Clinicians should be aware of this previously unrecognised and potentially hazardous interaction between gemfibrozil and repaglinide. Concomitant use of gemfibrozil and repaglinide is best avoided. If the combination is considered necessary, repaglinide dosage should be greatly reduced and blood glucose concentrations carefully monitored.
Abstract: The object of this study was to analyze drug interactions between repaglinide, a short-acting insulin secretagogue, and five other drugs interacting with CYP3A4: ketoconazole, rifampicin, ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel (in an oral contraceptive), simvastatin, and nifedipine. In two open-label, two-period, randomized crossover studies, healthy subjects received repaglinide alone, repaglinide on day 5 of ketoconazole treatment, or repaglinide on day 7 of rifampicin treatment. In three open-label, three-period, randomized crossover studies, healthy subjects received 5 days of repaglinide alone; 5 days of ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel, simvastatin, or nifedipine alone; or 5 days of repaglinide concomitant with ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel, simvastatin, or nifedipine. Compared to administration of repaglinide alone, concomitant ketoconazole increased mean AUC0-infinity for repaglinide by 15% and mean Cmax by 7%. Concomitant rifampicin decreased mean AUC0-infinity for repaglinide by 31% and mean Cmax by 26%. Concomitant treatment with CYP3A4 substrates altered mean AUC0-5 h and mean Cmax for repaglinide by 1% and 17% (ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel), 2% and 27% (simvastatin), or 11% and 3% (nifedipine). Profiles of blood glucose concentration following repaglinide dosing were altered by less than 8% by both ketoconazole and rifampicin. In all five studies, most adverse events were related to hypoglycemia, as expected in a normal population given a blood glucose regulator. The safety profile of repaglinide was not altered by pretreatment with ketoconazole or rifampicin or by coadministration with ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel. The incidence of adverse events increased with coadministration of simvastatin or nifedipine compared to either repaglinide or simvastatin/nifedipine treatment alone. No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions occurred between repaglinide and the CYP3A4 substrates ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel, simvastatin, or nifedipine. The pharmacokinetic profile of repaglinide was altered by administration of potent inhibitors or inducers, such as ketoconazole or rifampicin, but to a lesser degree than expected. These results are probably explained by the metabolic pathway of repaglinide that involves other enzymes than CYP3A4, reflected to some extent by a small change in repaglinide pharmacodynamics. Thus, careful monitoring of blood glucose in repaglinide-treated patients receiving strong inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4 is recommended, and an increase in repaglinide dose may be necessary. No safety concerns were observed, except a higher incidence in adverse events in patients receiving repaglinide and simvastatin or nifedipine.
Abstract: AIMS: Our aim was to investigate the effect of the CYP2C8 inhibitor trimethoprim on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antidiabetic drug repaglinide, and to examine the influence of the former on the metabolism of the latter in vitro. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study with two phases, nine healthy volunteers took 160 mg trimethoprim or placebo orally twice daily for 3 days. On day 3, 1 h after the last dose of trimethoprim or placebo, they ingested a single 0.25 mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma repaglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 7 h post-dose. In addition, the effect of trimethoprim on the metabolism of repaglinide by human liver microsomes was investigated. RESULTS: Trimethoprim raised the AUC(0, infinity ) and C(max) of repaglinide by 61% (range, 30-117%; P= 0.0008) and 41% (P = 0.005), respectively, and prolonged the t((1/2)) of repaglinide from 0.9 to 1.1 h (P = 0.001). Trimethoprim had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of its aromatic amine metabolite (M1), but decreased the M1 : repaglinide AUC(0, infinity ) ratio by 38% (P = 0.0005). No effect of trimethoprim on the blood glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide was detectable. In vitro, trimethoprim inhibited the metabolism of (220 nm) repaglinide in a concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Trimethoprim raised the plasma concentrations of repaglinide probably by inhibiting its CYP2C8-mediated biotransformation. Although the interaction did not significantly enhance the effect of repaglinide on blood glucose concentration at the drug doses used, the possibility of an increased risk of hypoglycaemia should be considered during concomitant use of trimethoprim and repaglinide in patients with diabetes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A large interindividual variability exists in the plasma concentrations of repaglinide. Our aim was to investigate possible associations between the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding for the drug transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) (SLCO1B1 ) and P-glycoprotein ( MDR1 , ABCB1 ) and the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and CYP3A5. METHODS: A total of 56 healthy volunteers ingested a single 0.25-mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma repaglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 7 hours. All subjects were genotyped for the -11187G>A and 521T>C SNPs in SLCO1B1 and the 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A SNPs in ABCB1 , as well as for the CYP2C8*3 (416G>A, 1196A>G), CYP2C8*4 (792C>G), and CYP3A5*3 (6986A>G) alleles. RESULTS: The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] and peak concentration in plasma (Cmax) of repaglinide varied 16.9-fold and 10.7-fold, respectively, between individual subjects. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the SLCO1B1 521T>C SNP and the CYP2C8*3 allele were independent predictors of the AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax of repaglinide (adjusted multiple R2 = 45% and 36%, respectively). In subjects with the SLCO1B1 521CC genotype, the AUC(0-infinity) of repaglinide was 107% and 188% higher, respectively, than in subjects with the SLCO1B1 521TC or 521TT (reference) genotype (P < .0001). In subjects with the CYP2C8*1/*3 genotype, the AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax of repaglinide were 48% and 44% lower, respectively, than in those with the CYP2C8*1/*1 genotype (P < .05). The pharmacokinetics of repaglinide was not associated with the studied ABCB1 SNPs or the CYP3A5*3 allele. The elimination half-life of repaglinide was not associated with any SNP. Only the SLCO1B1 -11187GA genotype was significantly associated with an enhanced effect of repaglinide on blood glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphism in SLCO1B1 is a major determinant of interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide. The effect of SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide may be clinically important.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Repaglinide is an antidiabetic drug metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 C 8 and 3A4, and it appears to be a substrate of the hepatic uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1). We studied the effects of cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin), an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and OATP1B1, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repaglinide. METHODS: In a randomized crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers took 100 mg cyclosporine or placebo orally at 8 pm on day 1 and at 8 am on day 2. At 9 am on day 2, they ingested a single 0.25-mg dose of repaglinide. Concentrations of plasma and urine repaglinide and its metabolites (M), blood cyclosporine, and blood glucose were measured for 12 hours. The subjects were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2C8, CYP3A5, SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1), and ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). The effect of cyclosporine on repaglinide metabolism was studied in human liver microsomes in vitro. RESULTS: During the cyclosporine phase, the mean peak repaglinide plasma concentration was 175% (range, 56%--365%; P=.013) and the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC0--infinity] was 244% (range, 119%--533%; P<.001) of that in the placebo phase. The amount of unchanged repaglinide and its metabolites M2 and M4 excreted in urine were raised 2.7--fold, 7.5--fold, and 5.0--fold, respectively, by cyclosporine (P<.001). The amount of M1 excreted in urine remained unchanged, but cyclosporine reduced the ratio of M1 to repaglinide by 62% (P<.001). Cyclosporine had no significant effect on the elimination half-life or renal clearance of repaglinide. Although the mean blood glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide was unaffected in this low-dose study with frequent carbohydrate intake, the subject with the greatest pharmacokinetic interaction had the greatest increase in blood glucose-lowering effect. The effect of cyclosporine on repaglinide AUC0-infinity was 42% lower in subjects with the SLCO1B1 521TC genotype than in subjects with the 521TT (reference) genotype (P=.047). In vitro, cyclosporine inhibited the formation of M1 (IC50 [concentration of inhibitor to cause 50% inhibition of original enzyme activity], 0.2 micromol/L) and M2 (IC50, 4.3 micromol/L) but had no effect on M4. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclosporine raised the plasma concentrations of repaglinide, probably by inhibiting its CYP3A4-catalyzed biotransformation and OATP1B1-mediated hepatic uptake. Coadministration of cyclosporine may enhance the blood glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide and increase the risk of hypoglycemia.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The antidiabetic repaglinide is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and CYP3A4. Telithromycin, an antimicrobial agent, inhibits CYP3A4 in vitro and in vivo. Montelukast, an antiasthmatic drug, is a potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vitro. We studied the effects of telithromycin, montelukast, and the combination of telithromycin and montelukast on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repaglinide. METHODS: In a randomized 4-phase crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers received 800 mg telithromycin, 10 mg montelukast, both telithromycin and montelukast, or placebo once daily for 3 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 0.25-mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma and urine concentrations of repaglinide and its metabolites M1, M2, and M4, as well as blood glucose concentrations, were measured for 12 hours. RESULTS: Telithromycin alone raised the mean peak plasma repaglinide concentration to 138% (range, 91%-209%; P = .006) and the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 hours to infinity [AUC0-infinity] of repaglinide to 177% (range, 125%-257%; P < .001) of control (placebo). Telithromycin reduced the AUC0-infinity ratio of the metabolite M1 to repaglinide by 68% (P < .001) and the urinary excretion ratio of M1 to repaglinide by 77% (P = .001). In contrast to previous estimates based on in vitro CYP2C8 inhibition data, montelukast had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide or its metabolites and did not significantly alter the effect of telithromycin on repaglinide pharmacokinetics. Telithromycin, unlike montelukast, lowered the maximum blood glucose concentration (P = .002) and mean blood glucose concentration from 0 to 3 hours (P = .008) after repaglinide intake, as compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Telithromycin increases the plasma concentrations and blood glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide by inhibiting its CYP3A4-catalyzed biotransformation and may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Unexpectedly, montelukast has no significant effect on repaglinide pharmacokinetics, suggesting that it does not significantly inhibit CYP2C8 in vivo. The low free fraction of montelukast in plasma may explain the lack of effect on CYP2C8 in vivo, despite the low in vitro inhibition constant, highlighting the importance of incorporating plasma protein binding to interaction predictions.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess the tolerability, pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic parameters after repeated doses of clopidogrel (Plavix((R))) in patients with moderate or severe renal failure. PATIENTS: Eight patients with severe renal failure (endogenous creatinine clearance 5 to 15 ml/min) and eight patients with moderate renal impairment (endogenous creatinine clearance 30 to 60 ml/min) were included. STUDY DESIGN: An open, uncontrolled, parallel-group study over 8 days' administration of 75mg once-daily clopidogrel. METHODS: Measurement of changes in ADP-induced platelet aggregation and skin bleeding time and of plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of clopidogrel and its main metabolite, SR 26334. Assessment of clinical tolerance and serial haematological and biochemical investigations. RESULTS: At the end of the dosage period, platelet aggregation was equally inhibited, by about 25%, and bleeding time equally extended, by a factor of about 2, in the two groups. There were no tolerability concerns. Maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and time to reach C(max ) (t(max)) for clopidogrel were not significantly different between the two groups. SR 26334 excreted into the urine and renal clearance rate were significantly lower in the severely impaired group, while plasma elimination half-lives were not significantly different. C(max) and t(max) did not differ significantly between the two groups, but trough levels and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 24 hours (AUC(0-24h)) after the last dose were significantly higher in the moderately impaired group. CONCLUSIONS: Clopidogrel 75mg once daily was well tolerated in patients with either moderate or severe renal failure, and provided good inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation without excessive extension of bleeding time. Dose adjustment in such patients does not appear to be required.
Abstract: Four randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were conducted among 282 healthy subjects to investigate whether an interaction exists between clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose/75-mg/day maintenance dose) and the proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole (80 mg) when they are administered simultaneously (study 1); whether the interaction, if any, can be mitigated by administering clopidogrel and omeprazole 12 h apart (study 2) or by increasing clopidogrel to 600-mg loading/150-mg/day maintenance dosing (study 3); and whether the interaction applies equally to the PPI pantoprazole (80 mg) (study 4). Relative to levels after administration of clopidogrel alone in studies 1,2,3, and 4, coadministration of PPI decreased the AUC(0-24) of the clopidogrel active metabolite H4 by 40, 47, 41, and 14% (P ≤ 0.002), respectively; increased maximal platelet aggregation (MPA) induced by 5 micromol/l adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by 8.0, 5.6, 8.1, and 4.3% (P ≤ 0.014), respectively; and increased the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation-platelet reactivity index (VASP-PRI) by 20.7, 27.1, 19.0 (P < 0.0001), and 3.9% (P = 0.3319), respectively. The results suggest that a metabolic drug-drug interaction exists between clopidogrel and omeprazole but not between clopidogrel and pantoprazole.
Abstract: Repaglinide is presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a clinical CYP2C8 probe, yet current in vitro and clinical data are inconsistent concerning the role of this enzyme in repaglinide elimination. The aim of the current study was to perform a comprehensive investigation of repaglinide metabolic pathways and assess their contribution to the overall clearance. Formation of four repaglinide metabolites was characterized using in vitro systems with differential complexity. Full kinetic profiles for the formation of M1, M2, M4, and repaglinide glucuronide were obtained in pooled cryopreserved human hepatocytes, human liver microsomes, human S9 fractions, and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes. Distinct differences in clearance ratios were observed between CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 for M1 and M4 formation, resulting in a 60-fold M1/M4 ratio in recombinant (r) CYP3A4, in contrast to 0.05 in rCYP2C8. Unbound K(m) values were within 2-fold for each metabolite across all in vitro systems investigated. A major system difference was seen in clearances for the formation of M2, which is suggested to be a main metabolite of repaglinide in vivo. An approximately 7-fold higher unbound intrinsic clearance was observed in hepatocytes and S9 fractions in comparison to microsomes; the involvement of aldehyde dehydrogenase in M2 formation was shown for the first time. This systematic analysis revealed a comparable in vitro contribution from CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 to the metabolism of repaglinide (<50%), whereas the contribution of glucuronidation ranged from 2 to 20%, depending on the in vitro system used. The repaglinide M4 metabolic pathway is proposed as a specific CYP2C8 probe for the assessment of drug-drug interactions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: The involvement of intestinal permeability in the oral absorption of clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide antibiotic, and telithromycin (TEL), a ketolide antibiotic, in the presence of efflux transporters was examined. In order independently to examine the intestinal and hepatic availability, CAM and TEL (10 mg/kg) were administered orally, intraportally and intravenously to rats. The intestinal and hepatic availability was calculated from the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) after administration of CAM and TEL via different routes. The intestinal availabilities of CAM and TEL were lower than their hepatic availabilities. The intestinal availability after oral administration of CAM and TEL increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold, respectively, after concomitant oral administration of verapamil as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor. Further, an in vitro transport experiment was performed using Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model of intestinal epithelial cells. The apical-to-basolateral transport of CAM and TEL through the Caco-2 cell monolayers was lower than their basolateral-to-apical transport. Verapamil and bromosulfophthalein as a multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) inhibitor significantly increased the apical-to-basolateral transport of CAM and TEL. Thus, the results suggest that oral absorption of CAM and TEL is dependent on intestinal permeability that may be limited by P-gp and MRPs on the intestinal epithelial cells.
Abstract: Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remain life-threatening disorders, which are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with ACS. However, there is substantial inter-individual variability in the response to clopidogrel treatment, in addition to prolonged recovery of platelet reactivity as a result of irreversible binding to P2Y12 receptors. This high inter-individual variability in treatment response has primarily been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for cytochrome (CYP) 2C19, which affect the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel. While the US Food and Drug Administration has issued a boxed warning for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers because of potentially reduced efficacy in these patients, results from multivariate analyses suggest that additional factors, including age, sex, obesity, concurrent diseases and drug-drug interactions, may all contribute to the overall between-subject variability in treatment response. However, the extent to which each of these factors contributes to the overall variability, and how they are interrelated, is currently unclear. The objective of this review article is to provide a comprehensive update on the different factors that influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel and how they mechanistically contribute to inter-individual differences in the response to clopidogrel treatment.
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease has been identified as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease are higher among chronic kidney disease patients when compared with patients with normal kidney function. Although P2Y12 inhibitors (eg. clopidogrel) are associated with increased survival rates after a myocardial infarction, most of the clinical trials excluded End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients. Besides, non-responders to P2Y12 inhibitors have been identified as at risk of cardiovascular adverse events and non-responder prevalence is higher among ESRD than in any other population. Recent data questioned the benefits from P2Y12 inhibitors among chronic kidney disease patients. This systematic review aimed to describe pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) evidence data among 3 widely prescribed P2Y12 inhibitors. Clopidogrel and prasugrel are bioactivated by the cytochromes P450 (CYP) while ticagrelor is already active. PD data used different assays among which the VerifyNow® which showed intravariability before and after dialysis. The potential explanation of modulated PK/PD parameters among ESRD patients will be addressed. Absorption as well as metabolism is diminished in ESRD patients. It could potentially lead to absence of clopidogrel or prasugrel bioactivation or ticagrelor accumulation. Evidence-based recommendation regarding the best option for antiaggregation secondary to percutaneous intervention in this high risk population is still lacking.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: Dasabuvir, a nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor, is a sensitive substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 with a potential for drug-drug interaction (DDI) with clopidogrel. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for dasabuvir to evaluate the DDI potential with clopidogrel, the acyl-β-D glucuronide metabolite of which has been reported as a strong mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C8 based on an interaction with repaglinide. In addition, the PBPK model for clopidogrel and its metabolite were updated with additional in vitro data. Sensitivity analyses using these PBPK models suggested that CYP2C8 inhibition by clopidogrel acyl-β-D glucuronide may not be as potent as previously suggested. The dasabuvir and updated clopidogrel PBPK models predict a moderate increase of 1.5-1.9-fold for Cand 1.9-2.8-fold for AUC of dasabuvir when coadministered with clopidogrel. While the PBPK results suggest there is a potential for DDI between dasabuvir and clopidogrel, the magnitude is not expected to be clinically relevant.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pivotal clinical trials found that ticagrelor reduced ischaemic complications to a greater extent than clopidogrel, and also that the benefit gradually increased with the reduction in creatinine clearance. However, the underlying mechanisms remains poorly explored. METHODS: This was a single-centre, prospective, randomized clinical trial involving 60 hospitalized Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptor inhibitor-naïve patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml min,1.73 m,) and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose, then followed by 90 mg twice daily) or clopidogrel (600 mg loading dose, then followed by 75 mg once daily). The primary endpoint was the P2Y12 reactive unit (PRU) value assessed by VerifyNow at 30 days. The plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and clopidogrel and their active metabolites were measured in the first 10 patients in each group at baseline, and at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h after the loading dose. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were well matched between the two groups. Our results indicated a markedly lower PRU in patients treated with ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel at 30 days (32.6 ± 11.29 vs. 203.7 ± 17.92; P < 0.001) as well as at 2 h, 8 h and 24 h after the loading dose (P < 0.001). Ticagrelor and its active metabolite AR-C124910XX showed a similar time to reach maximum concentration (C,) of 8 h, with the maximum concentration (C,) of 355 (242.50-522.00) ng ml,and 63.20 (50.80-85.15) ng ml,, respectively. Both clopidogrel and its active metabolite approached the C,at 2 h, with a similar C,of 8.67 (6.64-27.75) ng ml,vs. 8.53 (6.94-15.93) ng ml,. CONCLUSION: Ticagrelor showed much more potent platelet inhibition in comparison with clopidogrel in patients with CKD and NSTE-ACS.